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O'Callaghan K.,Food and Rural Affairs Defra
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

A brief review has been done of technologies involved in the exploitation of biogenic wastes, in order to provide an introduction to the subject from the technological perspective. Biogenic waste materials and biomass have historically been utilised for thousands of years, but a new conversation is emerging on the role of these materials in modern bioeconomies. Due to the nature of the products and commodities now required, a modern bioeconomy is not simply a rerun of former ones. This new dialogue needs to help us understand how technologies for managing and processing biogenic wastes - both established and novel - should be deployed and integrated (or not) to meet the requirements of the sustainability, closed-loop and resource-security agendas that evidently sit behind the bioeconomy aspirations now being voiced in many countries and regions of the world. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Kibblewhite M.G.,Cranfield University | Bellamy P.H.,Cranfield University | Brewer T.A.,Cranfield University | Graves A.R.,Cranfield University | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Methods for the spatial estimation of risk of harm to soil by erosion by water and wind and by soil organic matter decline are explored. Rates of harm are estimated for combinations of soil type and land cover (as a proxy for hazard frequency) and used to estimate risk of soil erosion and loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) for 1km2pixels. Scenarios are proposed for defining the acceptability of risk of harm to soil: the most precautionary one corresponds to no net harm after natural regeneration of soil (i.e. a 1 in 20 chance of exceeding an erosion rate of <1tha-1y-1 and SOC content decline of 0kgt-1y-1 for mineral soils and a carbon stock decline of 0tha-1y-1 for organic soils). Areas at higher and lower than possible acceptable risk are mapped. The veracity of boundaries is compromised if areas of unacceptable risk are mapped to administrative boundaries. Errors in monitoring change in risk of harm to soil and inadequate information on risk reduction measures' efficacy, at landscape scales, make it impossible to use or monitor quantitative targets for risk reduction adequately. The consequences for priority area definition of expressing varying acceptable risk of harm to soil as a varying probability of exceeding a fixed level of harm, or, a varying level of harm being exceeded with a fixed probability, are discussed. Soil data and predictive models for rates of harm to soil would need considerable development and validation to implement a priority area approach robustly. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Del Rio Vilas V.J.,Food and Rural Affairs Defra | Pfeiffer D.U.,Lane College
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2010

Evaluation of surveillance systems is a common practice in the context of human health, but only recently has been applied in the veterinary field. Commonly, a series of attributes are monitored to assess the system. Suboptimal performance of the surveillance in relation to any of these attributes may lead to bias in the surveillance results. The intensity of scrapie surveillance has increased considerably in recent years as a result of public health concerns. In this paper, a number of approaches described in the literature for the evaluation of surveillance systems are reviewed, with a focus on the sensitivity and representativeness attributes of scrapie surveillance systems in the European Union. Many of the methods applied in other fields, such as ecology and public health, are exchangeable and relevant for scrapie surveillance. © 2009. Source

Lambton S.L.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Colloff A.D.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Smith R.P.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Caldow G.L.,Scottish Agricultural College Consulting | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP; previously known as idiopathic haemorrhagic diathesis and commonly known as bleeding calf syndrome) is a novel haemorrhagic disease of young calves which has emerged in a number of European countries during recent years. Data were retrospectively collected during June to November 2010 for 56 case calves diagnosed with BNP between 17 March and 7 June of the same year. These were compared with 58 control calves randomly recruited from herds with no history of BNP. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that increased odds of a calf being a BNP case were associated with its dam having received PregSure® BVD (Pfizer Animal Health) vaccination prior to the birth of the calf (odds ratio (OR) 40.78, p&0.001) and its herd of origin being located in Scotland (OR 9.71, p = 0.006). Decreased odds of a calf being a BNP case were associated with the calf having been kept outside (OR 0.11, p = 0.006). The longer that a cattle herd had been established on the farm was also associated with decreased odds of a calf in that herd being a BNP case (OR 0.97, p = 0.011). © 2012 Crown Copyright. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the free Open Government Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/open-government-licence.htm. Source

Bate A.M.,University of York | Jones G.,UK Environment Agency | Kleczkowski A.,University of Stirling | MacLeod A.,Food and Rural Affairs Defra | And 4 more authors.
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2016

The ornamental plant trade has been identified as a key introduction pathway for plant pathogens. Establishing effective biosecurity measures to reduce the risk of plant pathogen outbreaks in the live plant trade is therefore important. Management of invasive pathogens has been identified as a weakest link public good, and thus is reliant on the actions of individual private agents. This paper therefore provides an analysis of the impact of the private agents' biosecurity decisions on pathogen prevention and control within the plant trade. We model the impact that an infectious disease has on a plant nursery under a constant pressure of potentially infected input plant materials, like seeds and saplings, where the spread of the disease reduces the value of mature plants. We explore six scenarios to understand the influence of three key bioeconomic parameters; the disease's basic reproductive number, the loss in value of a mature plant from acquiring an infection and the cost-effectiveness of restriction. The results characterise the disease dynamics within the nursery and explore the trade-offs and synergies between the optimal level of efforts on restriction strategies (actions to prevent buying infected inputs), and on removal of infected plants in the nursery. For diseases that can be easily controlled, restriction and removal are substitutable strategies. In contrast, for highly infectious diseases, restriction and removal are often found to be complementary, provided that restriction is cost-effective and the optimal level of removal is non-zero. © 2016 The Authors. Source

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