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News Article | May 8, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

For the first time eye researchers have been able to reduce the time it takes for older eyes to adapt to the dark with use of an oral nutraceutical (Longevinex). Prolonged dark adaptation time is a marker of the future onset of a dreaded vision problem - macular degeneration. Twelve of the first fourteen consecutive eyes tested improved or were unexpectedly stable after a dark adaptation test was administered among senior adults with pre-existing visual loss taking a selected daily oral nutraceutical. While only a small number of eyes were tested the effect was statistically so demonstrable there is only ~1% probability the results obtained from this intervention were obtained by chance (p value 0.01). [Statistics How To] Dr. Stuart Richer OD, PhD, Director, Ocular Preventive Medicine at the Captain James A Lovell Federal Health Care Facility, North Chicago, IL, and President of the Ocular Nutrition Society, announced the discovery at the annual meeting of the Association for Research in Vision & Ophthalmology (ARVO), Baltimore, MD, May 8, 2017. Macular degeneration affects millions of senior adults. There is no proven remedy for this insidious sight-robbing disease. The fact a nutraceutical has been demonstrated for the first time to reverse a predictive measure for macular degeneration is a monumental development in preventive medicine says Dr. Richer. All eyes tested were among subjects who already had a diagnosed case of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and whose vision had not improved with the use of the Age Related Eye Disease (AREDs) antioxidant supplement formulated by the National Eye Institute. "However, the greater application of this dark adaptation vision test is among family members of individuals who have been diagnosed with macular degeneration since prolonged dark adaptation time can predict future onset of this dreaded eye disease 4 years before it can be clinically diagnosed. Forty-five percent (45%) of the population who have a parent with macular degeneration will develop the disease in their lifetimes," says lead researcher Stuart Richer OD, PhD. "If this continues to be demonstrated in larger groups, we just may have, for the first time, a preventive for the most common cause of visual decline in senior Americans," says Dr. Stuart Richer. The dark adaptation test (Adapt Dx by Maculogix), an FDA-approved medical device that has been 10 years in the making, utilizes a blast of light to bleach visual chemicals (rhodopsin, pronounced row-dop-sin) from the back of the eyes and then times how long it takes for these chemicals to be replenished. A prolonged dark adaption time occurs long prior to detection of any observable signs of disease or decline in vision. In an individual with perfect 20/20 vision and no other signs of eye disease, over 6.5 minutes to adapt to the dark is predictive of future loss of sight by up to 4 years. [Investigative Ophthalmology Vision Science April 2016] A published study of over 380 adults with nearly perfect 20/20 vision, 60-89 years of age, found 78% had normal dark adaptation time and 22% required prolonged time to adapt to dark conditions. Aside from age (older) and sex (female), regular use of alcohol was the greatest modifiable risk factor associated with prolonged dark adaptation. [Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences May 2014] There are ~48 million Americans over the age of 65 and if the above figures translate to the entire population (22% of ~50 million), dark adaptation testing could uncover ~11 million senior Americans with near-perfect visual acuity who will develop macular degeneration in their near future. According to the Bright Focus Foundation there are ~11 million Americans with some form of macular degeneration. [Bright Focus Foundation] If there is a surviving child for each of these individuals with macular degeneration, at a 45% rate of familial risk, about 5 million middle age Americans who are related to macular degeneration patients are at high risk and should undergo a dark adaptation test in middle age. Proven medical, laser or surgical treatment for the common form of macular degeneration (also known as dry macular degeneration) is lacking. Institute of Medicine 2015 Preventive measures such as diet and UV-blue filtering sunglasses may slow down the progress of the disease. At this point in time there is no effective treatment for the most common form of macular degeneration. This has researchers scrambling to test various oral drugs, eye drops and nutraceuticals in an attempt to head off the predicted explosion in the number of cases of macular degeneration over the coming decade. [Acta Pol Pharm 2014] The AREDs (Age Related Eye Disease) dietary supplement is reported to slow the progress of dry macular degeneration by 25% over 10 years. Even with antioxidant therapy the disease insidiously progresses. A recent troubling study showed that 2 of 4 genetic groups tested did not experience a favorable response with the Age Related Eye Disease (AREDS2) dietary supplement. Over $400 million of the AREDS formula is sold annually. [Ophthalmology Jan 2015] While there are many non-invasive vision tests, many are not specific for macular degeneration. Results with other vision tests may be confounded by other eye disorders such as cataracts, glaucoma or diabetes. The ADAPTDX test is better than 88+% specific for macular degeneration. [Investigative Ophthalmology 2014; Clinical Epidemiological Research 2014] Given that human subjects with the