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Wageningen, Netherlands

Norsker N.-H.,Wageningen University | Barbosa M.J.,Food and Biobased Research | Vermue M.H.,Wageningen University | Wijffels R.H.,Wageningen University
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2011

Worldwide, microalgal biofuel production is being investigated. It is strongly debated which type of production technology is the most adequate. Microalgal biomass production costs were calculated for 3 different micro algal production systems operating at commercial scale today: open ponds, horizontal tubular photobioreactors and flat panel photobioreactors. For the 3 systems, resulting biomass production costs including dewatering, were 4.95, 4.15 and 5.96 € per kg, respectively. The important cost factors are irradiation conditions, mixing, photosynthetic efficiency of systems, medium- and carbon dioxide costs. Optimizing production with respect to these factors, a price of € 0.68 per kg resulted. At this cost level microalgae become a promising feedstock for biodiesel and bulk chemicals. Summary: Photobioreactors may become attractive for microalgal biofuel production. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source


Hinton E.C.,University of Bristol | Brunstrom J.M.,University of Bristol | Fay S.H.,University of Bristol | Wilkinson L.L.,University of Bristol | And 3 more authors.
Appetite | Year: 2013

Laboratory-based studies of human dietary behaviour benefit from highly controlled conditions; however, this approach can lack ecological validity. Identifying a reliable method to capture and quantify natural dietary behaviours represents an important challenge for researchers. In this study, we scrutinised cafeteria-style meals in the 'Restaurant of the Future.' Self-selected meals were weighed and photographed, both before and after consumption. Using standard portions of the same foods, these images were independently coded to produce accurate and reliable estimates of (i) initial self-served portions, and (ii) food remaining at the end of the meal. Plate cleaning was extremely common; in 86% of meals at least 90% of self-selected calories were consumed. Males ate a greater proportion of their self-selected meals than did females. Finally, when participants visited the restaurant more than once, the correspondence between selected portions was better predicted by the weight of the meal than by its energy content. These findings illustrate the potential benefits of meal photography in this context. However, they also highlight significant limitations, in particular, the need to exclude large amounts of data when one food obscures another. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


de Keizer M.,Wageningen University | Groot J.J.,Food and Biobased Research | Bloemhof J.,Wageningen University | van der Vorst J.G.A.J.,Wageningen University
International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications | Year: 2014

The Dutch potted plant sector has a dominant international position, but new marketing channels and emerging markets on distance call for new logistics concepts. This paper explores the potential of an advanced logistics concept, i.e. logistics orchestration, that aims for improved collaboration between supply chain actors. A mixed integer linear programming model is developed to investigate the benefits of logistics orchestration in three scenarios. In these scenarios, the effects of network design and logistics consolidation on logistics costs, working times and CO2 emissions are quantified. Modelling assumptions and data were validated in collaboration with business partners. Results show that logistics costs, working time and emissions can be significantly reduced by use of a hub network and consolidation. The better the European economic centre can be reached through the hub network, the larger the benefits can be. Embodying a substantial part of European goods flows is required to realise these benefits. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source


Perdana J.,Food Process Engineering Group | Van Der Sman R.G.M.,Food and Biobased Research | Fox M.B.,NIZO food research | Boom R.M.,Food Process Engineering Group | Schutyser M.A.I.,Food Process Engineering Group
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2014

Knowledge about moisture diffusivity in solid matrices is a key for understanding drying behaviour of for example probiotic or enzymatic formulations. This paper presents an experimental procedure to determine moisture diffusivity on the basis of thin film drying and gravimetric analysis in a Dynamic Vapour Sorption (DVS) system. The extraction of moisture diffusivity is based on the "regular regime approach". The method was explored and verified for its assumptions. It provided insight in the effect of moisture content and temperature on moisture diffusivity. Moreover, it was found that moisture diffusivity in different carbohydrate systems was similar and decreased with moisture content. The latter was explained by similar molecular interactions in carbohydrate systems and formation of a percolating network at low moisture content that affects water mobility. Subsequently, measured moisture diffusivities were compared to model predictions based on the generalised Darken relation. It was found that predicted moisture diffusivities were in fair agreement with these, including the effect of moisture content and temperature on moisture diffusivity. At low moisture content the model overestimated the sensitivity of moisture diffusivity towards temperature. This was explained by the fact that the different water-solid interactions at lower moisture content (including relaxation behaviour in the glassy state) are not considered in the modelling. Finally, the methodology was successfully evaluated to other solid matrices such as glycerol, skimmed milk and casein, providing different moisture diffusivities as function of moisture content. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


De Wijk R.A.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition | De Wijk R.A.,Food and Biobased Research | Janssen A.M.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition | Janssen A.M.,Food and Biobased Research | Prinz J.F.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2011

Here we review the role of oral movements in the perception of food attributes, particularly for semi-solid and liquid foods ingested almost in ready-to-swallow form. An overview of a series of instrumental and sensory studies suggests clear links between the type of sensation and the time point of processing in the mouth. Some commonly-reported sensations, such as thickness, are relatively immediate and reflect the bulk properties of food bolus when the food is relatively intact. Others, such as fattiness and melting, reflect both bulk and surface properties and follow considerable oral processing when the food is relatively degraded. Yet others, such as fatty after-feel, are only fully developed after swallowing is complete. In addition, oral processing also plays an important role in the generation of aroma and taste sensations. Most of these in prior vivo studies have now been confirmed by in vitro work using a modified rheometer, dubbed the Structure Breakdown Cell (SBC), wherein the mechanical and enzymatic break-down of food can be monitored directly and related to sensory profiles generated by trained panelists. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

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