Food and Veterinary Agency

Kumanovo, Macedonia

Food and Veterinary Agency

Kumanovo, Macedonia
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Christiansen D.H.,Food and Veterinary Agency | Ostergaard P.S.,Food and Veterinary Agency | Snow M.,Marine Scotland - Marine Laboratory | Dale O.B.,National Veterinary Institute | Falk K.,National Veterinary Institute
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2011

Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is an orthomyxovirus responsible for a significant disease of farmed Atlantic salmon. Fallowing and re-establishment of the Atlantic salmon farming industry in the Faroes following a recent devastating infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) disease epidemic provided a unique opportunity to study the risk of re-emergence of disease. Over 53 months, 2787 of 34 573 (8.1 %) apparently healthy Atlantic salmon analysed tested positive for ISAV by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis revealed the putative low-pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 subtype in all cases. Results demonstrated that ISAV-HPR0 appeared as a seasonal and transient infection without detectable ISA mortality or pathology. This finding, coupled to an apparent gill tropism of ISAV-HPR0, suggests ISAV-HPR0 causes a subclinical respiratory infection more like seasonal influenza, as opposed to the systemic infection and serious disease caused by highly pathogenic ISAV. The mean time before marine sites became infected was 7.7 months after transfer to seawater of the fish, suggesting a potentially unknown marine reservoir of infection. Sequence analysis identified two main subtypes of ISAV-HPR0 sequences, one of which showed close genetic association with ISAV isolates responsible for the disease outbreak in the Faroes. Thus ISAV-HPR0 might represent an ancestor of pathogenic variants and thus be a potential risk factor in the emergence of new strains of disease-causing ISAV. Our data, however, suggest that the risk of emergence of pathogenic ISAV variants from a reservoir of ISAV-HPR0 is low. This risk is probably being further reduced by practical management strategies adopted in the Faroes and aimed at reducing the potential for maintenance and adaptation of ISAV-HPR0. © 2011 SGM.


Yakobson B.,Kimron Veterinary Institute | Goga I.,Kosovo Veterinary Laboratory | Freuling C.M.,Institute of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology | Fooks A.R.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency | And 13 more authors.
International Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2014

The European Union has used instrument for pre-accession (IPA) funds to provide technical assistance and supplies for the eradication, monitoring and control of rabies in several pre-accession countries. As a result, since 2010, multi-annual oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programmes for eliminating fox rabies have been launched in six Western Balkan countries. Here the implementation of the ORV programme in Kosovo, the smallest of the West Balkan countries, is described. Associated challenges under difficult political conditions, potential biases, and the results of rabies surveillance and monitoring of ORV campaigns (bait uptake and immunisation rates) since 2010 are reported. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.


PubMed | Institute of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Kosovo Veterinary Laboratory, Food and Veterinary Agency, Pan Livestock Services Ltd and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of medical microbiology : IJMM | Year: 2014

The European Union has used instrument for pre-accession (IPA) funds to provide technical assistance and supplies for the eradication, monitoring and control of rabies in several pre-accession countries. As a result, since 2010, multi-annual oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programmes for eliminating fox rabies have been launched in six Western Balkan countries. Here the implementation of the ORV programme in Kosovo, the smallest of the West Balkan countries, is described. Associated challenges under difficult political conditions, potential biases, and the results of rabies surveillance and monitoring of ORV campaigns (bait uptake and immunisation rates) since 2010 are reported.


Zdravkovska M.,University of Macedonia | Stojmanovski Z.,Food and Veterinary Agency | Taleski V.,University of Macedonia | Jovevska S.,University of Macedonia | Markovski V.,University of Macedonia
Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2014

Background: The Republic of Macedonia is an endemic area where brucellosis is a dominant zoonosis with high morbidity and enormous economic loss. Aim: To determine the incidence rate, prevalence rate and development tendency of infected people with brucellosis in R. Macedonia in the period from 01.01.1999 to 31.12.2009, to register and analyse the epidemiological characteristics of the infected with brucellosis according to gender, age and regional distribution. Materials and methods: The data about the infected people with brucellosis were taken from the register of individual cases as well as monthly and annual reports for infectious diseases prepared by the Institute for Public Health of Republic of Macedonia. Results: According to the survey the highest number of incidence of human brucellosis in R. Macedonia was found in 2008, 23.94/100,000 people, and the lowest number of infected people was in 2009, about 13.99/100,000 people. Human brucellosis has a decreasing tendency. Conclusion: Human brucellosis remains a public health problem in Republic of Macedonia. © 2013 Zdravkovska M.


