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de Bruin A.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | van der Plaats R.Q.J.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | de Heer L.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Paauwe R.,Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority nVWA | And 4 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

During large Q fever outbreaks in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2010, dairy goat farms were implicated as the primary source of human Q fever. The transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is thought to occur primarily via aerosols, although available data on C. burnetii in aerosols and other environmental matrices are limited. During the outbreak of 2009, 19 dairy goat farms and one dairy sheep farm were selected nationwide to investigate the presence of C. burnetii DNA in vaginal swabs, manure, surface area swabs, milk unit filters, and aerosols. Four of these farms had a positive status during the Coxiella burnetii bulk milk monitoring program in 2009 and additionally reported abortion waves in 2008 or 2009. Eleven farms were reported as having positive bulk milk only, and five selected (control) farms had a bulk milk-negative status in 2009 and no reported Q fever history. Screening by quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed that on farms with a history of abortions related to C. burnetii and, to a lesser extent, on farms positive by bulk milk monitoring, generally higher proportions of positive samples and higher levels of C. burnetii DNA within positive samples were observed than on the control farms. The relatively high levels of C. burnetii DNA in surface area swabs and aerosols sampled in stables of bulk milk-positive farms, including farms with a Q fever-related abortion history, support the hypothesis that these farms can pose a risk for the transmission of C. burnetii to humans. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.


Van Der Giessen J.,National Institute for Public Health and The Environment RIVM | Franssen F.,National Institute for Public Health and The Environment RIVM | Fonville M.,National Institute for Public Health and The Environment RIVM | Kortbeek T.,National Institute for Public Health and The Environment RIVM | And 5 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2013

The occurrence of trichinellosis in a resident of the Netherlands prompted us to examine the likelihood of this originating from infected rats in spite of prevailing biosecurity and testing procedures. In so doing, we sought to calculate the possible risks for trichinellosis in countries deemed non-endemic. The infection risk was determined by simulating a scenario from a reservoir of minimally contaminated wildlife to pigs to humans. Results indicate that humans might become infected even in the event that artificial digestion had been performed on individually tested pig carcasses. Our conclusions justify reconsidering Trichinella control strategies based on the current testing protocol, and emphasize the importance of proper cooking as further insurance against human infection. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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