Food and Drug Laboratory Branch

Richmond, CA, United States

Food and Drug Laboratory Branch

Richmond, CA, United States
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Cheng L.-W.,National Cheng Kung University | Huang S.-W.,National Cheng Kung University | Huang L.-M.,National Taiwan University | Chang L.-Y.,National Taiwan University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Virological Methods | Year: 2012

Evaluation of the efficacy of influenza vaccines is essential for vaccine development. This study evaluated the neutralizing and hemagglutination-inhibition antibody response in subjects receiving the 2006-07 and 2007-08 seasonal influenza vaccines. ELISA-based microneutralization demonstrated a greater mean-fold increase and seroconversion rate than the hemagglutination-inhibition assay. The increase in the antibody titers against influenza H1 were higher than those against influenza H3 and influenza B, indicating that the H1 vaccine strain in the 2006-07 and 2007-08 seasons was more immunogenic. These data suggest that the neutralizing antibody response is a better measurement of influenza vaccine efficacy. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Hurley S.,Cancer Prevention Institute of California | Goldberg D.,Cancer Prevention Institute of California | Nelson D.O.,Cancer Prevention Institute of California | Guo W.,Environmental Chemistry Laboratory | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2017

In response to health concerns and widespread human exposures, two widely used commercial formulations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were banned in the United States in 2005. Initial biomonitoring data have provided early indications of reduced human exposures since these bans took effect. Our objective was to evaluate temporal trends in PBDE serum levels among a population of older California women during a four-year period, beginning approximately five years after these formulations were banned. Automated solid phase extraction and gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry were used to measure PBDE levels in blood collected during 2011-2015 among 1253 women (ages 40-94) participating in the California Teachers Study. Only congeners with detection frequencies (DF) ≥ 75% were included in the present analysis: BDE-47 (DF = 88%); BDE-100 (DF = 78%); and BDE-153 (DF = 80%). Results from age- and race/ethnicity-adjusted linear regression analyses indicated modest, but statistically significant, average annual percent increases in the serum concentrations of all three PBDEs over the four-year study period. While not without limitations, these results, in the context of other biomonitoring data, suggest that earlier reported declines in PBDE levels may have plateaued and may now be starting to increase. Further biomonitoring to ascertain current trends and determinants of population exposures is warranted. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

English P.,California Environmental Health Tracking Program | Blount B.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Wong M.,California Environmental Health Tracking Program | Copan L.,Environmental Health Investigations Branch | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Exposure to perchlorate is ubiquitous in the United States and has been found to be widespread in food and drinking water. People living in the lower Colorado River region may have perchlorate exposure because of perchlorate in ground water and locally-grown produce. Relatively high doses of perchlorate can inhibit iodine uptake and impair thyroid function, and thus could impair neurological development in utero. We examined human exposures to perchlorate in the Imperial Valley among individuals consuming locally grown produce and compared perchlorate exposure doses to state and federal reference doses. We collected 24-hour urine specimen from a convenience sample of 31 individuals and measured urinary excretion rates of perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate, and iodide. In addition, drinking water and local produce were also sampled for perchlorate. All but two of the water samples tested negative for perchlorate. Perchlorate levels in 79 produce samples ranged from non-detect to 1816 ppb. Estimated perchlorate doses ranged from 0.02 to 0.51 μg/kg of body weight/day. Perchlorate dose increased with the number of servings of dairy products consumed and with estimated perchlorate levels in produce consumed. The geometric mean perchlorate dose was 70% higher than for the NHANES reference population. Our sample of 31 Imperial Valley residents had higher perchlorate dose levels compared with national reference ranges. Although none of our exposure estimates exceeded the U. S. EPA reference dose, three participants exceeded the acceptable daily dose as defined by bench mark dose methods used by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment.

Abromaitis S.,University of California at San Francisco | Abromaitis S.,Food and Drug Laboratory Branch | Koehler J.E.,University of California at San Francisco
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2013

Bartonella quintana is a vector-borne bacterial pathogen that causes fatal disease in humans. During the infectious cycle, B. quintana transitions from the hemin-restricted human bloodstream to the hemin-rich body louse vector. Because extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors often regulate adaptation to environmental changes, we hypothesized that a previously unstudied B. quintana ECF sigma factor, RpoE, is involved in the transition from the human host to the body louse vector. Thegenomic context of B. quintana rpoE identified it as a member of the ECF15 family of sigma factors found only in alphaproteobacteria. ECF15 sigma factors are believed to be the master regulators of the general stress response in alphaproteobacteria. Inthis study, we examined the B. quintana RpoE response to two stressors that are encountered in the body louse vector environment, a decreased temperature and an increased hemin concentration. We determined that the expression of rpoE is significantly upregulated at the body louse (28°C) versus the human host (37°C) temperature. rpoE expression also was upregulated when B.quintana was exposed to high hemin concentrations. In vitro and in vivo analyses demonstrated that RpoE function is regulated by a mechanism involving the anti-sigma factor NepR and the response regulator PhyR. The δrpoE δnepR mutant strain of B.quintana established that RpoE-mediated transcription is important in mediating the tolerance of B. quintana to high heminconcentrations. We present the first analysis of an ECF15 sigma factor in a vector-borne human pathogen and conclude thatRpoE has a role in the adaptation of B. quintana to the hemin-rich arthropod vector environment. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.