earliest form of dry macular degeneration are twice as likely to exhibit delayed adaptation to dim light following a bright flash of light, ADAPTDX test is the measure of choice. [Current Eye Research 2015] The pharmaceutical industry has proposed statin cholesterol-lowering drugs as a potential remedy for macular degeneration but statins were recently shown to be ineffective. [Ophthalmology 2015] Given that many common drugs prescribed for cardiovascular disease inhibit abnormal blood formation in animals, studies were launched with beta blockers, ACE inhibitors and other drugs to treat advanced-stage macular degeneration, but these pharmaceuticals also failed to confer any protective effect. [Retina 2015] The fast-progressive form of macular degeneration (also known as wet macular degeneration) involves leakage of fluid or hemorrhage and/or invasion of the visual center of the eyes by abnormal blood vessels in an attempt to restore circulation to the retina. Fortunately there is effective treatment for this form of the disease as medicines (Lucentis, Avastin, Eylea) injected directly into the eyes on a monthly basis inhibit invasion by abnormal blood vessels (called angiogenesis or neovascularization), sparing patients from legal blindness (20/200 vision). About 85% of patients with wet macular degeneration are successfully treated with these medicines. Previously Dr. Richer documented that this same oral nutraceutical (Longevinex) that provides herbal antioxidants (resveratrol, quercetin) along with vitamin D, a metal binder (IP6 phytate from rice bran) and DNA-repairing nucleotides (RNA), is in some cases able to rescue patients from impending legal blindness among patients who have the fast progressive form of macular degeneration and who had failed conventional treatment with injected drugs. [Nutrients 2014; US Patent pending] While plain resveratrol has been demonstrated to inhibit new blood vessel formation at the back of the animal eyes [Investigative Ophthalmology Visual Science April 2011], Longevinex; was selected for study because it is the only resveratrol supplement that has undergone toxicity testing [Food Chemistry Toxicology Sept 2013] and has been demonstrated to exert six-fold stronger biological action than plain resveratrol. [PLoS One Dec 23, 2016] While there are many brands of resveratrol supplements, none have been demonstrated to perform equally to Longevinex. For example, Longevinex produced a 40% greater increase in flow mediated dilatation (4.4% to 10.0%) than plain resveratrol (4.1 to 7.7%) in comparable human studies. Impaired flow mediated dilatation is a decline in the ability of the arteries to widen upon physical exertion or emotional stress, which is considered the first sign of arterial disease. [Nutrition Research Nov 2011; Nutrition Metabolism Cardiovascular Disease Nov 2011] Dr. Richer cautions patients with eye disease not to presume other resveratrol supplements will work equally well as the brand carefully selected for study at the Veterans Health Center. Any promising therapy would be long overdue. There are 1.75 million senior Americans that already know they have the disease but another 7 million seniors exhibit early signs (drusen deposits) at the back of the eyes and are at high risk for irreversible vision loss. According to an authoritative report, by the year 2020 an estimated 2.95 million Americans will have macular degeneration. [Archives Ophthalmology 2004] Worldwide, by the year 2020 more than 196 million people will be diagnosed with macular degeneration rising to 288 million by 2040. [Institute of Medicine 2015] The prevalence of macular degeneration is 0% at age 50 years, 2.5% at age 70 and 6% at age 80. [JAMA Ophthalmology April 2004] Typical age of diagnosis is in the mid 60s (65.8 years mean age). By age 75 years about 30% of senior adults exhibit some degree of macular degeneration. [Survey Ophthalmology2006 ] Most of the subjects in this study were ~80 years of age, which indicates subjects with AMD may never be too old to benefit from nutraceutical therapy. All of the subjects tested were taking prescription drugs such as antacids for heartburn or statin drugs for cholesterol. A pressing problem is that humanity doesn't have another decade to undergo belabored trials to scientifically prove dry macular degeneration therapies work. Researchers urge shortened study times and reduced number of subjects to speed along discovery. [Advances Experimental Biology Medicine 2016] Longevinex® petitioned the FDA for an abbreviated study four years ago but the petition was rejected by the FDA. [FDA Petition] At this time no dietary supplement (even Longevinex) can make a claim or infer it prevents, treats or cures any disease. Any inferences made by manufacturers of resveratrol pills that their products perform in a similar manner to the product tested in this study may be misleading to elderly patients with limited vision due to macular degeneration. Dr. Stuart Richer OD, PhD, is Director, Ocular Preventative Medicine-Eye Clinic, James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center (veterans hospital) and Associate Professor, Family & Preventive Medicine, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine & Science, North Chicago. Colleagues in the study were Lawrence Ulanski II, MD, Chief of Ophthalmology, University Illinois Eye & Ear Infirmary and Anish Bhandari, MSc, MS1, Chicago Medical School. None of the researchers report any personal commercial interest in the nutraceuticals or medical devices used in the study. Dr. Richer's laboratory is the recipient of funding from Longevinex for research studies.


