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Kaptso K.G.,Food and Nutrition Research Center | Njintang Y.N.,University of Ngaoundere | Nguemtchouin M.M.G.,University of Ngaoundere | Scher J.,Laboratoire Dingenierie Des Biomolecules | Hounhouigan J.,University of Benin
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

This work is part of a large study aimed to evaluate the potential of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) flour as starting raw material for the preparation of a widely cherished legume-based food product known as koki. Towards this objective, the flours from two varieties of bambara groundnut along with their respective starch and protein isolates were analyzed for some physicochemical and microstructural properties. It was observed that bambara flour contained appreciable amount of proteins (24.0–25.5 g/100 g), carbohydrates (57.9–61.7 g/100 g), fiber (3.45–3.68 g/100 g) and ash (3.65–3.85 g/100 g) with marginal differences between both varieties. The properties of starch and proteins isolated from the flours were different from one variety to another. In particular the starch granules of the white variety were larger (size range 10–35 μm) and polygonal while those from the black variety were smaller (size range 6–15 μm) and spherical in shape. In addition, the peak of gelatinization temperature was higher for white variety (81.7 °C) than for black variety (77.5 °C). The gelatinization temperature and the enthalpy of gelatinization of starch in the flours were systematically lower than for the starch isolates, suggesting an interaction of starch with other components on the gelatinization process. © 2014, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

Mune M.A.M.,University of Maroua | Minka S.R.,University of Yaounde I | Mbome I.L.,Food and Nutrition Research Center | Etoa F.-X.,University of Yaounde I
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

Bambara bean protein concentrate was prepared under optimum conditions previously determined. Concentrate yield (27.12%) and protein yield (84.35%) were high. The concentrate had 70.85% protein and 13.15% lipid. Water-soluble compounds were removed in abundance from the flour, during the protein extraction. Bambara bean protein concentrate had similar levels of Fe and Zn as the flour. Antinutritional factors were significantly (p<0.05) reduced in the concentrate. The concentrate showed significantly (p<0.05) higher protein digestibility than the flour and had balanced amino acids contents with respect to the FAO/WHO pattern. Lysine and leucine were the predominant essential amino acids. The protein extraction process removed sulphur- and tryptophan-rich proteins. This affected the chemical score (26.80%), protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (25.40%), essential amino acid index (60.44%) and calculated biological value (54.18%) of the protein concentrate, which were lower than those of the flour. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011.

Bonglaisin J.N.,Food and Nutrition Research Center | Lantum D.N.,FMBS
Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2011

Clay-eating or kaolin-eating (geophagy or geophagia) is a global practice that exists among humans as well as numerous animal species. Geophagy has been studied by anthropologists, geologists, nutritionists and ecologists in present and traditional cultures from areas across continents, including present-day Arizona and California, Central and South America, Sweden and Sardinia, sub-Saharan Africa, Indonesia and Australia. In 2002, the European Union alerted the Cameroon Ministry of Public Health that kaolin carried from Cameroon to Europe had abnormally high amount of lead (Pb) at levels a 100 times higher than the maximum permissible level. This kaolin that is sold on the several markets is mined from different sources, some locally and others from Nigeria. To investigate this, markets of wholesale dealers in kaolin were visited in five districts selected in a manner as to represent the entire territory. Six samples of 1 kg each were then randomly selected and bought. A total of 30 kg was collected from all the districts. The sources of procurement were also visited and 24 samples of approximately 300 g each were collected from all the harvesting sites. Analytical methods for flame spectroscopy were used and statgraphic for data analysis. The results show that all kaolin is contaminated not only with Pb but Cd and Hg as well. The differences in Pb content at district levels is statistically significant p = 0.02 (p<0.05) while no significant difference exist as regards the origin of kaolin or source of procurement (p = 0.53). © 2012 Science Alert.

Becker G.F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Passos E.P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Passos E.P.,Experimental Research Center | Moulin C.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Moulin C.C.,Food and Nutrition Research Center
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: Obesity is related to hormonal disorders that affect the reproductive system. Low-glycemic index (LGI) diets seem to exert a positive effect on weight loss and on metabolic changes that result from obesity. Objective: We investigated the effects of a hypocaloric diet with an LGI and low glycemic load on anthropometric and metabolic variables, ghrelin and leptin concentrations, and the pregnancy rate in overweight and obese infertile women who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Design: The study was a randomized block-design controlled trial in which we analyzed 26 overweight or obese infertile women. Patients were assigned to a hypocaloric LGI-diet group or a control group and followed the protocol for 12 wk. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, serum lipids, reproductive hormones, leptin, acylated ghrelin, number of oocytes retrieved in the IVF cycle, and pregnancy rate were determined. Results: There were greater reductions in body mass, BMI, percentage of body fat, waist:hip ratio, and leptin in the LGI-diet group than in the control group (P , 0.05). Despite a change of 18% in mean values, there was no significant increase in acylated ghrelin concentrations in the LGI group compared with the control group (P = 0.215). The LGIdiet group had 85.4% more oocytes retrieved than did the control group (7.75 6 1.44 and 4.18 6 0.87, respectively; P = 0.039) in the IVF cycle. Three patients (21.4%) in the LGI group experienced a spontaneous pregnancy during the follow-up, which generated 3 live births. Conclusions: The hypocaloric LGI diet promoted a decrease in BMI, percentage of body fat, and leptin concentrations, which improved oocyte development and pregnancy rate. These results support the clinical recommendation to advise overweight and obese women to lose weight through a balanced diet before being submitted for treatment with assisted reproduction technologies. A hypocaloric diet combined with LGI foods seems to be beneficial for these patients, but additional studies are required before this treatment is recommended. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02416960. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

Mune Mune M.A.,University of Maroua | Minka S.R.,University of Yaounde I | Mbome I.L.,Food and Nutrition Research Center
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition | Year: 2011

The present study was undertaken to improve functional properties of cowpea protein concentrate by acylation and partial hydrolysis with pepsin. The acylated concentrate showed significant improvement in protein solubility and water solubility index, at neutral pH. In addition, acylation increased fat absorption capacity compared with the untreated concentrate, and the maximum was obtained at 0.75 g succinic anhydride/g concentrate. Acetylation at concentrations of 0.25-0.50 g/g led to the higher emulsifying activity, and a markedly improvement in emulsifying stability was observed at 1.0 g anhydride/g concentrate. Foaming activity increased following acylation, particularly at 0.25 and 1.00 g/g succinic anhydride/g concentrate, while foam stability decreased. At pH 3.5, protein solubility of the acylated concentrates was low ( < 8%). Partial hydrolysis of cowpea protein concentrate with pepsin increased protein solubility at the isoelectric and neutral pH. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

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