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Magrone T.,University of Bari | de Heredia F.P.,ICTAN CSIC | de Heredia F.P.,Liverpool John Moores University | Jirillo E.,University of Bari | And 4 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

In Western societies, the incidence of diet-related diseases is progressively increasing due to greater availability of hypercaloric food and a sedentary lifestyle. Obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and neurodegeneration are major diet-related pathologies that share a common pathogenic denominator of low-grade inflammation. Functional foods and nutraceuticals may represent a novel therapeutic approach to prevent or attenuate diet-related disease in view of their ability to exert antiinflammatory responses. In particular, activation of intestinal T regulatory cells and homeostatic regulation of the gut microbiota have the potential to reduce low-grade inflammation in diet-related diseases. In this review, clinical applications of polyphenol-rich functional foods and nutraceuticals in postprandial inflammation, obesity, and ageing will be discussed. We have placed special emphasis on polyphenols since they are broadly distributed in plants.

Serafini M.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Research | Morabito G.,Food and Nutrition Unit
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research | Year: 2012

Dietary polyphenols have been shown to scavenge free radicals, modulating cellular redox transcription factors in different in vitro and ex vivo models. Dietary intervention studies have shown that consumption of plant foods modulates plasma Non-Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity (NEAC), a biomarker of the endogenous antioxidant network, in human subjects. However, the identification of the molecules responsible for this effect are yet to be obtained and evidences of an antioxidant in vivo action of polyphenols are confl icting. There is a clear discrepancy between polyphenols (PP) concentration in body fl uids and the extent of increase of plasma NEAC. The low degree of absorption and the extensive metabolism of PP within the body have raised questions about their contribution to the endogenous antioxidant network. This work will discuss the role of polyphenols from galenic preparation, food extracts, and selected dietary sources as modulators of plasma NEAC in humans. ©2012 Hans Huber Publishers, Hogrefe AG, Bern.

Lettieri-Barbato D.,Food and Nutrition Unit
The British journal of nutrition | Year: 2013

Non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) represents a sensitive biomarker measuring the in vivo antioxidant potential of vegetable foods. To evaluate the effectiveness of plant-derived foods and beverages on the plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant system, we analysed all literature published upto May 2010. Data were extracted by two authors independently, and the effect size was summarised using standardised mean differences by a random-effects model. For the analysis, eighty-eight studies were included, reporting a total number of 122 interventions and involving 2890 subjects. There was overall evidence of the effectiveness of fruit, vegetables, dietary patterns based on plant foods, red wine and tea in increasing plasma NEAC. No changes were found for chocolate and fruit juices. We observed an overall effect size three times higher in subjects with risk factors when compared with healthy subjects. Total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power methods showed a similar increase in plasma NEAC following dietary supplementation, whereas Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity did not respond to dietary supplementation. Data from the present meta-analysis show that plant-derived foods represent an effective strategy to enhance an endogenous antioxidant network in humans. This is particularly evident in the presence of oxidative stress-related risk factors.

Barbato D.L.,Food and Nutrition Unit | Barbato D.L.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Tomei G.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Tomei F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Sancini A.,University of Rome La Sapienza
Biomarkers | Year: 2010

Oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms through which traffic-related air pollution causes adverse effects on human health. The urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8oxodG) has often been used as a biomarker to evaluate the effect of air pollution on subjects occupationally exposed. We used a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of traffic air pollution on urinary 8oxodG levels in healthy workers. We observed higher urinary 8oxodG levels in non-smoking exposed subjects compared with smokers. This difference was clearer when an HPLC assay was used. These results show that urinary 8oxodG can be used as a biomarker to evaluate the pro-oxidant effects of vehicle exhaust emissions on DNA in exposed workers. © 2010 Informa UK, Ltd.

Pecorari M.,Antioxidant Research Laboratory | Villano D.,Food and Nutrition Unit | Francesca Testa M.,Antioxidant Research Laboratory | Schmid M.,Beverage Partners Worldwide Europe AG | Serafini M.,Antioxidant Research Laboratory
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2010

In a randomized cross-over study, 15 healthy volunteers consumed 500mL of green tea (GTFT) with different solid contents (1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0g/L) to induce a dose-response effect on plasma antioxidant capacity. Ingestion of GTFT 2.0g/L significantly increased plasma reducing power (ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP) at 1h (+2.9%; p<0.01), 2h (+2.5%; p<0.05) and 4h (+3.6%; p<0.01). GTFT 1.8g/L showed statistical significance at 1h (+4.3%; p<0.01) and 2h (+4.4%; p<0.01), whereas GTFT 1.6g/L was effective only at 1h (+2.9%; p<0.01) and GTFT 1.4g/L did not induce any changes. The maximum peak of increase in plasma FRAP for different GTFTs was clearly correlated with in vitro FRAP (R=0.778). GTFT 2.0g/L significantly increased plasma antioxidant potential (total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter) at 1h (+8.4%; p<0.01), 2h (+4.4%; p<0.05) and 4h (+5.9%; p<0.01). The effect of GTFT 1.8g/L was evident at 1h (+5.2%; p<0.05) and 2h (+4.6%; p<0.05) but not at 4h. No changes in plasma total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter were detected for GTFT at 1.6 and 1.4g/L. An evidence for a linear correlation between GTFT antioxidant content and the extent of the antioxidant effect in vivo has been provided. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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