News Article | May 17, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

An authentic French baguette is one of those key staples that foodies hunt for. Now scientists have gained new insight into why a crisp crust is a must for this quintessential bread. They report their findings on how crumb and crust structure affect aroma -- and therefore, perceived taste -- in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. The smell of baked bread that's fresh out of the oven is mouth-watering, but the effect of aroma doesn't stop there. Chewing food also releases molecules that waft in our mouths, interacts with olfactory receptors and influence how we perceive what we're eating. Understanding this dynamic could help food scientists improve the taste of products. Taking the baguette as an example to explore this possibility, Anne Saint-Eve and colleagues wanted to see how its texture would affect its aroma when chewed. The researchers had three study participants eat samples of nine baguettes, each with different crumb and crust densities, water content and elasticity. An analysis of volatile organic compounds that are exhaled through the "nose spaces" of the participants along with their chewing activity showed that firm bread and brittle crust led to more chewing and a greater rate of release of aroma molecules. The findings could help food scientists create new bread types better tailored to meet consumers' expectations, the researchers say.


News Article | May 17, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

URBANA, Ill. - Consumers today insist on all-natural everything, and food dyes are no exception. Even if food manufacturers are willing to make the change, current sources of natural dyes are expensive and hard to come by. Now, a large University of Illinois project is filling the gap with colored corn. "Most natural colors come from things like wine skins, red carrots, and beets. The problem with that is most of the product is wasted in extracting the coloring. It's not good value," says Jack Juvik, a geneticist in the crop sciences department at U of I. Juvik and an interdisciplinary team have been experimenting with purple and blue corn varieties, noting that health-promoting pigments known as anthocyanins are located in the outer layers of the corn kernel. That makes a big difference, economically. "You can process corn in different ways to remove only the outer layer. The rest can still be fed into the corn supply chain to make ethanol or grits or any of the other products corn is already used for. That outer layer becomes a value-added co-product," Juvik says. The team has covered a lot of bases since the $1.4 million project began in 2014. For example, they identified the optimal milling process and demonstrated that corn-derived anthocyanins remain stable in food products. What's left is to find the most potent sources of the pigments for future corn breeding. In a recent study, Juvik and his colleagues looked at anthocyanin type and concentration in nearly 400 genetically distinct lines of colored corn. They grew these lines in Illinois to see if anthocyanin concentration stayed constant from generation to generation - a critical quality for breeding new varieties. Peruvian types had some of the highest anthocyanin concentrations, and they held up throughout multiple generations. "That's good news. It means we can select for the trait we're interested in without worrying whether it will be expressed in new environments," Juvik says. The next step will be getting those mighty Peruvian genes into high-yielding corn hybrids selected for production in the Midwest. If Juvik is successful, blue or purple corn could come to a field near you. The article, "A survey of anthocyanin composition and concentration in diverse maize germplasm," is published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Co-authors Michael Paulsmeyer and Laura Chatham are graduate students and Talon Becker a post-doctoral scholar in the crop sciences department at U of I. Megan West and Leslie West worked for The Kraft Heinz Company, which supported the project. Additional support came from the Illinois Corn Grower's Association and Monsanto.


