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Yang W.,Food Chemistry and Food Development | Laaksonen O.,Food Chemistry and Food Development | Kallio H.,Food Chemistry and Food Development | Kallio H.,University of Turku | Yang B.,Food Chemistry and Food Development
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

Wild sea buckthorn berries from Finland (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) and China (ssp. sinensis) as well as berries of two varieties of ssp. rhamnoides cultivated in Finland and five of ssp. mongolica cultivated in Canada were compared on the basis of the content and composition of proanthocyanidins (PAs). Among all of the samples, only B-type PAs were found. The contents of dimeric, trimeric, tetrameric, and total PAs were in the range of 1.4-8.9, 1.3-9.5, 1.0-7.1, and 390-1940 mg/100 g of dry weight, respectively. The three subspecies were separated by three validated factors (R2, 0.724; Q2, 0.677) in the partial least squares discriminant analysis model. Significant differences in total PAs were found between the ssp. rhamnoides and mongolica samples (p < 0.05). In ssp. rhamnoides, samples grown in northern Finland were characterized by a high amount of total PAs, typically 2-3 times higher than that in the level found in southern Finland. In ssp. sinensis, altitude did not have a systematic effect on the PA composition, suggesting the significance of the interaction between genetic background and growth location. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

Liu P.,Food Chemistry and Food Development | Lindstedt A.,Food Chemistry and Food Development | Markkinen N.,Food Chemistry and Food Development | Sinkkonen J.,University of Turku | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Leaves of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) are potential raw materials for food and health care products. Targeted (HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS, and GC-FID) and nontargeted (1H NMR) approaches were applied to study the metabolomic profiles of these leaves. Chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic compound in bilberry leaves and arbutin in lingonberry leaves. Flavonol glycosides were another major group of phenolics in bilberry [5-28 mg/g DM (dry mass)] and lingonberry (15-20 mg/g DM) leaves. Contents of fatty acids were analyzed using GC-FID. The changes in the metabolomics profile during the season were apparent in bilberry but not lingonberry leaves. Negative correlation was found between the contents of lipids and phenolics. The consistency between the key results obtained by targeted and nontargeted analyses suggests nontargeted metabolomic analysis is an efficient tool for fast screening of various leaf materials. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

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