Food and Marine Resources Research Center

Karachi, Pakistan

Food and Marine Resources Research Center

Karachi, Pakistan

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Ahmad S.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Akhter M.,Food and Marine Resources Research Center | Zia-ul-Haq M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Mehjabeen,University of Karachi | Ahmed S.,Aga Khan University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

The antifungal activity of legume seed extracts was tested against 6 fungi, viz., Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergilus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glaberata. The extracts showed moderate activity against different fungal strains. Nematicidal activity has also been carried out to evaluate their potential toxicity against juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. In vitro results showed that ethanolic extract of these legumes caused appreciable mortality of second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita. The concentrations used @ 1% and 0.5% were found more effective and produced significant results as compared to 0.25%, and 0.1%. The mortality rate increased with increasing exposure time for most of the extracts.


Sultana N.,Pharmaceutical Research Center | Akhter M.,Food and Marine Resources Research Center | Khatoon Z.,Food and Marine Resources Research Center
Natural Product Research | Year: 2010

Studies on the aerial parts of Rubus niveus yielded six known compounds, 3,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid C7H6O4, (1), gallic acid C7H6O5 (2), ethyl galactoside (3), oleanolic acid (4), β-sitosterol (5) and 3-O-[β-D-galactopyranosyl- (12)-D-glucopyranoside (6). Besides this, a gallic acid derivative with methyl substitution was synthesised as tetramethyl gallate (3). Together with this derivative, compounds 1, 2, the alcohol soluble, chloroform soluble and petroleum ether soluble extracts of the aerial parts of R. niveus were screened for its nematicidal activity against freshly hatched second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode), exhibiting 100, 94, 100, 52, 45 and 14% mortality, respectively of M. incognita after 48 h at 0.5% concentration. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 were found to be more potent than the nematicide Azadirachta indica at the same concentration. Negative results were obtained for nematicidal activity of the petroleum ether extract of R. niveus leaf extract. This is the first report on the isolation of chemical constituents as well as the nematicidal activity of compounds and any part of R. niveus. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Abbas G.,University of Karachi | Siddiqui P.J.A.,University of Karachi | Jamil K.,Food and Marine Resources Research Center
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2012

In order to investigate optimum dietary protein requirement, juvenile mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus (body weight 8.0±0.3 g) were reared in seawater tanks (125 liters each) and fed one of the experimental diets at a daily ration of 2% body weight for 90 days. Six isoenergetic (22.4 kJg -1) diets were formulated to contain protein levels of 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40% and 45%. Fish fed diets of 40% and 45% protein produced higher weight gain and growth rate than those of the other diets. Broken line regression analysis yielded an optimal protein level of 42.8%. Fish whole body, muscle, liver and visceral composition showed that moisture content of fish fed diets of 40% and 45% protein was significantly higher than that of fish fed diets containing protein levels of 20% to 35% in 5% increments, although the lipid contents were lower. No significant difference was observed in protein and ash contents of whole fish or body organs for the diets of 20% to 45% protein. Fish fed 40% and 45% protein diets showed higher nitrogen gain and nitrogen retention efficiency than those fed on other diets. The mesenteric fat, hepato- and viscerosomatic indices of fish fed diets of 40% and 45% protein were significantly higher than those of fish fed diets of 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% protein. Based on the biological data, it was estimated that the optimal level of protein for L. argentimaculatus weighing between 8.0 g and 110 g was 40% to 42.8%. Copyright 2012 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Haq M.Z.U.,University of Karachi | Ahmad M.,University of Karachi | Akhter M.,Food and Marine Resources Research Center
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

Nematicidal activity of selected medicinal plants has been carried out to evaluate their potential toxicity against juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp and Cephalobus litoralis. In vitro results showed that ethanolic extract of these plants caused appreciable mortality of second stage juveniles of M. javanica and M. incognita as well as Cephalobus litoralis. The concentrations used @ 2% and 1% were found more effective and produced significant results as compared to 0.5%, and 0.25%. The mortality rate increased with increasing exposure time for most of the extracts.


PubMed | University of Karachi and Food and Marine Resources Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] | Year: 2015

The interaction of the cyanidin, pelargonidin, catechin, myrecetin and kaempferol with casein and gelatin, as proline rich proteins (PRPs), was studied. The binding constants calculated for both flavonoid-casein and flavonoid-gelatin were fairly large (10 (5) -10 (7) M (-1) ) indicating strong interaction. Due to higher proline content in gelatin, the binding constants of flavonoid-gelatin (2.5 10 (5) -6.2 10 (7) M (-1) ) were found to be higher than flavonoid-casein (1.2 10 (5) -5.0 10 (7) M (-1) ). All the flavonoids showed significant antibacterial activity against the tested strains. Significant loss in activity was observed due to the complexation with PRPs confirming that binding effectively reduced the concentration of the free flavonoids to be available for antibacterial activity. The decline in activity was corresponding to the values of the binding constants. Though the activities of free catechin and myrecetin were higher compared to pelargonidin, cyanidin and kaempferol yet the decline in activity of catechin and myrecetin due to complexation with casein and gelatin was more pronounced.