News Article | May 17, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

An authentic French baguette is one of those key staples that foodies hunt for. Now scientists have gained new insight into why a crisp crust is a must for this quintessential bread. They report their findings on how crumb and crust structure affect aroma -- and therefore, perceived taste -- in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. The smell of baked bread that's fresh out of the oven is mouth-watering, but the effect of aroma doesn't stop there. Chewing food also releases molecules that waft in our mouths, interacts with olfactory receptors and influence how we perceive what we're eating. Understanding this dynamic could help food scientists improve the taste of products. Taking the baguette as an example to explore this possibility, Anne Saint-Eve and colleagues wanted to see how its texture would affect its aroma when chewed. The researchers had three study participants eat samples of nine baguettes, each with different crumb and crust densities, water content and elasticity. An analysis of volatile organic compounds that are exhaled through the "nose spaces" of the participants along with their chewing activity showed that firm bread and brittle crust led to more chewing and a greater rate of release of aroma molecules. The findings could help food scientists create new bread types better tailored to meet consumers' expectations, the researchers say. The abstract that accompanies this study is available here. The American Chemical Society, the world's largest scientific society, is a not-for-profit organization chartered by the U.S. Congress. ACS is a global leader in providing access to chemistry-related information and research through its multiple databases, peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. ACS does not conduct research, but publishes and publicizes peer-reviewed scientific studies. Its main offices are in Washington, D.C., and Columbus, Ohio. To automatically receive news releases from the American Chemical Society, contact newsroom@acs.org.


News Article | May 17, 2017
Site: phys.org

"Most natural colors come from things like wine skins, red carrots, and beets. The problem with that is most of the product is wasted in extracting the coloring. It's not good value," says Jack Juvik, a geneticist in the crop sciences department at U of I. Juvik and an interdisciplinary team have been experimenting with purple and blue corn varieties, noting that health-promoting pigments known as anthocyanins are located in the outer layers of the corn kernel. That makes a big difference, economically. "You can process corn in different ways to remove only the outer layer. The rest can still be fed into the corn supply chain to make ethanol or grits or any of the other products corn is already used for. That outer layer becomes a value-added co-product," Juvik says. The team has covered a lot of bases since the $1.4 million project began in 2014. For example, they identified the optimal milling process and demonstrated that corn-derived anthocyanins remain stable in food products. What's left is to find the most potent sources of the pigments for future corn breeding. In a recent study, Juvik and his colleagues looked at anthocyanin type and concentration in nearly 400 genetically distinct lines of colored corn. They grew these lines in Illinois to see if anthocyanin concentration stayed constant from generation to generation - a critical quality for breeding new varieties. Peruvian types had some of the highest anthocyanin concentrations, and they held up throughout multiple generations. "That's good news. It means we can select for the trait we're interested in without worrying whether it will be expressed in new environments," Juvik says. The next step will be getting those mighty Peruvian genes into high-yielding corn hybrids selected for production in the Midwest. If Juvik is successful, blue or purple corn could come to a field near you. The article, "A survey of anthocyanin composition and concentration in diverse maize germplasm," is published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Explore further: Corn co-products from wet milling may be included in pig diets, study shows More information: Michael Paulsmeyer et al, A Survey of Anthocyanin Composition and Concentration in Diverse Maize Germplasm, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2017). DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b00771


