Wheeler T.T.,Food and Bio based Products Group |
Maqbool N.J.,Agresearch Ltd. |
Gupta S.K.,Food and Bio based Products Group
Journal of Molecular Evolution | Year: 2012
The mammalian secreted ribonucleases (RNases) comprise a large family of structurally related proteins displaying considerable sequence variation, and have been used in evolutionary studies. RNase 1 (RNase A) has been assumed to play a role in digestion, while other members have been suggested to contribute to host defence. Using the recently assembled bovine genome sequence, we characterised the complete repertoire of genes present in the RNaseA family locus in cattle, and compared this with the equivalent locus in the human and mouse genomes. Several additions and corrections to the earlier analysis of the RNase locus in the mouse genome are presented. The bovine locus encodes 19 RNases, of which only six have unambiguous equivalent genes in the other two species. Chromosomal mapping and phylogenetic analysis indicate that a number of distinct gene duplication events have occurred in the cattle lineage since divergence from the human and mouse lineages. Substitution analysis suggests that some of these duplicated genes are under evolutionary pressure for purifying selection and may therefore be important to the physiology of cattle. Expression analysis revealed that individual RNases have a wide pattern of expression, including diverse mucosal epithelia and immune-related cells and tissues. These data clarify the full repertoire of bovine RNases and their relationships to those in humans and mice. They also suggest that RNase gene duplication within the bovine lineage accompanied by altered tissue-specific expression has contributed a survival advantage. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source
Dalziel J.E.,Food and Bio based Products Group |
Spencer N.J.,Flinders University |
Dunstan K.E.,Food and Bio based Products Group |
Lynch A.T.,Food and Bio based Products Group |
And 5 more authors.
Food and Function | Year: 2014
Beta-casomorphin-5 (βCM-5) is a milk-derived bioactive peptide that slows gastro-intestinal transit (GIT) in vivo and blocks the peristaltic reflex in the guinea pig colon in vitro. We wanted to establish an in vitro model system in which effects of dairy-derived substances containing opioid peptides on intestinal motility can be assessed and used to predict in vivo outcomes. Because βCM-5 is an opioid agonist that acts on enteric neurons, we used this substance to compare two different isolated colonic tissue preparations to determine which would more closely mimic the in vivo response previously reported in the literature. We compared and characterized the effects of βCM-5 on spontaneous contractions in isolated segments of distal colon (1 cm length) compared with propagating contractions along the isolated intact large intestine (22 cm length). In short segments of distal colon, βCM-5 increased the tension and frequency of spontaneous contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. At 20 μM βCM-5 tension increased by 71 ± 17% and the frequency doubled (n = 9), effects inhibited by naloxone (n = 7) and therefore mediated by opioid receptors. In contrast 20 μM βCM-5 disrupted propagating contractions in the large intestine preparation. At 20 μM βCM-5 reduced the proportion of contractions initiated in the proximal colon reaching the rectum by 83 ± 11% (n = 5) and this effect was also inhibited by naloxone, consistent with altered GIT reported in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the isolated whole large intestine provides an ideal preparation that mimics the reduced propagation of GIT in vivo in response to an opioid agonist, whereas short colon segments did not. The findings of the current study reveal that preserving large segments of intact large intestine, and hence intact enteric neural circuitry provides an ideal in vitro model to investigate the effect of opioid receptor modulators on intestinal transit. © 2014 the Partner Organisations. Source
Barnett M.P.G.,Food and Bio based Products Group |
Cooney J.M.,Plant and Food Research Ltd. |
Dommels Y.E.M.,Plant and Food Research Ltd. |
Nones K.,Plant and Food Research Ltd. |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2013
