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Rome, Italy
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Wang Q.,China Agricultural University | Zhao H.,China Agricultural University | He J.,China Agricultural University | Li H.,China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2016

During the operation of agricultural machinery, farmland soil compaction caused by the combination weight of tractor and implements resulted in reduction of soil porosity and increase of soil bulk density, which have a negative effect on soil tilth. The controlled traffic conservation tillage is the combination of controlled traffic tillage and conservation tillage, a tillage system takes measures as follows: straw mulching, seeding in no-till or minimum-till field, and separating the crop growth zone from the tractor track. To reduce soil compaction, improve the environmental conditions for plant growth and strengthen the technology convergence of agricultural machinery and agronomy, a no and minimum-till wheat planter for controlled traffic tillage was developed based on the requirements of mechanized conservation tillage technology. This individual profiling planter consists of a frame, straw chopping devices for anti-blocking, wedge-shaped openers for fertilization, double-disk openers for seeding, and seed & fertilizer boxes. The anti-blocking straw chopping devices was combined by a wedge shaped opener with Y and L type blades. The opener's blade front edge embedded into Y type blades' front fork (overlap depth is about 10 mm). But the two edges are non-interference. Y type blades crushed straw while kicking out the straw and stubble from opener shanks. L type blades are equipped on both sides of the opener's front edge, the included angle α of Y-type blade was set to 120° and L-type blade Φ was designed to 120°. Each opener has three sets of blades (three Y type blades and six L type blades). While the planter is working, the tractor would pull the planter with a forward speed of 3-5 km/h. The tractor tires and land wheels of planter would roll on the tractor track. Power from the tractor PTO shaft is transmitted to the driver cutter shaft trough the gearbox and power transmission system. The rotating cutter shaft would lead to the high-speed rotation of flails which chop the straws to help the wedge-shaped openers with furrowing and fertilizing. Subsequently, a double-disk opener would do the second-furrowing to accomplish seeding, pressing and soil-covering. A field experiment was conducted on June, 2011 in the conservation tillage experimental field located in Zhuozhou city, Hebei province. During the experiment, the planter showed stable working performance and good passing ability. The results also indicated that this planter could plant effectively under no and minimum-till, and all the indicators met the design requirements for no-till planter. According to the comparison experiments on two treatments, the controlled traffic tillage and uncontrolled traffic tillage, it was concluded that all the performance indicators under the controlled traffic tillage system were slightly superior to the ones under uncontrolled traffic tillage system, although the no and minimum till planter designed for controlled traffic tillage could also meet the seeding requirements under uncontrolled traffic tillage system. For controlled traffic tillage system, the average seeding depth was 3.6 cm with a qualified rate of 87.9%, and the average fertilizer application depth was 8.2 cm with a qualified rate of 84.8%, which met the design requirements. The two-year experiment results indicated that, compared with the uncontrolled traffic tillage, the controlled traffic tillage could save fuel consumption by 22.49% because of better tire adhesion. It might proved that the controlled traffic conservation tillage technology could improve the soil structure and reduce the costs significantly. Controlled traffic no and minimum-till seeding technique is a technology which not only improve the seeding quality, but also save the fuel, and finally realize the energy conservation and emission reduction. With the promotion of land circulation policy, this research result could be of value for the scale cultivation and efficient management of land. © 2016, Editorial Department of the Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved.


Sattari S.Z.,Wageningen University | Sattari S.Z.,Rothamsted Research | Bouwman A.F.,University Utrecht | Bouwman A.F.,PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency | And 5 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2016

Grasslands provide grass and fodder to sustain the growing need for ruminant meat and milk. Soil nutrients in grasslands are removed through withdrawal in these livestock products and through animal manure that originates from grasslands and is spread in croplands. This leads to loss of soil fertility, because globally most grasslands receive no mineral fertilizer. Here we show that phosphorus (P) inputs (mineral and organic) in global grasslands will have to increase more than fourfold in 2050 relative to 2005 to achieve an anticipated 80% increase in grass production (for milk and meat), while maintaining the soil P status. Combined with requirements for cropland, we estimate that mineral P fertilizer use must double by 2050 to sustain future crop and grassland production. Our findings point to the need to better understand the role of grasslands and their soil P status and their importance for global food security.


