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Sardi M.,LINK Institute | Haldemann Y.,Nestle | Nordmann H.,Ajinomoto Co. | Bottex B.,European Food Safety Authority EFSA | And 4 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment

The feasibility of using a retailer fidelity card scheme to estimate food additive intake was investigated using the Swiss retailer MIGROS's Cumulus Card and the example of the food colour Sunset Yellow (E 110). Information held within the card scheme was used to identify a sample of households purchasing foods containing Sunset Yellow over a 15 day period. A sample of 1204 households was selected for interview, of which 830 households were retained in the study following interview. Interviews were conducted to establish household structure, patterns of consumption by different individuals within the household, and the proportion of foods containing Sunset Yellow habitually purchased at the retailer and/or consumed outside the home. Information provided by the retailer on levels of Sunset Yellow in the foods was combined with the information obtained at interview to calculate the per-capita intake of Sunset Yellow by members of participating households. More than 99% of consumers (n = 1902) of foods containing Sunset Yellow were estimated to consume less than 1 mg Sunset Yellow kg-1 body weight day-1. The method proved to be a simple and resource-efficient approach to estimate food additive intake on the basis of actual consumer behaviour and thus reports results more closely related to the actual consumption of foods by individuals. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source

Gandy J.,A-Life Medical | Le Bellego L.,Danone Inc. | Konig J.,University of Vienna | Piekarz A.,The Coca-Cola Company | Tennant D.R.,Food Chemical Risk Analysis
British Journal of Nutrition

The European Food Safety Authority’s 2010 scientific opinion on dietary reference values for total water intakes was partly based on observed intakes in population groups. Large variability was observed, and it is unlikely that these differences can be explained by differences in climate, activity level and/or culture. This suggests that there are uncertainties in the methodologies used to assess water intake from food and fluids, including all types of beverages. To determine current methods for recording and reporting total water, beverages and fluid intakes, twenty-one European countries were surveyed using an electronic questionnaire. In total, twelve countries responded and ten completed surveys were summarised. Countries reported that their survey was representative of the population in terms of age and socio-economic status. However, a variety of methods were used – that is, repeated 24-h recalls, estimated food diaries and FFQ. None of the methods were validated to assess water and fluid intakes. The methods used to record liquid foods – for example, soup and diluted drinks – were inconsistent. Clarity and consistency on definitions of categories of beverages to facilitate comparisons between countries are needed. Recommendations for a unified approach to surveying and quantifying intake of water from fluids and foods are proposed. Copyright © The Authors 2016 This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Source

Tennant D.R.,Food Chemical Risk Analysis | Klingenberg A.,Sensient Colors Europe GmbH
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment

Anthocyanins are responsible for the red/blue colour of grapes, currants, and other fruits and vegetables. They may also be extracted for use as colour additives (E163) or concentrated for use as colouring foods. Consumer exposures have been assessed using data on natural occurrence, use levels and frequencies from food manufacturers and European food consumption data. Intakes from natural occurrence can be up to 4 mg kg bw−1 day−1 at the mean and up to 17 mg kg bw−1 day−1 for children who are high level consumers of red/black berries and small fruits. High-level intakes for children from food colour and colouring food applications lie in the range 0.3–6.3 mg kg bw−1 day−1 and for adults at 0.6–2.8 mg kg bw−1 day−1. Exposures from food colour use and colouring foods separately or combined are therefore lower than those from natural occurrence in foods. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Source

Tennant D.,Food Chemical Risk Analysis | Gosling J.P.,University of Leeds
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment

Vegetable oils and fats make up a significant part of the energy intake in typical European diets. However, their use as ingredients in a diverse range of different foods means that their consumption is often hidden, especially when oils and fats are used for cooking. As a result, there are no reliable estimates of the consumption of different vegetable oils and fats in the diet of European consumers for use in, for example, nutritional assessments or chemical risk assessments. We have developed an innovative model to estimate the consumption of vegetable oils and fats by European Union consumers using the European Union consumption databases and elements of probabilistic modelling. A key feature of the approach is the assessment of uncertainty in the modelling assumptions that can be used to build user confidence and to guide future development. © 2015 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis. Source

Tennant D.R.,Food Chemical Risk Analysis
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment

European methods for assessing dietary exposures to nutrients, additives and other substances in food are limited by the availability of detailed food consumption data for all member states. A proposed comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) applies summary data published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in a deterministic model based on an algorithm from the EFSA intake method for food additives. The proposed approach can predict estimates of food additive exposure provided in previous EFSA scientific opinions that were based on the full European food consumption database. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group Source

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