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Kruger M.C.,Massey University | Schollum L.M.,Fonterra Research Center | Kuhn-Sherlock B.,Fonterra Research Center | Hestiantoro A.,University of Indonesia | And 5 more authors.
Bone | Year: 2010

Calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone growth; milk is an appropriate vehicle to be fortified with calcium, vitamin D and other minerals. The purpose of the current study was to compare the effect of supplementing with a high calcium milk drink with added vitamin D, magnesium and zinc (HCM) versus a placebo drink on serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D status as well as markers of bone formation/resorption in postmenopausal women living in South East Asia (Jakarta, Indonesia and Manila, the Philippines) over a period of 4 months. Calcium intake at baseline was 237 mg (median; 176-316, interquartile range) for Indonesia and 353 mg (median; 222-480, interquartile range) for the Filipino women per day. Fortified milk supplementation reduced the percentage of women that were insufficient in 25 (OH) vitamin D3 (<50 nmol/L) from 70% to 22% in the Indonesian women and 20% to 0% in the Filipino women. Fortified milk supplementation significantly reduced parathyroid hormone levels (PTH) by week 2 (22% and 11%), C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) by week 2 (34% and 27%), osteocalcin (OC) by week 8 (18% and 25%) and procollagen type I N-propeptide (PINP) by week 8 (15% and 21%), in women from Indonesia and the Philippines, respectively. Thus, the HCM intervention was able to significantly improve vitamin D status, lower PTH levels and reduce bone turnover in two groups of South East Asian women. © 2009 Elsevier Inc.

Tanchoco Dr. C.C.,Food and Nutrition Research Institute
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

This paper reviews the formulation of positive, practical and culturally sensitive food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) to help Filipinos choose an adequate diet and foster wholesome food and nutrition practices to promote good health; and provide those concerned with a framework and reference for their task of educating the public on proper nutrition practices. An evidence-based approach to evaluate the scientific report used to develop the Nutritional Guidelines for Filipinos (NGF) was published summarizing the scientific bases for its formulation. It highlights the findings of controlled and epidemiological studies and review in scientific journals. The results of the nutrition surveys which depict the food and nutrition situation, data on dietary patterns and practices related to food, food availability and statistics on nutrition-related health problems serve as background for the guidelines. While the 2000 NGF may have created awareness of the link between nutrients and foods to health, the contribution of these guidelines to outcomes and impact on health and nutrition has been limited. The policy makers and stakeholders involved with FBDGs development should recognize that the process does not end when the messages are formulated. A comprehensive plan that includes implementation, assessment, monitoring and reformulation must be developed. Formulation of a strategy on how the guidelines should be implemented to improve the dietary patterns of Filipinos, combined with the development of a protocol for evaluation of implementation and impact of the guidelines will now be adopted for its revision.

Biona K.,De La Salle University - Manila | Biona K.,Food and Nutrition Research Institute | Shen C.-C.,National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine | Ragasa C.Y.,De La Salle University - Manila
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2015

Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extract of the leaves of Talinum triangulare led to the isolation of squalene (1), triglyceride (2), lutein (3) and β-carotene (4). The structures of 1-4 were identified by comparison of their 13C NMR data with those reported in the literature.

Gibbs M.M.,University of Otago | Carriquiry A.L.,Iowa State University | Capanzana M.V.,Food and Nutrition Research Institute | Gibson R.S.,University of Otago
Maternal and Child Nutrition | Year: 2014

We used the World Health Organization's recommended procedures to establish desirable fortificant levels for three problem micronutrients in children's diets, based on dietary data collected earlier from Filipino (n=1374; 6-36 months), Mongolian (n=179; 12-36 months) and Cambodian (n=177; 12-36 months) children. Prevalence of inadequate and excessive intakes of calcium and zinc (via cut-point method) and iron (via full-probability approach) was assessed after adjusting usual intake distributions with pc-side using internal or external within-person variances from Filipino (calcium and iron) and US National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey III (zinc) national surveys. Fortificant levels were determined by repositioning usual intake distributions so that the 2.5th percentile of the targeted populations equalled the estimated average requirement (calcium, zinc) or so that full-probability prevalence was no larger than 2.5% (iron). Prevalence of inadequate intakes was ≥70% for calcium and iron, except Filipino infants (30% for Ca) and Cambodian toddlers (41% for Fe); but <1% for zinc for toddlers in Mongolia and 20% in Cambodia. Prevalence of excessive intakes was <1% for zinc, calcium and iron, except for Mongolian toddlers (11% for Zn). Desirable fortificant levels, although apparently negligible for zinc, were 530-783mg for calcium and 10.8-22.8mg for iron (per 100 g). Fortificant levels can be estimated from 24-h recalls, preferably by applying internal within-person variances. Fortification with calcium and iron was necessary, but seemingly not for zinc, despite a high prevalence of low serum zinc, suggesting the need for better defined cut-offs for population risk of zinc deficiency based on dietary zinc intake and/or serum zinc. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Sy R.G.,University of the Philippines | Morales D.D.,University of the Philippines | Dans A.L.,St. Lukes College of Medicine - WHQM | Paz-Pacheco E.,St. Lukes College of Medicine - WHQM | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2012

Background: We conducted a survey in 2008 to measure the prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases and risk factors in Philippine adults. Methods: Stratified multistage sampling was used to cover the entire Philippine population of adults aged 20 years or older. Using health questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and blood examinations, the prevalences of atherosclerosis-related risk factors and diseases were determined. Survey results were compared with those obtained in 2003. Results: Out of 7700 eligible subjects, 64% to 93.7% responded to different survey items. Age-adjusted hypertension prevalence was 24.6% at a single visit and 20.6% when corrected for true prevalence. The prevalence of diabetes was 3.9% on the basis of fasting blood glucose (FBG), 5.2% by FBG and history, and 6.0% when 2-hour post-load plasma glucose level was determined. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 72.0% and the prevalence of smoking was 31%. The prevalence of obesity was 4.9% by body mass index (BMI), and 10.2% and 65.6% by waisthip ratio (WHR) in men and women, respectively. The prevalences of coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral arterial diseases were 1.1%, 0.9%, and 1.0%, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalences of risk factors for atherosclerosis were higher in 2008 than in 2003, although the increase in diabetes was not significant and smoking decreased. These findings indicate a need for active collaborative intervention by all government agencies and medical societies in the Philippines.© 2011 by the Japan Epidemiological Association.

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