Confalonieri R.,University of Milan | Donatelli M.,Research Center for Industrial Crops | Donatelli M.,European Commission | Bregaglio S.,University of Milan | And 2 more authors.
iEMSs 2012 - Managing Resources of a Limited Planet: Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Meeting of the International Environmental Modelling and Software Society | Year: 2012

The Agro-ecological Zones Simulator (AZS) is a platform for data and models sharing for scientists and policy makers, facilitating the analysis of climate change impacts and the identification of possible response strategies through a comprehensive regional-level analysis comprised of: (i) Geo-referenced climate, soil and terrain data, combined into a land resources database;(ii) Crop suitability assessment and land productivity of cropping systems; (iii) Procedures for calculating the potential agronomically attainable yield; (iv) Procedures for computing actual yields as limited by water availability and management, biotic and abiotic factors; and (v) Selected agricultural production systems with defined input and management relationships, crop-specific environmental requirements and adaptability characteristics. The software core of the platform is given by an instance of the BioMA platform. The platform facilitates the evaluation of the impacts of projected changes in temperature, precipitation and evaporative demands on crop growth and function, including investigations of adaptation potentials by means of management optimization and use of available or improved crop varieties. Simulations are performed using modelling solutions based on extensible, multi-model components for crop growth and development, soil water dynamics, biotic (e.g., diseases) and abiotic (e.g., ozone concentration, frost events) stressors, hourly and daily weather variable generation, automatic management practices, and with a generic component implementing different approaches for crop suitability. The inclusion of biotic and abiotic factors in modelling solutions allows for explicit computations of changing pressures on crops under a changing climate, increasing the realism of the modeled systems. AZS is currently operational for Latin America and Caribe; it was recently used by the World Bank's Agriculture and Rural Development of Latin America for the analysis of climate change impacts on four major crops: wheat, maize, rice and soybean. The results of those simulations and analysis are presented as a first application of the AZS platform.,.


Wamalwa K.,Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations | Castiello M.,Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations | Ombui J.N.,University of Nairobi | Gathuma J.,University of Nairobi
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

The objective of the study was to investigate and assess the impact of trainings on the levels of meat contamination produced from local livestock slaughter facilities in the North-West region of Somalia (Somaliland). The investigation considered slaughter facilities where workers had been trained or not. The survey was carried out in four local slaughter facilities. A pre-tested questionnaire on abattoir hygiene and food safety standards was administered to International Aid Organizations, government officials, abattoir workers and supervisors. In addition, a total of 320 surface meat swab samples were collected from randomly selected small ruminant carcasses slaughtered from four purposefully selected local slaughter facilities. The samples were analyzed at Analabs laboratories in Nairobi, Kenya, for total viable counts, total coliforms count and presence of Salmonella species. Meat contamination risk factors associated with hygiene practices based on training offered or not was identified. It was noted that slaughter facilities where abattoir workers had not received trainings on minimum meat hygiene standards and quality assurance systems of good hygiene practices and sanitary standard operating procedures produced carcasses with high levels of bacterial contamination in comparison with those where workers had received the said trainings. The laboratory results were in agreement with poor hygiene meat handling practices and lack of compliance with minimum meat hygiene and food safety standards in Berbera and Burao local livestock slaughter facilities where personnel had not been trained. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Peyre M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Choisy M.,Montpellier University | Sobhy H.,Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations | Kilany W.H.,Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations | And 8 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2016

The immunity profile against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the commercial poultry value chain network in Egypt was modeled with the use of different vaccination scenarios. The model estimated the vaccination coverage, the protective seroconversion level, and the duration of immunity for each node of the network and vaccination scenario. Partial budget analysis was used to compare the benefit-cost of the different vaccination scenarios. The model predicted that targeting day-old chick avian influenza (AI) vaccination in industrial and large hatcheries would increase immunity levels in the overall poultry population in Egypt and especially in small commercial poultry farms (from ,30% to .60%). This strategy was shown to be more efficient than the current strategy of using inactivated vaccines. Improving HPAI control in the commercial poultry sector in Egypt would have a positive impact to improve disease control.


Dernini S.,Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations | Meybeck A.,Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations | Burlingame B.,Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations | Gitz V.,Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations | And 4 more authors.
New Medit | Year: 2013

The concept of sustainable diets has been proposed to characterize dietary patterns and assess their sustainability in different agro-ecological zones. This paper describes the work conducted since 2010 to develop a methodological approach to be used for assessing the sustainability of dietary patterns. It identifies four main areas to be considered and provides a first list of indicators or families of indicators to be used and tested. The Mediterranean diet, scientifically well-characterized as a healthy dietary pattern, appreciated for its lower environmental impact and acknowledged as a cultural heritage, is used here as a model to assess sustainability of diets and food consumption patterns in the Mediterranean area. The methodological approach described here will be further refined and tested to be used to assess sustainability of diets and food consumption patterns in different contexts.


