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Hochman G.,Food and Resource Economics
GM crops & food | Year: 2013

The differences between GM policies in the US and Europe have several causes. GM technology holds a home court advantage in the US and European chemical companies did not support its introduction. The technology did not seem to provide benefits to consumers, and the crops it applied to were not so significant in Europe. The technology was introduced during a time when the political influence of green parties in Europe was especially significant, and European trust of government capacity to enter food security issues was at its lowest.


Hadrich J.C.,North Dakota State University | Wolf C.A.,Food and Resource Economics
Applied Engineering in Agriculture | Year: 2010

A spreadsheet-based manure transport and land application decision tool, MANURE$HAUL, was developed to provide farmers, customapplicators, and others involved with manure management a manure costand labor calculator for liquid manure systems using top-loading tankspreaders and nurse tanks. The manure hauling capacity was a function of the machinery set selected, manure tank capacity, and hauling distance. Manure transport and application costs were a function of spreadertank capacity and hauling distance. Representative 175-, 350-, 700-, and 1,400-cow dairy farms were compared to evaluate hauling time and machinery costs for a range of machinery sets, hauling distances,andnutrient values for the manure applied. Equipment ownership and operating costs were calculated for agitation, pumping, manure transport, land application, and incorporation. Equipment ownership and operating costs ranged from 0.32¢/L of manure hauled per year (1.18¢/gal) for a 175-cow dairy using a 11400-L (3000-gal) spreader with an average hauling distance of 1.6 km (1 mile) and broadcast application with tillage incorporation to 0.50¢/L (1.91¢/gal) fora 1400-cow farm with slurry injection and an average hauling distanceof 6.4 km (4 mile) with two 34100-L (9000-gal) spreaders and four nurse trucks for over-the-road transport. Two nurse trucks supplying a tractor-drawn spreader became more cost-effective than two tractor-drawn spreaders alone at a hauling distance of about 4.8 km (3 mile). Injection application increased the number of days needed for manure application compared to a broadcast application with tillage incorporation, but when the time for tillage incorporation was included the total time needed for field operations with injection was less than broadcast with incorporation. Manure injection increased application costsabout 6% compared to a broadcast application with tillage incorporation. When high soil phosphorus (P) levels restricted manure application rates to crop P removal rates, the credited nutrient value of the applied manure was reduced by 45%. The credited value of unincorporated manure with soil P constrained by crop removal was reduced by 60% compared to injected slurry with soil P at a build-up level. In each case the value of the manure nutrients applied exceeded the cost of agitation, pumping, transport, land application and incorporation. © 2010 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.


Robertson G.P.,Michigan State University | Gross K.L.,KBS | Hamilton S.K.,KBS | Landis D.A.,MSU | And 3 more authors.
BioScience | Year: 2014

A balanced assessment of ecosystem services provided by agriculture requires a systems-level socioecological understanding of related management practices at local to landscape scales. The results from 25 years of observation and experimentation at the Kellogg Biological Station long-term ecological research site reveal services that could be provided by intensive row-crop ecosystems. In addition to high yields, farms could be readily managed to contribute clean water, biocontrol and other biodiversity benefits, climate stabilization, and long-term soil fertility, thereby helping meet society's need for agriculture that is economically and environmentally sustainable. Midwest farmers-especially those with large farms-appear willing to adopt practices that deliver these services in exchange for payments scaled to management complexity and farmstead benefit. Surveyed citizens appear willing to pay farmers for the delivery of specific services, such as cleaner lakes. A new farming for services paradigm in US agriculture seems feasible and could be environmentally significant. © 2014 The Author(s).


Thangata P.H.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Hildebrand P.E.,Food and Resource Economics
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2012

The adoption of agroforestry technologies in the tropics stores high biomass for soil fertility replenishment and offers potential for carbon (C) storage. Household survey and biophysical data from central Malawi are modeled to test whether farm incentives would lead to more improved fallow adoption; and therefore an increase in carbon sequestered on farms. With data from 40 households representing 40 models, three C sequestration scenarios were simulated: (i) baseline scenario, (ii) agroforestry with a carbon credit incentive, and (iii) agroforestry with a carbon credit and a seed selling option. Results show that the baseline scenario would sequester on average 3.94MgCha -1. The overall annual mean amount of C sequestered is 103 Mg per year, of which 12% is from soil C. In the second scenario, the annual mean was 239Mg C translating to 3.92MgCha -1, of which 62% is contribution from agroforestry. In the third scenario, the annual mean C was 393Mg, translating to 4.17MgCha -1, of which agroforestry's contribution was 39%. Our results show that agroforestry can increase C sequestration on farms. We conclude that smallholder farmers can benefit from the REDD+ mechanism. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Jayne T.S.,Food and Resource Economics | Rashid S.,International Food Policy Research Institute
Agricultural Economics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2013

Input subsidy programs have once again become a major plank of agricultural development strategies in Africa. Ten African governments spend roughly US$1 billion annually on input subsidy programs (ISPs), amounting to 28.6% of their public expenditures on agriculture. This article reviews the microlevel evidence on ISPs undertaken since the mid 2000s. We examine the characteristics of subsidy beneficiaries, crop response rates to fertilizer application and their influence on the performance of subsidy programs, the impacts of subsidy programs on national fertilizer use and the development of commercial input distribution systems, and finally the impact of ISPs on food price levels and poverty rates. The weight of the evidence indicates that the costs of the programs generally outweigh their benefits. Findings from other developing areas with a higher proportion of crop area under irrigation and with lower fertilizer prices-factors that should provide higher returns to fertilizer subsidies than in Africa-indicate that at least a partial reallocation of expenditures from fertilizer subsidies to R&D and infrastructure would provide higher returns to agricultural growth and poverty reduction. However, because ISPs enable governments to demonstrate tangible support to constituents, they are likely to remain on the African landscape for the foreseeable future. Hence, the study identifies ways in which benefits can be enhanced through changes in implementation modalities and complementary investments within a holistic agricultural intensification strategy. Among the most important of these are efforts to reduce the crowding out of commercial fertilizer distribution systems and programs to improve soil fertility to enable farmers to use fertilizer more efficiently. The challenges associated with achieving these gains are likely to be formidable. © 2013 International Association of Agricultural Economists.


Dentoni D.,Wageningen University | Ross R.B.,Food and Resource Economics
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review | Year: 2013

Part Two of our Special Issue on wicked problems in agribusiness, "Towards a Theory of Managing Wicked Problems through Multi-Stakeholder Engagements: Evidence from the Agribusiness Sector," will contribute to four open questions in the broader fields of management and policy: why, when, which and how multi-stakeholder engagements (MSEs) are effective actions for managers and policy-makers to deal with wicked problems. MSEs across private, public and non-profit sectors have been considered the collaborative paradigm of the 21st century to move beyond market and state failures (Austin 2000). Moreover, the agricultural and food arena provides a unique context to analyze managerial and policy decisions to undertake (or not undertake) MSEs. This is because agricultural and food chains face the highest number of urgent, interlinked wicked-problem issues that are scientifically uncertain, change over time and determine value conflict among stakeholders (Dentoni et al. 2012). Such issues include food security, climate change, deforestation, obesity, the use of technology in food production, violation of human rights and animal welfare. © 2012 International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IFAMA).

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