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Okemos, MI, United States

O'Neil C.E.,Louisiana State University | Keast D.R.,Food and Nutrition Database Research Inc | Nicklas T.A.,Baylor College of Medicine | Fulgoni III V.L.,Nutrition Impact LLC
Journal of the American College of Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background: Few recent epidemiologic studies have assessed the effect that nut consumption (including tree nuts and peanuts) has on health risks, including metabolic syndrome (MetS). Objective: This study compared the health risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and MetS of nut consumers with that of nonconsumers. Design: Adults 19{thorn} years (n = 13,292) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Intake from 24-hour recalls was used to determine intake. Nut/tree nut consumers consumed ≥≥1/2 ounce per day. Covariate-adjusted means, standard errors, and prevalence rates were determined for the nut consumption groups. Results: The prevalence of nut consumers was 18.6% ± 0.7% and 21.0% ± 0.9% in those 19-50 years and 51 years and older, respectively. Nut consumption was associated with a decreased body mass index (27.7 kg/m2 ± 0.2 vs 28.1 ± 0.1 kg/m2, p <0.05), waist circumference (95.6 ± 0.4 cm vs 96.4 ± 0.3 cm, p <0.05), and systolic blood pressure (121.9 ± 0.4 mmHg vs 123.20 ± 0.3 mmHg, p <0.01) compared with nonconsumers. Tree nut consumers also had a lower weight (78.8 ± 0.7 kg vs 80.7 ± 0.3 kg, p <0.05). Nut consumers had a lower percentage of two risk factors for MetS: hypertension (31.5% ± 1.0% vs 34.2% ± 0.8%, p <0.05) and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (29.6% ± 1.0% vs 34.8% ± 0.8%, p <0.01). Tree nut consumers had a lower prevalence of four risk factors for MetS: abdominal obesity (43.6% ± 1.6% vs 49.5% ± 0.8%, p <0.05), hypertension (31.4% ± 1.2% vs 33.9% ± 0.8%, p <0.05), low HDL-C (27.9% ± 1.7% vs 34.5% ± 0.8%, p <0.01), high fasting glucose (11.4% ± 1.4% vs 15.0% ± 0.7%, p <0.05), and a lower prevalence of MetS (21.2% ± 2.1% vs 26.6% ± 0.7%, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Nut/tree nut consumption was associated with a decreased prevalence of selected risk factors for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and MetS. Source


Berner L.A.,California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo | Keast D.R.,Food and Nutrition Database Research Inc | Bailey R.L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Dwyer J.T.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Dwyer J.T.,Tufts University
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2014

Background: Even in an era of obesity and dietary excess, numerous shortfall micronutrients have been identified in the diets of US children and adolescents. To help tailor strategies for meeting recommendations, it is important to know what foods contribute greatly to micronutrient intakes. Data are lacking on specific contributions made by added nutrients. Objective: Our aims were to examine the impact of fortification on nutrient adequacy and excess among US children and adolescents and to rank food sources of added nutrient intake and compare rankings with those based on total nutrient intake from foods. Design and statistical analyses: Data were from 7,250 respondents 2 to 18 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006. Datasets were developed that distinguished nutrient sources: intrinsic nutrients in foods; added nutrients in foods; foods (intrinsic plus added nutrients); and total diet (foods plus supplements). The National Cancer Institute method was used to determine usual intakes of micronutrients by source. The impact of fortification on the percentages of children having intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement and more than the Upper Tolerable Intake Level was assessed by comparing intakes from intrinsic nutrients to intakes from intrinsic plus added nutrients. Specific food sources of micronutrients were determined as sample-weighted mean intakes of total and added nutrients contributed from 56 food groupings. The percentage of intake from each grouping was determined separately for total and added nutrients. Results: Without added nutrients, a high percentage of all children/adolescents had inadequate intakes of numerous micronutrients, with the greatest inadequacy among older girls. Fortification reduced the percentage less than the Estimated Average Requirement for many, although not all, micronutrients without resulting in excessive intakes. Data demonstrated the powerful influence of fortification on food-source rankings. Conclusions: Knowledge about nutrient intakes and sources can help put dietary advice into a practical context. Continued monitoring of top food sources of nutrients and nutrient contributions from fortification will be important. © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Source


Fulgoni V.L.,Nutrition Impact LLC | Keast D.R.,Food and Nutrition Database Research Inc | Bailey R.L.,Office of Dietary Supplements | Dwyer J.,Tufts University
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