News Article | May 17, 2017
Site: phys.org

An authentic French baguette is one of those key staples that foodies hunt for. Now scientists have gained new insight into why a crisp crust is a must for this quintessential bread. They report their findings on how crumb and crust structure affect aroma—and therefore, perceived taste—in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. The smell of baked bread that's fresh out of the oven is mouth-watering, but the effect of aroma doesn't stop there. Chewing food also releases molecules that waft in our mouths, interacts with olfactory receptors and influence how we perceive what we're eating. Understanding this dynamic could help food scientists improve the taste of products. Taking the baguette as an example to explore this possibility, Anne Saint-Eve and colleagues wanted to see how its texture would affect its aroma when chewed. The researchers had three study participants eat samples of nine baguettes, each with different crumb and crust densities, water content and elasticity. An analysis of volatile organic compounds that are exhaled through the "nose spaces" of the participants along with their chewing activity showed that firm bread and brittle crust led to more chewing and a greater rate of release of aroma molecules. The findings could help food scientists create new bread types better tailored to meet consumers' expectations, the researchers say. Explore further: Making whole wheat bread taste and smell more appetizing More information: Solenne Jourdren et al. Effect of Bread Crumb and Crust Structure on the in Vivo Release of Volatiles and the Dynamics of Aroma Perception, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2017). DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b00287 Abstract This study examined the effects of bread crumb and crust structure on volatile release and aroma perception during oral processing. French baguettes with different crumb structures were procured from a supermarket or local bakeries (n = 6) or produced in the laboratory via par baking (n = 3). Eight study participants consumed crumb-only and crumb-and-crust samples, and the resulting volatile release was measured in vivo using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry. A statistical model was then used to examine the contributions of volatile compounds to target ion production (i.e., crumb or crust markers). Utilizing the three laboratory-produced breads, chewing behavior and aroma perception were measured via electromyography and the temporal dominance of sensations method, respectively. The results revealed that the initial levels of crumb markers as well as crumb firmness affected the crumb markers release. Crust markers were released more quickly than crumb markers, leading to different perception dynamics


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

Nutritionally speaking, eggs really can be all they’re cracked up to be—that is, as long as you cook them like this. Sunny-side up, over easy, baked, and boiled: there are nearly a dozen different ways you can cook an egg. But did you know that the method you choose to prepare this protein can either help or hurt your weight-loss goals? To research the new book Zero Belly Breakfasts, we pored through countless studies to find that certain cooking techniques can actually maximize the health value of the mighty egg. And although this extremely versatile food is one of the cheapest sources of protein you can buy, you might as well try to get as much bang for your buck if you’re eating the superfood every day. According to our findings, the best method we determined to cook an egg is by soft boiling it. In this method, the whole, shell-on egg is dropped into a pot of boiling water and cooked for roughly six minutes. Enough time for the whites to solidify and the yolk to remain runny. Once you shock the egg in cold water, you can peel away the shell and eat your golden egg alongside a piece of avocado toast. So what exactly makes this method rank above the rest in terms of furthering your slim-down efforts? It comes down to protein, micronutrients, and calories. Compared to poaching an egg, you’ll retain more of the egg and consume more protein: a macronutrient that a The Journal of Sports Science&Medicine review found to be more efficiently utilized by our body for growth compared to other animal proteins. And when you can absorb more lean protein, you can build muscle mass, boost metabolism, and displace fat more effectively. Next up is micronutrients. In a soft-boiled egg, the yolk remains runny, which is key. Unlike hard-boiled eggs or scrambled eggs, a runny yolk has been found to contain more of the heat-sensitive nutrients like belly-fat-fighting choline, metabolism-regulating selenium, mood- and immunity-regulating vitamin D, and energy-promoting vitamin B2 (riboflavin) and B12. Plus, a Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry study found that you could lose as much as 18 percent of an egg's levels of free-radical-fighting antioxidants when you cook the yolk. And finally: calories. When it comes to weight loss, calories count. Certain cooking methods require fat, such as oil or butter. Just a tablespoon of butter can add an additional 100 calories to your morning meal. Soft boiling your eggs is a calorie-free method that helps keep extra calories off your plate and pounds off your frame. That’s all, yolks! We hope you take this egg-cellent advice and use it to further your body goals, and then discover the more than 100 recipes and nutrition secrets in Zero Belly Breakfasts. Test panelists lost up to 16 pounds in 14 days. The new book Zero Belly Breakfasts will have you looking and feeling great in no time flat, thanks to hundreds of delicious and nutritious breakfast secrets—and more than 100 mouthwatering recipes you can prepare in minutes! Buy Zero Belly Breakfasts today!