PubMed | University of Karachi and Food and Marine Resources Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food additives & contaminants. Part B, Surveillance | Year: 2016

This survey was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of total aflatoxins (AFs; B1+B2+G1+G2) in unpacked composite spices. A total of 75 samples of composite spices such as biryani, karhai, tikka, nihari and korma masalas were collected from local markets of Karachi, Pakistan, and analysed using HPLC technique. The results indicated that AFs were detected in 77% (n=58) samples ranging from 0.68 to 25.74gkg(-1) with a mean of 4.630.95gkg(-1). In 88% (n=66) samples, AFs level was below the maximum limits (ML=10gkg(-1)) as imposed by EU. Furthermore, 61% (n=46) tested samples contained AFs level between 1 and 10gkg(-1), 9% (n=7) exhibited AFs contamination ranged 10-20gkg(-1) and only 3% (n=2) of the investigated samples contained AFs levels higher than the ML of 20gkg(-1) for total aflatoxins as set by the USA. It was concluded that there is need to establish a strict and continuous national monitoring plan to improve safety and quality of spices in Pakistan.


Mobeen A.K.,Food and Marine Resources Research Center | Aftab A.,Food and Marine Resources Research Center | Asif A.,Food and Marine Resources Research Center | Zuzzer A.S.,Food and Marine Resources Research Center
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences | Year: 2011

The effectiveness of microwave heating has been evaluated for the detoxification of aflatoxins contaminated peanut and peanut products. The products comprise of various confectionery such as peanut brittle toffee, peanut brittle slabs of sugar and jaggery, roasted and salted peanut and peanut butter which were highly contaminated with aflatoxins B1 ranging from 5 to 183μg/kg and aflatoxin B2 ranging from 7 to 46.7μg/kg. The level of aflatoxins was determined and subsequently products were treated to microwave heating, which resulted in the reduction of aflatoxins content. The microwave cooking resulted in 50 to 60 % reduction in the levels of aflatoxins B1, while B2 was reduced to non-detectable limits.


Khan M.A.,Food and Marine Resources Research Center | Asghar M.A.,Food and Marine Resources Research Center | Iqbal J.,Food and Marine Resources Research Center | Ahmed A.,Food and Marine Resources Research Center | Shamsuddin Z.A.,Food and Marine Resources Research Center
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B Surveillance | Year: 2014

During 2006-2011, 331 red chilli samples (226 whole, 69 powdered and 36 crushed) were collected from all over Pakistan for the estimation of total aflatoxins (AFs = AFB1 + AFB2 + AFG1 + AFG2) contamination by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Mean AFs levels in whole, powdered and crushed chillies were 11.7, 27.8 and 31.2 μg kg-1, respectively. AFs levels in 62.4% of whole, 26.1% of powdered and 19.4% of crushed chillies were found lower than the maximum limit (ML = 10 μg kg-1) as assigned by the European Union. Furthermore, whole (27.9%), powdered (28%) and crushed (27.8%) chillies showed AFs contamination which ranged between 10 and 20 μg kg-1. However, 9.7% of whole, 46% of powdered and 52.8% of crushed chillies showed AFs levels beyond the ML of 20 μg kg-1 as assigned by the USDA. It was concluded that AFs contamination in chillies requires further investigation, monitoring and routine analysis. Furthermore, proper harvesting, drying, handling, storage and transport conditions need to be employed. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Sultana R.,Food and Marine Resources Research Center | Jamil K.,Food and Marine Resources Research Center
Marine Biodiversity Records | Year: 2013

This paper reports the first record of the occurrence of Pinna fragilis from Korangi Creek, Pakistan coast (24°47′N 67°11′E). A description of the species collected from the Pakistan coast is given along with size, habitat, ecology and economic importance. Shells of 114-347 mm were found from the area. The dark grey pearls of dull lustre were found from few shells. © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2013.


PubMed | Food and Marine Resources Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicology and industrial health | Year: 2016

A novel, reliable and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with post-column derivatization was developed and validated. The HPLC method was used for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) in various cereals and grains. Samples were extracted with 80:20 (v/v) methanol:water and purified using C18 (40-63 m) solid-phase extraction cartridges. AFs were separated using a LiChroCART-RP-18 (5 m, 250 4.0 mm(2)) column. The mobile phase consisted of methanol:acetonitrile:buffer (17.5:17.5:65 v/v) (pH 7.4) delivered at the flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) The fluorescence of each AF was detected at ex = 365 nm and em = 435 nm. All four AFs were properly resolved within the total run time of 20 min. The established method was extensively validated as a final verification of the method development by the evaluation of selectivity (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), linearity (R(2) 0.9994), precision (average SD 2.79), accuracy (relative mean error -5.51), robustness (p < 0.0080), ruggedness (p < 0.0100) and average recoveries (89.2-97.8%). The limits of quantification of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 0.080, 0.073, 0.062 and 0.066 ng g(-1), respectively. Finally, the developed method was applied for the analysis of AFs in 45 samples comprising rice (n = 20), wheat (n = 15) and maize (n = 10). The results showed that 65% of rice, 20% of wheat and 80% of maize samples were found contaminated with AFs. Thus, according to the achieved results, it is suggested that the newly developed HPLC method could be effectively applied for the routine analysis of the AFs in different cereals and grains.

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