Geser G.,Salzburg Research | Keizer J.,Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations | Mulrenin A.,Salzburg Research
Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), Proceedings - Series of the Gesellschaft fur Informatik (GI) | Year: 2013

The agINFRA project aims to provide the agricultural research community with e-infrastructure and services for open data access, sharing and re-use. This paper introduces the project's objectives and context, technical elements as well as the envisaged range of data resources. Furthermore opportunities for participation are highlighted.


Gerber P.J.,Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations
Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience | Year: 2013

Although livestock production accounts for a sizeable share of global greenhouse gas emissions, numerous technical options have been identified to mitigate these emissions. In this review, a subset of these options, which have proven to be effective, are discussed. These include measures to reduce CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation by ruminants, the largest single emission source from the global livestock sector, and for reducing CH4 and N2O emissions from manure. A unique feature of this review is the high level of attention given to interactions between mitigation options and productivity. Among the feed supplement options for lowering enteric emissions, dietary lipids, nitrates and ionophores are identified as the most effective. Forage quality, feed processing and precision feeding have the best prospects among the various available feed and feed management measures. With regard to manure, dietary measures that reduce the amount of N excreted (e.g. better matching of dietary protein to animal needs), shift N excretion from urine to faeces (e.g. tannin inclusion at low levels) and reduce the amount of fermentable organic matter excreted are recommended. Among the many 'end-of-pipe' measures available for manure management, approaches that capture and/or process CH4 emissions during storage (e.g. anaerobic digestion, biofiltration, composting), as well as subsurface injection of manure, are among the most encouraging options flagged in this section of the review. The importance of a multiple gas perspective is critical when assessing mitigation potentials, because most of the options reviewed show strong interactions among sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The paper reviews current knowledge on potential pollution swapping, whereby the reduction of one GHG or emission source leads to unintended increases in another.


PubMed | Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2012

The objective of the study was to investigate and assess the impact of trainings on the levels of meat contamination produced from local livestock slaughter facilities in the North-West region of Somalia (Somaliland). The investigation considered slaughter facilities where workers had been trained or not. The survey was carried out in four local slaughter facilities. A pre-tested questionnaire on abattoir hygiene and food safety standards was administered to International Aid Organizations, government officials, abattoir workers and supervisors. In addition, a total of 320 surface meat swab samples were collected from randomly selected small ruminant carcasses slaughtered from four purposefully selected local slaughter facilities. The samples were analyzed at Analabs laboratories in Nairobi, Kenya, for total viable counts, total coliforms count and presence of Salmonella species. Meat contamination risk factors associated with hygiene practices based on training offered or not was identified. It was noted that slaughter facilities where abattoir workers had not received trainings on minimum meat hygiene standards and quality assurance systems of good hygiene practices and sanitary standard operating procedures produced carcasses with high levels of bacterial contamination in comparison with those where workers had received the said trainings. The laboratory results were in agreement with poor hygiene meat handling practices and lack of compliance with minimum meat hygiene and food safety standards in Berbera and Burao local livestock slaughter facilities where personnel had not been trained.


PubMed | Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations
Type: | Journal: Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience | Year: 2013

Although livestock production accounts for a sizeable share of global greenhouse gas emissions, numerous technical options have been identified to mitigate these emissions. In this review, a subset of these options, which have proven to be effective, are discussed. These include measures to reduce CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation by ruminants, the largest single emission source from the global livestock sector, and for reducing CH4 and N2O emissions from manure. A unique feature of this review is the high level of attention given to interactions between mitigation options and productivity. Among the feed supplement options for lowering enteric emissions, dietary lipids, nitrates and ionophores are identified as the most effective. Forage quality, feed processing and precision feeding have the best prospects among the various available feed and feed management measures. With regard to manure, dietary measures that reduce the amount of N excreted (e.g. better matching of dietary protein to animal needs), shift N excretion from urine to faeces (e.g. tannin inclusion at low levels) and reduce the amount of fermentable organic matter excreted are recommended. Among the many end-of-pipe measures available for manure management, approaches that capture and/or process CH4 emissions during storage (e.g. anaerobic digestion, biofiltration, composting), as well as subsurface injection of manure, are among the most encouraging options flagged in this section of the review. The importance of a multiple gas perspective is critical when assessing mitigation potentials, because most of the options reviewed show strong interactions among sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The paper reviews current knowledge on potential pollution swapping, whereby the reduction of one GHG or emission source leads to unintended increases in another.

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