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Gerber P.J.,Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations
Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience | Year: 2013

Although livestock production accounts for a sizeable share of global greenhouse gas emissions, numerous technical options have been identified to mitigate these emissions. In this review, a subset of these options, which have proven to be effective, are discussed. These include measures to reduce CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation by ruminants, the largest single emission source from the global livestock sector, and for reducing CH4 and N2O emissions from manure. A unique feature of this review is the high level of attention given to interactions between mitigation options and productivity. Among the feed supplement options for lowering enteric emissions, dietary lipids, nitrates and ionophores are identified as the most effective. Forage quality, feed processing and precision feeding have the best prospects among the various available feed and feed management measures. With regard to manure, dietary measures that reduce the amount of N excreted (e.g. better matching of dietary protein to animal needs), shift N excretion from urine to faeces (e.g. tannin inclusion at low levels) and reduce the amount of fermentable organic matter excreted are recommended. Among the many 'end-of-pipe' measures available for manure management, approaches that capture and/or process CH4 emissions during storage (e.g. anaerobic digestion, biofiltration, composting), as well as subsurface injection of manure, are among the most encouraging options flagged in this section of the review. The importance of a multiple gas perspective is critical when assessing mitigation potentials, because most of the options reviewed show strong interactions among sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The paper reviews current knowledge on potential pollution swapping, whereby the reduction of one GHG or emission source leads to unintended increases in another. Source

Sutcliffe O.B.,University of Strathclyde | Sutcliffe O.B.,Manchester Metropolitan University | Skellern G.G.,University of Strathclyde | Araya F.,University of Strathclyde | And 6 more authors.
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2014

African animal trypanosomosis is arguably the most important animal disease impairing livestock agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to vector control, the use of trypanocidal drugs is important in controlling the impact of the disease on animal health and production in most sub-Saharan countries. However, there are no internationally agreed standards (pharmacopoeia-type monographs or documented product specifications) for the quality control of these compounds. This means that it is impossible to establish independent quality control and quality assurance standards for these agents. An international alliance between the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Federation for Animal Health, the Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines, the University of Strathclyde and the International Atomic Energy Agency (with critical support from the World Organisation for Animal Health) was established to develop quality control and quality assurance standards fortrypanocidal drugs, with the aim of transferring these methodologies to two control laboratories in sub-Saharan Africa that will serve as reference institutions for their respective regions. The work of the international alliance will allow development of control measures against sub-standard or counterfeit trypanocidal drugs for treatment of trypanosome infection. Monographs on diminazene aceturate (synonym: diminazene diaceturate), isometamidium chloride hydrochloride, homidium chloride and bromide salts and their relevant veterinary formulations for these agents are given in the annex to this paper. However, the authors do not recommend use of homidium bromide and chloride, because of their proven mutagenic properties in some animal test models and their suspected carcinogenic properties. Source

Sattari S.Z.,Wageningen University | Sattari S.Z.,Rothamsted Research | Bouwman A.F.,University Utrecht | Bouwman A.F.,PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency | And 5 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2016

Grasslands provide grass and fodder to sustain the growing need for ruminant meat and milk. Soil nutrients in grasslands are removed through withdrawal in these livestock products and through animal manure that originates from grasslands and is spread in croplands. This leads to loss of soil fertility, because globally most grasslands receive no mineral fertilizer. Here we show that phosphorus (P) inputs (mineral and organic) in global grasslands will have to increase more than fourfold in 2050 relative to 2005 to achieve an anticipated 80% increase in grass production (for milk and meat), while maintaining the soil P status. Combined with requirements for cropland, we estimate that mineral P fertilizer use must double by 2050 to sustain future crop and grassland production. Our findings point to the need to better understand the role of grasslands and their soil P status and their importance for global food security. Source

Confalonieri R.,University of Milan | Donatelli M.,Research Center for Industrial Crops | Donatelli M.,European Commission | Bregaglio S.,University of Milan | And 2 more authors.
iEMSs 2012 - Managing Resources of a Limited Planet: Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Meeting of the International Environmental Modelling and Software Society | Year: 2012

The Agro-ecological Zones Simulator (AZS) is a platform for data and models sharing for scientists and policy makers, facilitating the analysis of climate change impacts and the identification of possible response strategies through a comprehensive regional-level analysis comprised of: (i) Geo-referenced climate, soil and terrain data, combined into a land resources database;(ii) Crop suitability assessment and land productivity of cropping systems; (iii) Procedures for calculating the potential agronomically attainable yield; (iv) Procedures for computing actual yields as limited by water availability and management, biotic and abiotic factors; and (v) Selected agricultural production systems with defined input and management relationships, crop-specific environmental requirements and adaptability characteristics. The software core of the platform is given by an instance of the BioMA platform. The platform facilitates the evaluation of the impacts of projected changes in temperature, precipitation and evaporative demands on crop growth and function, including investigations of adaptation potentials by means of management optimization and use of available or improved crop varieties. Simulations are performed using modelling solutions based on extensible, multi-model components for crop growth and development, soil water dynamics, biotic (e.g., diseases) and abiotic (e.g., ozone concentration, frost events) stressors, hourly and daily weather variable generation, automatic management practices, and with a generic component implementing different approaches for crop suitability. The inclusion of biotic and abiotic factors in modelling solutions allows for explicit computations of changing pressures on crops under a changing climate, increasing the realism of the modeled systems. AZS is currently operational for Latin America and Caribe; it was recently used by the World Bank's Agriculture and Rural Development of Latin America for the analysis of climate change impacts on four major crops: wheat, maize, rice and soybean. The results of those simulations and analysis are presented as a first application of the AZS platform.,. Source

Geser G.,Salzburg Research | Keizer J.,Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations | Mulrenin A.,Salzburg Research
Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), Proceedings - Series of the Gesellschaft fur Informatik (GI) | Year: 2013

The agINFRA project aims to provide the agricultural research community with e-infrastructure and services for open data access, sharing and re-use. This paper introduces the project's objectives and context, technical elements as well as the envisaged range of data resources. Furthermore opportunities for participation are highlighted. Source

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