Abromaitis S.,University of California at San Francisco | Abromaitis S.,Food and Drug Laboratory Branch | Nelson C.S.,University of California at San Francisco | Previte D.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The bacterial pathogen Bartonella quintana is passed between humans by body lice. B. quintana has adapted to both the human host and body louse vector niches, producing persistent infection with high titer bacterial loads in both the host (up to 105 colony-forming units [CFU]/ml) and vector (more than 108 CFU/ml). Using a novel custom microarray platform, we analyzed bacterial transcription at temperatures corresponding to the host (37°C) and vector (28°C), to probe for temperature-specific and growth phase-specific transcriptomes. We observed that transcription of 7% (93 genes) of the B. quintana genome is modified in response to change in growth phase, and that 5% (68 genes) of the genome is temperature-responsive. Among these transcriptional changes in response to temperature shift and growth phase was the induction of known B. quintana virulence genes and several previously unannotated genes. Hemin binding proteins, secretion systems, response regulators, and genes for invasion and cell attachment were prominent among the differentially-regulated B. quintana genes. This study represents the first analysis of global transcriptional responses by B. quintana. In addition, the in vivo experiments provide novel insight into the B. quintana transcriptional program within the body louse environment. These data and approaches will facilitate study of the adaptation mechanisms employed by Bartonella during the transition between human host and arthropod vector. © 2013 Abromaitis et al.

She J.,Environmental Health Laboratory Branch | She Y.,Food and Drug Laboratory Branch | Song W.,Food and Drug Laboratory Branch
Science China Chemistry | Year: 2010

In an effort to investigate the status of human exposure to PBDEs in China, available monitoring data in human specimens (including breast milk, serums, and blood) was collected from the general population as well as specific groups that are occupationally exposed. PBDEs exposure profiles and concentration levels were compared with their counterparts in the United States of America. It was found that PBDE burdens in general Chinese population are one order lower and have different congener profiles from that in the US, showing higher percentages of BDE-28 or BDE-153 in human specimens from China. Workers and residents in electronic wastes recycling regions or areas of commercial PBDE manufacturing have the highest PBDE exposure levels reported worldwide, which are close or higher than the exposure levels of the general population in the US. Highly brominated congeners, such as BDE-207 and 209, are among the major PBDE congeners, and BDE-209 has the highest percentage (above 50%) for all occupational populations studied. Principal components analysis (PCA) demonstrates that the exposure of the general population in the US is closely related to penta-BDE while the human burden in China is not. The PBDE in indoor air (gas phase) in the US is highly correlated with the PBDE burden in the general population in the US, indicating a major exposure pathway. For the occupationally exposed populations in China, the congener profiles are closely related to the commercial deca-BDE products. Examination of exposure profiles for general and occupational populations in China suggests that it is essential to include more highly brominated congeners, such as BDE-207 and 209, in future human exposure studies, in order to assess the real burdens and profiles of PBDEs exposure in China. Strict pollution prevention and occupational protection procedures are in need in China to avoid the PBDE contamination problem that has occurred in the US. © Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010.

Song W.,Food and Drug Laboratory Branch | Li C.,Food and Drug Laboratory Branch | Moezzi B.,Food and Drug Laboratory Branch
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2013

RATIONALE Bisphenol A has been widely used in plastic containers and this has raised safety concerns for fetuses, infants, and young children. Aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, and patulin are among the most toxic regulated mycotoxins found as contaminants in agricultural crops and animal products. To facilitate the analysis of these chemicals for regulatory purposes, we have developed an analytical method enabling their simultaneous detection in beverages and food products. METHODS Analytes were extracted from food matrices such as cereal, peanut butter, cereal-based baby formula and fruit juices, and enriched by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry using negative electrospray ionization with selected reaction monitoring, and matrix-matched external calibration was used for quantitation. RESULTS The method was validated by analysis of five types of food and beverage samples fortified with different levels of these analytes. The SPE clean-up and matrix-matched external calibration were critical for the success of this method. The quantitation limits for these analytes ranged from 0.08 to 2.0 ppb, and the overall recoveries of the analytical method were within 66 to 127%. CONCLUSIONS This quantitative method provided several advantages including minimal sample pretreatment, rapid and simultaneous analyte determination, high sensitivity and confirmatory identification. This method could be applied to a variety of food and beverages matrices where bisphenol A and these three mycotoxins may be present in suspect food products. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. © Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

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