Food and Nutrition Unit

Rome, Italy

Food and Nutrition Unit

Rome, Italy
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Peluso I.,Instituto Nazionale Of Ricerca Per Gli Alimenti E La Nutrizione Inran | Morabito G.,Food and Nutrition Unit | Serafini M.,Instituto Nazionale Of Ricerca Per Gli Alimenti E La Nutrizione Inran
Journal of Immunological Methods | Year: 2012

We propose a new data analysis approach for reactive oxygen species detection using Dihydrorhodamine123 in blood monocytes and neutrophils. This approach, based on data transformation using lymphocytes as internal standard, allows to appreciate free radical production by monocytes also without Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) activation. In addition, this method is sensitive to differences in healthy subjects due to sub-pathological conditions, such as hypercholesterolemia. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Magrone T.,University of Bari | de Heredia F.P.,ICTAN CSIC | de Heredia F.P.,Liverpool John Moores University | Jirillo E.,University of Bari | And 4 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

In Western societies, the incidence of diet-related diseases is progressively increasing due to greater availability of hypercaloric food and a sedentary lifestyle. Obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and neurodegeneration are major diet-related pathologies that share a common pathogenic denominator of low-grade inflammation. Functional foods and nutraceuticals may represent a novel therapeutic approach to prevent or attenuate diet-related disease in view of their ability to exert antiinflammatory responses. In particular, activation of intestinal T regulatory cells and homeostatic regulation of the gut microbiota have the potential to reduce low-grade inflammation in diet-related diseases. In this review, clinical applications of polyphenol-rich functional foods and nutraceuticals in postprandial inflammation, obesity, and ageing will be discussed. We have placed special emphasis on polyphenols since they are broadly distributed in plants.

Pecorari M.,Instituto Nazionale Of Ricerca Per Gli Alimenti E La Nutrizione | Villano D.,Food and Nutrition Unit | Francesca Testa M.,Instituto Nazionale Of Ricerca Per Gli Alimenti E La Nutrizione | Schmid M.,Beverage Partners Worldwide Europe AG | Serafini M.,Instituto Nazionale Of Ricerca Per Gli Alimenti E La Nutrizione
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2010

In a randomized cross-over study, 15 healthy volunteers consumed 500mL of green tea (GTFT) with different solid contents (1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0g/L) to induce a dose-response effect on plasma antioxidant capacity. Ingestion of GTFT 2.0g/L significantly increased plasma reducing power (ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP) at 1h (+2.9%; p<0.01), 2h (+2.5%; p<0.05) and 4h (+3.6%; p<0.01). GTFT 1.8g/L showed statistical significance at 1h (+4.3%; p<0.01) and 2h (+4.4%; p<0.01), whereas GTFT 1.6g/L was effective only at 1h (+2.9%; p<0.01) and GTFT 1.4g/L did not induce any changes. The maximum peak of increase in plasma FRAP for different GTFTs was clearly correlated with in vitro FRAP (R=0.778). GTFT 2.0g/L significantly increased plasma antioxidant potential (total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter) at 1h (+8.4%; p<0.01), 2h (+4.4%; p<0.05) and 4h (+5.9%; p<0.01). The effect of GTFT 1.8g/L was evident at 1h (+5.2%; p<0.05) and 2h (+4.6%; p<0.05) but not at 4h. No changes in plasma total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter were detected for GTFT at 1.6 and 1.4g/L. An evidence for a linear correlation between GTFT antioxidant content and the extent of the antioxidant effect in vivo has been provided. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Villano D.,Food and Nutrition Unit | Lettieri-Barbato D.,Food and Nutrition Unit | Guadagni F.,Food and Nutrition Unit | Schmid M.,Beverages Partners Worldwide Europe AG | Serafini M.,Instituto Nazionale Of Ricerca Per Gli Alimenti E La Nutrizione
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