Magnussen M.D.,Food and Veterinary Agency | Magnussen M.D.,University of Iceland | Gudnason T.,Center for Health Security and Communicable Disease Control | Jensen U.S.,Statens Serum Institute | And 3 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: The Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark are neighbouring Nordic countries with great ethnic, cultural, and political similarities and are relatively homogeneous. Important information about prescribing practices can be obtained by comparing the antibacterial use in these countries. The objective was to describe, compare, and analyse the use of systemic antibacterial agents in these countries during the y 1999-2011. Methods: Data were obtained from the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark on systemic antibacterial use and expressed in defined daily dosages (DDD). Prescription data were also obtained for specific age groups. Results: The total antibacterial use for the y 1999-2011 varied markedly between the 3 countries, with a mean use of 21.8 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day (DID) in Iceland, 17.7 in the Faroe Islands, and 16.3 in Denmark. The total use remained fairly constant over the years in the Faroe Islands and Iceland, whereas in Denmark it increased gradually from 13.5 DID in 1999 to 19.5 DID in 2011. The higher use in Iceland can be explained by much higher consumption of tetracyclines. There was also considerable variation in the use of individual penicillins and macrolides between the countries. Conclusions: Despite the great ethnic and cultural similarities of these 3 countries, we found marked differences in total antibacterial use and important differences in the use of individual antibacterials. © 2014 Informa Healthcare.


Stojmanovski Z.,Food and Veterinary Agency | Zdravkovska M.,University of Macedonia | Taleski V.,University of Macedonia | Jovevska S.,University of Macedonia | Markovski V.,University of Macedonia
Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2014

Background: Besides the strategy based on test-and-slaughter policy for seropositive sheep and goats after an evaluation of the situation, vaccination measure of those animals against brucellosis with Rev 1 vaccine in 2008 have been implemented. Aims: To examine the influence of the new measure for control and eradication of brucellosis in sheep and goats on the incidence of human brucellosis before and after vaccination with B. melitensis Rev.1. Material and methods: This is a retrospective study in which comparison of the incidence of human brucellosis in the three regions has been made depending on the vaccination procedure in sheep and goats one year before the implementation of the vaccination (2007) and 4 years later. Data for the infected sheep and goats were obtained from the Food and Veterinary Agency and data for human brucellosis were obtained from the Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia. Results: The greatest decrease in the incidence of human brucellosis (from 124.3 to 19.7/100,000 inhabitants) was registered in the region 3 where mass vaccination of sheep and goats was conducted. The highest incidence rate of brucellosis in sheep and goats was registered in 2007 (2010/100,000 sheep and goats) and the lowest in 2011 (156/100,000 sheep and goats). Periodic prevalence of brucellosis in sheep and goats prior to vaccination was 6882/100,000 sheep and goats and after vaccination 3698/100,000 sheep and goats (p<0.05). There was a moderate positive correlation between the number of infected individuals with brucellosis and the number of infected sheep and goats (r=0.26). Conclusion: Decline of the incidence of human brucellosis is one of the major indicators for successfully implemented new control programs and strategies for prevention and eradication of brucellosis in sheep and goats. Vaccination was good measure to control brucellosis in the 3 regions. © 2014 Stojmanovski et al.


Schulz J.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | van Hoorebeke S.,Ghent University | Hald B.,Technical University of Denmark | Hartung J.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | And 4 more authors.
Avian Pathology | Year: 2011

Contaminated eggs and egg products have been recognized for many years as an important source of Salmonella infections in humans in the European Union and in the United States. Longitudinal studies can help to increase our knowledge about the dynamics of the occurrence of Salmonella in the course of a laying period. The total of 41 laying hen flocks*18 in Belgium, six in Denmark and 17 in Germany*were followed during an entire laying period. Samples taken from the empty cleaned and disinfected poultry houses were all negative for Salmonella. After hens arrived on the farms, five pooled faecal samples, one pooled dust sample and 40 cloacal swabs (Belgium and Germany) or 40 swabs from fresh droppings (Denmark) were taken four times from 18 flocks, three times from 21 flocks and two times from two flocks in the course of the laying period. Ten flocks (two Belgian and eight German flocks) tested up to three times positive for Salmonella. Forty-three out of 50 positive samples contained Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (29 isolates) or phage type 8 (14 isolates). The probability of subsequent Salmonella-positive findings increased significantly in Salmonella-positive flocks (P<0.05, odds ratio=6.4). However, the probability of finding Salmonella did not depend on the time of sampling in the laying period or the season. © 2011 Houghton Trust Ltd.


