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Huang Y.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Ryll M.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Walker C.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Walker C.,Keele University | And 3 more authors.
Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift

Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM), caused by Yersinia (Y.) ruckeri is one of the most important diseases in salmonid aquaculture. Outbreaks of ERM were controlled by vaccines directed against motile strains of the bacterium, until recently nonmotile vaccine-resistant strains evolved and caused severe outbreaks. Non-motile isolates were found widespread in aquaculture populations in north-western Germany. In the present study, 82 Y. ruckeri isolates were isolated from trout hatcheries in North Rhine Westfalia, Lower Saxony and Hessen and only 20% of them were motile. In order to further characterise the Y. ruckeri isolates from fish aquaculture populations in north-western Germany, the fatty acid compositions of 82 Y. ruckeri field isolates from this area and of the Y. ruckeri reference strain DSM 18506 were analysed by gas chromatography. All Y. ruckeri isolates exhibited 15 major fatty acids, including 12:0, 13:0, 13.957 (equivalent chain length, ECL unknown), 14:0, 14.502 (ECL unknown), 15:0, 16:1ω5c, 16:0, 17:1ω8c, 17:0 CYCLO, 17:0, 16:1 2OH, 18:1ω9c, 18:1ω7c and 18:0. From a dendrogram, all isolates were close to one another, clustering together; while slight differences were detected among the isolates and the reference strain DSM 18506. Compared to their epidemiological and biochemical characteristics, there was no relationship found between the fatty acid profiles, API 20E profiles, motility and geographic distribution. Our results show that the fatty acid composition of Y. ruckeri isolates from north-western Germany is highly homogenous. © 2014 Schlütersche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG. Source

Huang Y.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Jung A.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Schafer W.-J.,Landesamt fur Natur | Mock D.,Landesamt fur Natur | And 4 more authors.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

Enteric redmouth disease (ERM), caused by Yersinia ruckeri, is among the most important infectious diseases in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss aquaculture in Europe. Our aim was to analyse the persistence of Y. ruckeri strains in trout farms in northwest Germany and their dissemination between farms based on a detailed molecular and phenotypical characterisation scheme. The data on identification and characterisation of Y. ruckeri strains and examining the distribution of these strains in the field could serve as a basis for preventive disease monitoring plans. During the observation period from June 2011 until June 2012, we collected 48 Y. ruckeri isolates from 12 different rainbow trout hatcheries. In total, 44 (91.7%) of the isolates were nonmotile; in particular, all isolates recovered during the sampling period in winter and early spring were non-motile. In several trout farms, characteristic farm-specific Y. ruckeri isolates from particular typing groups were isolated throughout the year, while in other farms, which had a trading relationship between each other, ERM outbreaks were caused by Y. ruckeri from the same typing group. Our data indicate that in some farms, the causative Y. ruckeri strains persisted in the respective trout farm. The presence of Y. ruckeri from the same typing group in farms with a trading relationship indicates a dissemination of the infection between the farms. © Inter-Research 2015. Source

Ziegler U.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | Angenvoort J.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | Klaus C.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | Nagel-Kohl U.,Food and Veterinary Institute Braunschweig Hanover | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne viral pathogen of global importance and is considered to be the most widespread flavivirus in the World. Horses, as dead-end hosts, can be infected by bridge mosquito vectors and undergo either subclinical infections or develop severe neurological diseases. The aim of this study was to detect WNV specific antibodies in horses in Germany as an indicator for an endemic circulation of WNV. Sera from more than 5,000 horses (primarily fallen stock animals) were collected in eight different federal states of Germany from 2010 to 2012. Sera were screened by a competitive ELISA and positive reactions were verified by an indirect IgM ELISA and/or by virus neutralization tests (VNT) for WNV and Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in order to exclude cross-reacting antibody reactions. In essence WNV specific antibodies could not be detected in any of the horse sera. Not surprisingly, a small number of sera contained antibodies against TBEV. It is noteworthy that equine sera were often collected from horse carcasses and therefore were of poor quality. Nonetheless, these sera were still suitable for WNV ELISA testing, i.e., they did not produce a high background reaction which is a frequently observed phenomenon. According to these data there is no evidence for indigenous WNV infections in horses in Germany at present. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Huang Y.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Michael G.B.,Institute of Farm Animal Genetics | Becker R.,Institute of Farm Animal Genetics | Kaspar H.,Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety BVL | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology

Enteric red-mouth disease, caused by Yersinia ruckeri, is an important disease in rainbow trout aquaculture. Antimicrobial agents are frequently used in aquaculture, thereby causing a selective pressure on bacteria from aquatic organisms under which they may develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. In this study, the distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents for 83 clinical and non-clinical epidemiologically unrelated Y. ruckeri isolates from north west Germany was determined. Antimicrobial susceptibility was conducted by broth microdilution at 22 ± 2. °C for 24, 28 and 48. h. Incubation for 24. h at 22 ± 2. °C appeared to be suitable for susceptibility testing of Y. ruckeri. In contrast to other antimicrobial agents tested, enrofloxacin and nalidixic acid showed a bimodal distribution of MICs, with one subpopulation showing lower MICs for enrofloxacin (0.008-0.015. μg/mL) and nalidixic acid (0.25-0.5. μg/mL) and another subpopulation exhibiting elevated MICs of 0.06-0.25 and 8-64. μg/mL, respectively. Isolates showing elevated MICs revealed single amino acid substitutions in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the GyrA protein at positions 83 (Ser83-Arg or -Ile) or 87 (Asn87-Tyr), which raised the MIC values 8- to 32-fold for enrofloxacin or 32- to 128-fold for nalidixic acid. An isolate showing elevated MICs for sulfonamides and trimethoprim harbored a ~8.9. kb plasmid, which carried the genes sul2, strB and a dfrA14 gene cassette integrated into the strA gene. These observations showed that Y. ruckeri isolates were able to develop mutations that reduce their susceptibility to (fluoro)quinolones and to acquire plasmid-borne resistance genes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Geduhn A.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Geduhn A.,University of Munster | Jacob J.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Schenke D.,Julius Kuhn Institute | And 3 more authors.

Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are commonly used to control rodent infestations for biocidal and plant protection purposes. This can lead to AR exposure of non-target small mammals and their predators, which is known from several regions of the world. However, drivers of exposure variation are usually not known. To identify environmental drivers of AR exposure in non-targets we analyzed 331 liver samples of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) for residues of eight ARs and used local parameters (percentage of urban area and livestock density) to test for associations to residue occurrence. 59.8% of samples collected across Germany contained at least one rodenticide, in 20.2% of cases at levels at which biological effects are suspected. Second generation anticoagulants (mainly brodifacoum and bromadiolone) occurred more often than first generation anticoagulants. Local livestock density and the percentage of urban area were good indicators for AR residue occurrence. There was a positive association between pooled ARs and brodifacoum occurrence with livestock density as well as of pooled ARs, brodifacoum and difenacoum occurrence with the percentage of urban area on administrative district level. Pig holding drove associations of livestock density to AR residue occurrence in foxes. Therefore, risk mitigation strategies should focus on areas of high pig density and on highly urbanized areas to minimize non-target risk. © 2015 Geduhn et al. Source

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