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Hosseini S.A.,Food and Drug Research Center | Rajabi F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Akbari Sari A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ayati M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran | Year: 2016

Background: Hormone therapy is currently the mainstay in the management of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. We performed a systematic review to compare safety, efficacy and effectiveness of degarelix, a new gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist (blocker), versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. Methods: MEDLINE, Web of Science and the Cochrane library were searched to identify all of the published Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) that used degarelix versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists with or without anti-androgen therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer. We performed meta-analysis of extracted data on safety and efficacy of the target medication. Results: Six studies were included. They involved a total of 2296 patients which were used in the meta-analysis. Follow-up times after treatment were between 12 weeks and 12 months. Three of six RCTs compared degarelix with goserelin and the others compared it with leuprolide. Meta-analysis on safety outcomes revealed that the only statistically significant difference between the degarelix treated group and GnRH agonists treated group was complication in the injection site which was higher in degarelix-treated group (OR= 46.34, 95% CI: 15.79 to 136, p<0.001). Although general mortality rate was lower in degarelix-treated group (OR= 2.06, 95% CI: 1.08 to 3.93, p=0.03); mortality due to the drug side effects was not different. Meta-analysis of efficacy data also showed that International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) reduction at week 12, (MD=-1.85, 95% CI: -2.97 to - 0.72, p=0.001) and Testosterone reduction between day 1-28, (OR=11.58, 95% CI: 5.77 to 23.22, p<0.001) was statistically higher in degarelix-treated group. Testosterone reduction after day 28 and prostate volume reduction did not have significant difference. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis indicates that, compared with GnRH agonists, degarelix has significantly more effects on lower urinary tract symptoms and also Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and testosterone reduction in the first month of the treatment. Except minor complications in the injection site like pain, erythema and swelling, there is no increase in major side effects and mortality due to degarelix. This is while the effect on testosterone and PSA after the first month of treatment is not statistically different between the two groups.

Bazhdanzadeh S.,Alzahra University | Talebpour Z.,Alzahra University | Adib N.,Food and Drug Research Center | Aboul-Enein H.Y.,National Research Center of Egypt
Journal of Separation Science | Year: 2011

A sensitive and reproducible stir bar sorptive extraction and HPLC-UV detection method was used for the therapeutic drug monitoring of chlorpromazine and trifluoperazine in human serum. The separation was achieved using a C 18 column. The mobile phase consisted of methanol/sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.1; 0.1 M) (95:5, v/v) including 0.5% triethylamine. This miniaturized method can result in faster analysis, lower solvent consumption and less workload per sample while maintaining or even improving sensitivity. In the second part, stir bar sorptive extraction/HPLC-UV method was optimized by a chemometrics approach. An experimental design was therefore used to evaluate the statistically influential and/or interacting factors, among those described in the literature, and to find the best extraction and desorption conditions. Optimal sample volume of 1 mL, extraction time of 24 min at 31°C with pH 8.1 were obtained in a screening 25 half fractional factorial design followed by a Box-Behnken design. For the desorption conditions, a Box-Behnken design showed that the best conditions were 150 μL mobile phase for 20 min at 50°C. The optimized method was repeatable (CV<10%, linear (LOQ-500 ng/mL)), with the LOQs equal to 0.7 and 1.5 ng/mL for chlorpromazine and trifluoperazine, respectively. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Rastegar H.,Food and Drug Research Center | Ashtiani H.A.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences | Ashtiani H.A.,Tarbiat Modares University | Ashtiani H.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Acta Medica Iranica | Year: 2013

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed invasive malignancy and first leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Iranian women. Based on silymarin's unique characteristics, its application in chemotherapy combined with doxorubicin can be effective to enhance the efficacy together with a reduced toxicity on normal tissues. The present study focus on evaluate the efficacy of silymarin in combination with doxorubicin, on viability and apoptosis of estrogen-dependent breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). After being cultured, MCF-7 cells were divided into 8 groups and treated as follows: 1st group received 75 μg silymarin, groups 2, 3, and 4 were treated with 10, 25, and 50 nM doxorubicin, respectively, and groups 5, 6, and 7 respectively received 10, 25, and 50 nM doxorubicin as well as 75 μg silymarin. Viability percentage and apoptosis of the cells were assessed with Trypan Blue staining after 16, 24, and 48 hours. Silymarin has a synergistic effect on the therapeutic potential of doxorubicin. Use of silymarin in combination with doxorubicin can be more effective on the therapeutic potential of doxorubicin and decreases its dose-limiting side effects. © 2013 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

Hosseini S.A.R.,Office for Clinical Trials | Hosseini S.A.R.,Food and Drug Research Center | Darbooy S.,Office for Clinical Trials | Salimi A.,Office for Clinical Trials
Iranian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: Clinical Trial Committee (CTC) has been established in Food and Drug Organization (FDO), in 2003 to assure efficacy and safety of all types of medicinal products which are meant to be registered in Iran Drug List and/or obtain market authorization. Methods: All clinical trial files, meeting minutes and databases in CTC secretariat in FDO were reviewed. Relevant information and data extracted, analyzed and reported. Results: Total number of clinical trial (CT) files received by CTC, in 2011, was 76 cases: 21 CT protocols, 45 CT reports and 10 requests for importation of investigational new medicinal products (IMPs). Number of CT files received for herbal and natural products was 8 cases while CT files reviewed for vaccines and biological products was 50; 66% of all CT files received. Local industries sponsored 28 CT studies while 47 studies were supported by multinational/foreign companies. Of all CT files reviewed, 54 cases accounted for phase III CTs and 20 cases for phase IV and periodic safety updated reports (PSUR). With respect to the decisions made by CTC in 2011, 23 out of 45 CT reports were approved and the number of clinical trial authorizations (CTA) issued were 11; 52% of all CT protocols reviewed. Conclusion: Results presented in this report are indicative of a positive trend in compliance of pharmaceutical industries and clinical research groups to national regulations of CTs and IR-GCP. Effective communication with different parties involved in regulatory and industry sides of CTs will further enhance conducting quality CTs.

Shafizadeh M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Rajaba A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Imran Khan M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ostadhadi S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Pioglitazone is a member of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists, particularly used in management of type II diabetes. However it also has effects in some dermatological disorders. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of oral administration of pioglitazone and the association of nitric oxide, in serotonin-induced scratching in mice. In order to produce the scratching activity, serotonin (141 nm/site) was administered intradermally in the nape of the neck. Pioglitazone in concentrations of 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg, was peroral administered (p.o) as a single dose, 4 h before the serotonin injection. PPAR-γ antagonist, GW9662 (2 mg/kg, i.p); a non-specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 1 mg/kg, i.p); or a nitric oxide precursor, l-arginine (100 mg/kg, i.p.); adminstrated 15 min before pioglitazone were analyzed for anti-scratching activity. Results obtained showed that pioglitazone (40 and 80 mg/kg, p.o) reduced the scratching in a dose-dependent manner. GW9662 inverted the anti-scratching effect of pioglitazone (80 mg/kg). Acute dose of l-NAME (1 mg/kg, i.p) also prevented the anti-scratching property of pioglitazone (80 mg/kg, p.o); although l-arginine was used in sub-effective dose (100 mg/kg, i.p), however it potentiated the anti-scratching behavior when co-injected with pioglitazone (20 mg/kg, p.o). The results indicate that acute pioglitazone has an anti-scratching effect on serotonin-induced scratching in mice. It is concluded that anti-scratching outcome of acute pioglitazone is initiated via activation of PPAR-γ receptor and to some extent by the NO pathway. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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