We evaluated the ability of a ready-to-drink oolong tea (OOL) to modulate plasma antioxidant status in healthy subjects, compared to a placebo drink (PLA) without oolong extract but with ascorbic acid. In vitro, ascorbic acid was the only contributor to ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) assay of PLA. Ascorbic acid contributed 16.5% and 9.7% of the antioxidant capacity of OOL. In vivo, ingestion of 500 mL of OOL significantly increased plasma TRAP at 30 min and 1 h, compared to 500 mL of PLA, which was ineffective. Plasma FRAP significantly increased at 1, 2 and 4 h for OOL and at 2 h for PLA. Both PLA and OOL significantly increased urinary FRAP over 0-5 h. Urinary FRAP levels went back to baseline at 5 h for PLA tea and remained higher for OOL tea in the interval time 5-12 h (p < 0.01). OOL represents a dietary source of antioxidants able to modulate antioxidant status in humans. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Peluso I.,Instituto Nazionale Of Ricerca Alimenti E Nutrizione Inran | Miglio C.,Instituto Nazionale Of Ricerca Alimenti E Nutrizione Inran | Morabito G.,Food and Nutrition Unit | Ioannone F.,Instituto Nazionale Of Ricerca Alimenti E Nutrizione Inran | Serafini M.,Instituto Nazionale Of Ricerca Alimenti E Nutrizione Inran
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2015

Flavonoids, through a modulation of immune function, have been suggested to be involved in the role played by plant foods in disease prevention. We performed a systematic search in the MEDLINE database to review the effect of flavonoid-rich foods and flavonoids supplements on immune function. A total of 58 studies, were identified as suitable: 41 addressed in vivo proinflammatory cytokines and 15 measured ex vivo markers of immune function. According to our findings and on the basis of single food items, the number of studies in humans is limited and, for galenic supplements, only quercetin has been investigated. More evidences are needed to clarify the role of flavonoids as modulator of immune function in humans. © 2015, © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Lettieri-Barbato D.,Food and Nutrition Unit
The British journal of nutrition | Year: 2013

Non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) represents a sensitive biomarker measuring the in vivo antioxidant potential of vegetable foods. To evaluate the effectiveness of plant-derived foods and beverages on the plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant system, we analysed all literature published upto May 2010. Data were extracted by two authors independently, and the effect size was summarised using standardised mean differences by a random-effects model. For the analysis, eighty-eight studies were included, reporting a total number of 122 interventions and involving 2890 subjects. There was overall evidence of the effectiveness of fruit, vegetables, dietary patterns based on plant foods, red wine and tea in increasing plasma NEAC. No changes were found for chocolate and fruit juices. We observed an overall effect size three times higher in subjects with risk factors when compared with healthy subjects. Total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power methods showed a similar increase in plasma NEAC following dietary supplementation, whereas Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity did not respond to dietary supplementation. Data from the present meta-analysis show that plant-derived foods represent an effective strategy to enhance an endogenous antioxidant network in humans. This is particularly evident in the presence of oxidative stress-related risk factors.

Peluso I.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Morabito G.,Food and Nutrition Unit | Urban L.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Ioannone F.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Serafini M.,Italian Agricultural Research Council
Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders - Drug Targets | Year: 2012

The involvement of both oxidative stress and hyperlipaemia in atherosclerosis development is well established. Oxidative burst is an innate immune response to infection, the latter being associated also with marked changes in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, aimed to neutralize endotoxin toxic effects. On the other hand, lipid overload may increase lipopolysaccharide circulating levels and oxidative stress. Whilst these changes may be beneficial from the perspective of host defense, if they become chronic, they likely increase the risk of atherosclerosis. In particular, oxidation of lipoproteins, resulting from an imbalance of the pro- and antioxidant equilibrium, is involved in the pathologic process of atherosclerosis, changing cellular functions. Lipid oxidation, induced by leukocytes derived reactive oxygen species, can amplify foam cell formation through oxidized low density lipoproteins LDL (oxLDL) formation and uptake. The main enzymes, operating during oxidative burst, involved in LDL oxidation are NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase. In vitro studies have shown that oxLDL are able to induce many proatherogenic processes, including modulation of oxidative burst. OxLDL may also induce maturation of dendritic cells and regulate the shift from classical (M1) to alternative (M2) macrophage activation and from T helper 1 to T helper 2 response, suggesting that these could act as a bridge between innate and adaptative immunity, both involved in plaque development. Understanding the relationship between oxLDL and leukocyte oxidative burst helps to explain the involvement of innate immune responses in the early phases of atherosclerosis. The present review focuses on this interplay. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Miglio C.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Peluso I.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Raguzzini A.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Villano D.V.,Food and Nutrition Unit | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

