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Al-Ati T.,Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research | Preston T.,University of Glasgow | Al-Hooti S.,Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research | Al-Hamad N.,Food and Nutrition Administration | And 5 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2014

Objective The 2H dilution technique is the reference method to estimate total body water for body composition assessment. The aims of the present study were to establish the total body water technique at the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and assess body composition of Kuwaiti children. Design The isotope ratio mass spectrometer was calibrated with defined international reference water standards. A non-random sampling approach was used to recruit a convenience sample of Kuwaiti children. A dose of 2H2O, 1-3 g, was consumed after an overnight fast and 2H enrichment in baseline and post-dose urine samples was measured. Total body water was calculated and used to estimate fat-free mass. Fat mass was estimated as body weight minus fat-free mass. Setting The total body water study was implemented in primary schools. Subjects Seventy-five boys and eighty-three girls (7-9 years). Results Measurements of the isotope ratio mass spectrometer were confirmed to be accurate and precise. Children were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese according to the WHO based on BMI-for-age Z-scores. Normal-weight and overweight girls had significantly higher percentage body fat (median (range): 32·4 % (24·7-39·3 %) and 38·3 % (29·3-44·2 %), respectively) compared with boys (median (range): 26·5 % (14·2-37·1 %) and 34·6 % (29·9-40·2 %), respectively). No gender difference was found in obese children (median 46·5 % v. 45·6 %). Conclusions The establishment of a state-of-the-art stable isotope laboratory for assessment of body composition provides an opportunity to explore a wide range of applications to better understand the relationship between body size, body composition and risk of developing non-communicable diseases in Kuwait. © 2014 The Authors. Source


Ahmed F.,Kuwait University | Al-Sumaie M.A.,Food and Nutrition Administration
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition | Year: 2011

A cross-sectional study was carried out to indentify the risk factors of anemia and iron deficiency in Kuwaiti pregnant women. Pregnant women (n = 465) aged 18-47 years, of 4-39 weeks at gestation were recruited during antenatal visits from six health facilities in Kuwait. Socio-demographic, pregnancy-related and dietary information were collected. Hemoglobin, serum ferritin and serum C-reactive protein concentrations were determined. Logistic regression analysis revealed that iron deficiency and not taking iron-folate tablets or taking them occasionally were the two most important risk factors associated with anemia. Pregnant women with higher gestational age, short birth spacing (≤ 2 years), not taking iron-folate tablets or taking them occasionally, not consuming fruit juice, and consuming brown bread, tea and/or coffee were significant risk factors associated with iron deficiency. In conclusion, various factors including dietary habits appeared to be associated with poor iron status, which is the most important risk factor for anemia among Kuwaiti pregnant women. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd. Source


Zaghloul S.,Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research | Waslien C.,Kuwait University | Al Somaie M.,Food and Nutrition Administration | Prakash P.,Food and Nutrition Administration
Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal | Year: 2012

The study aimed to assess the adherence of Kuwaiti adults to dietary guidelines for daily fruit and vegetable intake. Data were compiled from national cross-sectional studies from 2006 to 2008 including 9350 adults. Demographic data, frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and anthropometric and lifestyle indicators were collected. Approximately 11% of people reported consuming 5 or more fruits and vegetables daily with a mean consumption of 3.04 times per day. Consumption increased with age and body mass index but decreased with smoking and non-exercising. Minimal change in compliance with 5-per-day fruit and vegetable consumption was observed between 2006 and 2008. However, the average daily consumption of total vegetables and green salads decreased and of total fruits, fruit juices and cooked and fried potatoes increased. The low frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption among Kuwaiti adults indicates the need to adopt more healthy eating patterns to control chronic diseases. Source


Ahmed F.,Griffith University | Waslien C.,Kuwait University | Al-Sumaie M.,Food and Nutrition Administration | Prakash P.,Food and Nutrition Administration
Nutrition | Year: 2012

Objective: To determine temporal changes in hypercholesterolemia prevalence and associated factors in Kuwaiti adults. Design: Analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional population survey data from the Kuwait National Nutrition Surveillance. Methods: A total of 15 110 men and 17 701 women, aged 20-69 years, registered for employment or pensions, Hajj Pilgrimage health checkups, or were parents accompanying their children for immunization from 1998 through 2009. Sociodemographic and lifestyle information, height and weight, and blood samples were collected. Results: Hypercholesterolemia (HC; serum cholesterol ≥5.20 mmol/L) prevalence increased within the time period until 2006-2007 (men, 56.0%; women, 53.6%), except for 2002-2003, and then declined significantly in both men (33.7%) and women (30.6%). Linear and logistic regression adjusted for age, education level, and body mass index (BMI) also showed a significant upward temporal trend for total cholesterol and prevalence of moderate and high HC (except for high HC in men) until 2004-2007 followed by a significant downward trend in 2008-2009 in both men and women. For both genders, age, BMI, education level, and presence of diabetes were significantly independently associated with high HC, whereas only age and BMI were associated with moderate HC. Female smokers, compared with non-smokers, had significantly higher odds ratios for both moderate and high HC. Current exercise or fruit and vegetable intake showed no significant association for either gender. Conclusion: Continued monitoring of serum cholesterol is needed to see if the negative trend observed in 2008-2009 endures and further research of contributing factors is required for the development of targeted intervention strategies. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Ahmed F.,Griffith University | Waslien C.,Kuwait University | Al-Sumaie M.A.,Food and Nutrition Administration | Prakash P.,Food and Nutrition Administration
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2012

Objective To determine trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in Kuwaiti adults, and to examine their association with selected sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Design Analysis of cross-sectional population survey data from the Kuwait National Nutrition Surveillance System. Setting Social and health facilities in Kuwait. Subjects Males (n 17 491) and females (n 21 120) aged 20-69 years attending registration for employment or pensions, or Hajj Pilgrimage health check-ups, or parents accompanying their children for immunization 1998 through 2009. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and anthropometric data were collected. Results Prevalence of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 rose from 61·8 % and 59·3 % in females and males respectively, peaked in 2004-2005 (81·4 % and 79·2 %) and fell slightly in 2008-2009 (77·3 % and 77·4 %). Obesity prevalence in females exceeded males for all years and age groups; by 2009, it had increased by 11·3 % in males and 14·6 % in females. Overweight and obesity prevalences in both genders increased until 2004-2005 but fell thereafter, with significant falls for females in 2008-2009. Logistic and linear regression analyses confirmed these temporal changes for both prevalence and BMI in both genders. The odds of obesity increased with age until the fifth decade for both genders and then declined significantly for males. Education level was negatively associated with obesity prevalence in females, while participation in leisure-time exercise was negatively associated with obesity prevalence in males. Conclusions Although the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2) seemed to decrease from 2005 to 2009 among Kuwaiti adults, further research to clarify the identified confounders and continued monitoring are needed to confirm the decrease observed. © The Authors 2012. Source

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