News Article | March 1, 2017
Site: phys.org

New research suggests that jackfruit seeds are a potentially low-cost and abundant substitute for cocoa beans. Credit: F.P. Spada Chocolate lovers could soon have a harder time satisfying their sweet tooth. Worldwide demand for this mouth-watering treat is outstripping the production of cocoa beans, its primary ingredient. But in a study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, scientists report that compounds found in jackfruit seeds produce many of the same aromas as processed cocoa beans and are a potentially cheap, abundant substitute for use in chocolate manufacturing. Globally, farmers produce about 3.7 million tons of cocoa annually. This yield is not expected to increase significantly in the next decade, but estimates suggest that worldwide demand for these beans will grow to 4.5 million tons by 2020. To meet growing expectations, scientists are investigating alternative sources that can mimic chocolate's distinct aroma and flavor. One of these possibilities is jackfruit, a large tropical fruit found in South America, Asia, Africa and Australia. In some countries, its sweet-smelling seeds are boiled, steamed and roasted before eating, providing a cheap source of fiber, protein and minerals. But in Brazil, the largest cocoa producer in the Americas, jackfruit seeds are considered waste. Looking to put these waste seeds to better use, Fernanda Papa Spada, Jane K. Parker, Solange Guidolin, Canniatti Brazaca and colleagues sought to determine if any of the compounds within them could be used to produce chocolate aromas. The researchers made 27 jackfruit seed flours by acidifying or fermenting the seeds prior to drying. They roasted these flours for various times and temperatures using processes similar to those used to enhance the chocolaty flavor of cocoa beans. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the team identified several compounds from the jackfruit flours that are associated with chocolate aromas, including 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylprazine and 2-phenylethyl acetate. They also asked volunteers to smell the jackfruit seed flours and describe the aromas. In contrast to the acidified flours, the fermented ones were described as having more positive attributes, such as caramel, hazelnut or fruity aromas. The researchers conclude that jackfruit seeds are capable of producing chocolate aromas and are a potential replacement for the aroma of cocoa powder or chocolate. Explore further: What's really in that luscious chocolate aroma? More information: Fernanda Papa Spada et al. Optimization of Postharvest Conditions To Produce Chocolate Aroma from Jackfruit Seeds, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2017). DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b04836


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: www.sciencenews.org

How many stressed-out stinkbugs does it take to spoil a batch of wine? More than three per grape cluster, new research says. Stinkbugs are a pest among vintners because of the bugs’ taste for wine grapes and namesake foul smell. When accidentally harvested with the grapes and fermented during the wine-making process, the live insects can release their stink and ruin the wine (SN: 5/5/07, p. 285). The newly determined threshold is three per cluster of grape, researchers from Oregon State University in Corvallis report in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. More stinkbugs produced red wine that tasted musty, as judged by a consumer panel. Quality tanked with rising levels of the stress compound, (E)-2-decenal, which smells like coriander. White wine lovers can rest easy; stinkbugs don’t seem to affect its flavor because white is processed differently than red.


News Article | March 1, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

Chocolate lovers could soon have a harder time satisfying their sweet tooth. Worldwide demand for this mouth-watering treat is outstripping the production of cocoa beans, its primary ingredient. But in a study published in the Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, scientists report that compounds found in jackfruit seeds produce many of the same aromas as processed cocoa beans and are a potentially cheap, abundant substitute for use in chocolate manufacturing. Globally, farmers produce about 3.7 million tons of cocoa annually. This yield is not expected to increase significantly in the next decade, but estimates suggest that worldwide demand for these beans will grow to 4.5 million tons by 2020. To meet growing expectations, scientists are investigating alternative sources that can mimic chocolate’s distinct aroma and flavor. One of these possibilities is jackfruit, a large tropical fruit found in South America, Asia, Africa and Australia. In some countries, its sweet-smelling seeds are boiled, steamed and roasted before eating, providing a cheap source of fiber, protein and minerals. But in Brazil, the largest cocoa producer in the Americas, jackfruit seeds are considered waste. Looking to put these waste seeds to better use, Fernanda Papa Spada, Jane K. Parker, Solange Guidolin, Canniatti Brazaca and colleagues sought to determine if any of the compounds within them could be used to produce chocolate aromas. The researchers made 27 jackfruit seed flours by acidifying or fermenting the seeds prior to drying. They roasted these flours for various times and temperatures using processes similar to those used to enhance the chocolaty flavor of cocoa beans. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the team identified several compounds from the jackfruit flours that are associated with chocolate aromas, including 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylprazine and 2-phenylethyl acetate. They also asked volunteers to smell the jackfruit seed flours and describe the aromas. In contrast to the acidified flours, the fermented ones were described as having more positive attributes, such as caramel, hazelnut or fruity aromas. The researchers conclude that jackfruit seeds are capable of producing chocolate aromas and are a potential replacement for the aroma of cocoa powder or chocolate.

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