Animal models are an important tool to understand the complex pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). This study tested the anti-inflammatory potential of a green tea extract rich in polyphenols (GrTP) in the colon of the multidrug resistance targeted mutation ( Mdr1a-/-) mouse model of IBD. Insights into mechanisms responsible for this reduction in inflammation were gained using transcriptome and proteome analyses. Mice were randomly assigned to an AIN-76A (control) or GrTP-enriched diet. At 21 or 24 weeks of age, a colonic histological injury score was determined for each mouse, colon mRNA transcript levels were assessed using microarrays, and colon protein expression was measured using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry protein identification. Mean colonic histological injury score of GrTP-fed Mdr1a-/- mice was significantly lower compared to those fed the control diet. Microarray and proteomics analyses showed reduced abundance of transcripts and proteins associated with immune and inflammatory response and fibrinogenesis pathways, and increased abundance of those associated with xenobiotic metabolism pathways in response to GrTP, suggesting that its anti-inflammatory activity is mediated by multiple molecular pathways. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 appear to be two key molecules which regulate these effects. These results support the view that dietary intake of polyphenols derived from green tea can ameliorate intestinal inflammation in the colon of a mouse model of IBD, and are in agreement with studies suggesting that consumption of green tea may reduce IBD symptoms and therefore play a part in an overall IBD treatment regimen. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source
Cooney J.M.,The Innovation Group |
Barnett M.P.G.,The Innovation Group |
Barnett M.P.G.,Food and Bio based Products Group |
Dommels Y.E.M.,National Center for Growth and Development |
And 8 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2016
The aim of this study was to provide insight into how curcumin reduces colon inflammation in the Mdr1a-/- mouse model of human inflammatory bowel disease using a combined transcriptomics and proteomics approach. Mdr1a-/- and FVB control mice were randomly assigned to an AIN-76A (control) diet or AIN-76A+0.2% curcumin. At 21 or 24weeks of age, colonic histological injury score (HIS) was determined, colon mRNA transcript levels were assessed using microarrays and colon protein expression was measured using 2D gel electrophoresis and LCMS protein identification. Colonic HIS of Mdr1a-/- mice fed the AIN-76A diet was higher (P<.001) than FVB mice fed the same diet; the curcumin-supplemented diet reduced colonic HIS (P<.05) in Mdr1a-/- mice. Microarray and proteomics analyses combined with new data analysis tools, such as the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis regulator effects analysis, showed that curcumin's antiinflammatory activity in Mdr1a-/- mouse colon may be mediated by activation of α-catenin, which has not previously been reported. We also show evidence to support curcumin's action via multiple molecular pathways including reduced immune response, increased xenobiotic metabolism, resolution of inflammation through decreased neutrophil migration and increased barrier remodeling. Key transcription factors and other regulatory molecules (ERK, FN1, TNFSF12 and PI3K complex) activated in inflammation were down-regulated by dietary intervention with curcumin. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source
Sengupta R.,Food and Bio based Products Group |
Sengupta R.,Riddet Institute |
Altermann E.,Riddet Institute |
Altermann E.,Agresearch Ltd. |
And 6 more authors.
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2013
Lactobacillus species can exert health promoting effects in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) through many mechanisms, which include pathogen inhibition, maintenance of microbial balance, immunomodulation, and enhancement of the epithelial barrier function. Different species of the genus Lactobacillus can evoke different responses in the host, and not all strains of the same species can be considered beneficial. Strain variations may be related to diversity of the cell surface architecture of lactobacilli and the bacteria's ability to express certain surface components or secrete specific compounds in response to the host environment. Lactobacilli are known to modify their surface structures in response to stress factors such as bile and low pH, and these adaptations may help their survival in the face of harsh environmental conditions encountered in the GIT. In recent years, multiple cell surface-associated molecules have been implicated in the adherence of lactobacilli to the GIT lining, immunomodulation, and protective effects on intestinal epithelial barrier function. Identification of the relevant bacterial ligands and their host receptors is imperative for a better understanding of the mechanisms through which lactobacilli exert their beneficial effects on human health. © 2013 Ranjita Sengupta et al. Source