Limited data are available on the source of usual nutrient intakes in the United States. This analysis aimed to assess contributions of micronutrients to usual intakes derived from all sources (naturally occurring, fortified and enriched, and dietary supplements) and to compare usual intakes to the Dietary Reference Intake for U.S. residents aged $2 y according to NHANES 2003-2006 (n = 16,110). We used the National Cancer Institute method to assess usual intakes of 19 micronutrients by source. Only a small percentage of the population had total usual intakes (from dietary intakes and supplements) below the estimated average requirement (EAR) for the following: vitamin B-6 (8%), folate (8%), zinc (8%), thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-12, phosphorus, iron, copper, and selenium (,6% for all). However, more of the population had total usual intakes below the EAR for vitamins A, C, D, and E (34, 25, 70, and 60%, respectively), calcium (38%), and magnesium (45%). Only 3 and 35% had total usual intakes of potassium and vitamin K, respectively, greater than the adequate intake. Enrichment and/or fortification largely contributed to intakes of vitamins A, C, and D, thiamin, iron, and folate. Dietary supplements further reduced the percentage of the population consuming less than the EAR for all nutrients. The percentage of the population with total intakes greater than the tolerable upper intake level (UL) was very low for most nutrients, whereas 10.3 and 8.4% of the population had intakes greater than the UL for niacin and zinc, respectively. Without enrichment and/or fortification and supplementation, many Americans did not achieve the recommended micronutrient intake levels set forth in the Dietary Reference Intake. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition. Source


Bailey R.L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Fulgoni III V.L.,Nutrition Impact LLC | Keast D.R.,Food and Nutrition Database Research Inc | Dwyer J.T.,Tufts University
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background: Dietary supplement use is extensive in US adults. Some reports suggested that supplement users had higher nutrient intakes from the diet than did nonusers, but to our knowledge this finding has not been examined in nationally representative survey data. Objective: In this analysis, we examined mineral intakes from the diet by supplement-use categories and how these supplements contributed to meeting or exceeding Dietary Reference Intakes for selected minerals. Design: Data from adults (≥19 y of age; n = 8860) who participated in NHANES 2003-2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey, were examined. Supplement use was defined as the participant's self-reported use of a supplement that contained one or more selected minerals. Results: Dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for magnesium, copper, potassium, and selenium in male supplement users than in nonusers. For women, dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for users than for nonusers for each mineral examined except for selenium. In women, users of calcium-containing dietary supplements were much more likely to meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) than were nonusers. Even after consideration of supplement use, >14% of adults had inadequate intakes for calcium and magnesium on the basis of the percentage of adults with usual intakes less than the EAR. The prevalence of adults who exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for calcium, zinc, iron, and magnesium was higher in users than in nonusers. Conclusions: Individuals who used mineral-containing dietary supplements had higher mineral intakes from food sources in the diet than did nonusers. For all minerals examined, and particularly for calcium and magnesium in men and women and iron in women, supplement use decreased the prevalence of intake inadequacy for each respective mineral; however, supplements contributed to risk of potentially excessive intakes for calcium, iron, zinc, and magnesium. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition. Source


Keast D.R.,Food and Nutrition Database Research Inc | Nicklas T.A.,Baylor College of Medicine | O'Neil C.E.,Louisiana State University
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Background: Snacking is common in adolescents; however, it is unclear if there is an association between snacking and overweight or obesity within the context of the overall diet. Objective: This study examined the associations of snacking with weight status and abdominal obesity in adolescents 12-18 y of age (n = 5811). Design: We conducted secondary analyses of 24-h diet recalls and anthropometric data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. We classified adolescents by frequency of snack consumption (0, 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 snacks/d) and by the percentage of energy intake from snacks (0%, <10%, 10-19%, 20-29%, 30-39%, and ≥40%). We classified adolescents who had a body mass index (BMI) ≥85th percentile of BMI-for-age as overweight or obese. We defined abdominal obesity as a waist circumference ≥90th percentile. We determined covariate-adjusted prevalences of overweight or obesity and abdominal obesity and odds ratios with SUDAAN software (release 9.0.1; Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC). Results: Mean values of all obesity indicators studied were inversely associated with snacking frequency and percentage of energy from snacks. The prevalence of overweight or obesity and of abdominal obesity decreased with increased snacking frequency and with increased percentage of energy from snacks. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for overweight or obesity and for abdominal obesity ranged from 0.63 (0.48, 0.85) to 0.40 (0.29, 0.57) and from 0.61 (0.43, 0.86) to 0.36 (0.21, 0.63) for 2 to ≥4 snacks/d, respectively. Reduced risks of overweight or obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with snacking. Conclusion: Snackers, compared with nonsnackers, were less likely to be overweight or obese and less likely to have abdominal obesity. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition. Source

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