Rama A.,University of Prishtina | Latifi F.,University of Prishtina | Bajraktari D.,Food and Veterinary Agency | Ramadani N.,National Institute of Public Health of Kosovo
Food Control | Year: 2015

To assess public health hazards associated with the occurrence of AFM1 residues in pasteurized milk and UHT milk a survey was carried out, in Prishtina, capital city of Kosovo. In the present study, a total of 178 samples, 84 pasteurized milk and 94 UHT milk were collected during 6 months (July to December 2013). They were obtained from retail outlets in Prishtina city (Kosovo). The occurrence and concentration range of AFM1 in the samples were investigated by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. There was a high incidence of AFM1 (81.0%) in both pasteurized and UHT milk samples. Eighty three percent (83.3%) of the pasteurized milk samples and seventy eight percent (78.7%) of the UHT milk samples contained AFM1. The positive incidence of AFM1 in the pasteurized milk and the UHT milk samples ranged from 5.16 to 110ng/L and from 5.02 to 62ng/L, respectively. AFM1 levels in 18 (21.4%) pasteurized milk samples and 4 (4.2%) UHT milk samples exceeded the maximum tolerable limit of the EC according to the European Union regulation limits of 50ng/L. AFM1 levels in the samples show that there is a presence of high AFM1 level that constitutes a human health risk in Kosovo. The results of this study imply that more emphasis should be given to the routine AFM1 inspection of milk and dairy products in the Prishtina region. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Djurhuus A.,Faroe Marine Research Institute | Jorgensen J.,Faroe Marine Research Institute | Hatun H.,Faroe Marine Research Institute | Debes H.H.,Faroe Marine Research Institute | Christiansen D.H.,Food and Veterinary Agency
Marine Biology Research | Year: 2015

Microorganisms, such as phytoplankton and bacterioplankton, are affected by turnover rates of nutrients and show great fluctuations over seasons. In productive coastal areas, the biomass of bacterioplankton can be in the same range as that of phytoplankton. In these coastal areas the initiation and intensity of the spring bloom is highly variable between years. This variability is reflected in higher trophic levels and is therefore of major importance for ecosystems such as that of the Faroe Islands. However, one of the major unknown components is the bacterioplankton. We report a study on seasonal dynamics from March–September of nutrients, phytoplankton composition and their co-fluctuation with bacterial succession. For this purpose SAR11, Bacteroidetes, Roseobacter and cyanobacteria were relatively quantified using real-time PCR based on 16S DNA and total bacteria was assessed by epifluorescence microscopy. The phytoplankton species were identified using the inverted microscope technique. These data showed a pronounced diatom spring bloom and autumn bloom reflected by a corresponding decrease in nitrate and silicate (R2 = 0.72 and 0.77, respectively). The cessation of the phytoplankton bloom did not, however, seem to be explained by nutrient limitation. Roseobacter bloomed during the phytoplankton spring bloom, while the other bacterial groups increased during low phytoplankton biomass. This suggests that algal substrate availability and environmental conditions provide the opportunity for bacterial communities to develop a post-spring bloom. This study reveals how planktonic bacteria adapt with their surroundings, enhancing the microbial loop post-spring bloom and providing a potentially important food resource for higher trophic levels. © 2015 Taylor & Francis


Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is an orthomyxovirus responsible for a significant disease of farmed Atlantic salmon. Fallowing and re-establishment of the Atlantic salmon farming industry in the Faroes following a recent devastating infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) disease epidemic provided a unique opportunity to study the risk of re-emergence of disease. Over 53 months, 2787 of 34573 (8.1%) apparently healthy Atlantic salmon analysed tested positive for ISAV by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis revealed the putative low-pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 subtype in all cases. Results demonstrated that ISAV-HPR0 appeared as a seasonal and transient infection without detectable ISA mortality or pathology. This finding, coupled to an apparent gill tropism of ISAV-HPR0, suggests ISAV-HPR0 causes a subclinical respiratory infection more like seasonal influenza, as opposed to the systemic infection and serious disease caused by highly pathogenic ISAV. The mean time before marine sites became infected was 7.7 months after transfer to seawater of the fish, suggesting a potentially unknown marine reservoir of infection. Sequence analysis identified two main subtypes of ISAV-HPR0 sequences, one of which showed close genetic association with ISAV isolates responsible for the disease outbreak in the Faroes. Thus ISAV-HPR0 might represent an ancestor of pathogenic variants and thus be a potential risk factor in the emergence of new strains of disease-causing ISAV. Our data, however, suggest that the risk of emergence of pathogenic ISAV variants from a reservoir of ISAV-HPR0 is low. This risk is probably being further reduced by practical management strategies adopted in the Faroes and aimed at reducing the potential for maintenance and adaptation of ISAV-HPR0.

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