High-fat meals (HFM) induce metabolic stress, leading to the activation of protective mechanisms, including inflammation and endogenous antioxidant defences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of antioxidant-rich fruit juice drinks on the endogenous antioxidant response induced by HFM. In a double-blind, cross-over design (10d washout), fourteen overweight volunteers were randomly assigned to one of the following interventions: HFM+500ml placebo beverage (HFM-PB, free from fruit); HFM+500ml antioxidant beverage 1 (HFM-AB1; apple, grape, blueberry and pomegranate juices and grape skin, grape seed and green tea extracts); HFM+500ml antioxidant beverage 2 (HFM-AB2; pineapple, black currant and plum juices). HFM-PB consumption increased the plasma levels of thiols (SH) (4h, P<0·001) and uric acid (UA) (2h, P<0·01) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) (4h, P<0·01). Following the consumption of drinks, UA production was significantly reduced with respect to placebo beverage consumption 8h after HFM-AB2 consumption (P<0·05). SH levels were reduced 0·5 (P<0·05), 1 (P<0·05) and 2h (P<0·01) after HFM-AB1 consumption and 2, 4 and 8h (P<0·05) after HFM-AB2 consumption. Plasma TRAP (2h, P<0·001) and urinary ferric reducing antioxidant power (0-8h, P<0·01) were increased by HFM-AB1 consumption, the drink with the highest in vitro antioxidant capacity, but not by HFM-AB2 consumption. In urine, UA levels were significantly increased from basal levels after the consumption of HFM-PB and HFM-AB2. However, neither of the beverages increased the urinary excretion of UA with respect to the placebo beverage. In conclusion, the increase in UA and SH levels induced by HFM as part of an endogenous antioxidant response to postprandial stress can be prevented by the concomitant ingestion of antioxidant-rich fruit juice drinks. Copyright © The Authors 2013.

Serafini M.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Research | Morabito G.,Food and Nutrition Unit
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research | Year: 2012

Dietary polyphenols have been shown to scavenge free radicals, modulating cellular redox transcription factors in different in vitro and ex vivo models. Dietary intervention studies have shown that consumption of plant foods modulates plasma Non-Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity (NEAC), a biomarker of the endogenous antioxidant network, in human subjects. However, the identification of the molecules responsible for this effect are yet to be obtained and evidences of an antioxidant in vivo action of polyphenols are confl icting. There is a clear discrepancy between polyphenols (PP) concentration in body fl uids and the extent of increase of plasma NEAC. The low degree of absorption and the extensive metabolism of PP within the body have raised questions about their contribution to the endogenous antioxidant network. This work will discuss the role of polyphenols from galenic preparation, food extracts, and selected dietary sources as modulators of plasma NEAC in humans. ©2012 Hans Huber Publishers, Hogrefe AG, Bern.

Barbato D.L.,Food and Nutrition Unit | Barbato D.L.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Tomei G.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Tomei F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Sancini A.,University of Rome La Sapienza
Biomarkers | Year: 2010

Oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms through which traffic-related air pollution causes adverse effects on human health. The urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8oxodG) has often been used as a biomarker to evaluate the effect of air pollution on subjects occupationally exposed. We used a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of traffic air pollution on urinary 8oxodG levels in healthy workers. We observed higher urinary 8oxodG levels in non-smoking exposed subjects compared with smokers. This difference was clearer when an HPLC assay was used. These results show that urinary 8oxodG can be used as a biomarker to evaluate the pro-oxidant effects of vehicle exhaust emissions on DNA in exposed workers. © 2010 Informa UK, Ltd.

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