Time filter

Source Type

News Article | May 11, 2017
Site: www.gizmag.com

In a proof-of-concept study, scientists at the University of Granada have shown how an ancestral protein dating to as far back as four billion years can protect E. coli from a bacteria-infecting virus (Credit: University of Granada) In a conventional arms race, amassing the most advanced intel and weaponry is one way to stay ahead of the enemy. However in the ongoing evolutionary battle between host cells and viruses, scientists in Spain have found that the answer to advancing in this war could lie in taking a step back in time – all the way to the early beginnings of life. When a virus infects a cell, it hijacks the host's proteins to replicate itself. So why not deactivate these proteins to protect against infection? That's because they're needed in several cellular functions in the host and turning them off can cause harm. In light of this, Jose Sanchez-Ruiz and his team at the University of Granada decided to try a different tack by replacing one of these proteins with an ancestral version. Their hypothesis was that since modern pathogens have co-evolved with the proteins to become what they are today, these ancient variants would be too distant on an evolutionary scale for them to co-opt. At the same time, these ancestral proteins would not have any adverse effects on the cell. In other words, they would be able to boost viral resistance without harming the host. The researchers decided to focus on the protein thioredoxin, a key player in cellular reactions and one that has been around since the origin of life. More importantly, it is one of the proteins that a virus recruits in its command-and conquer-mission. Without it, the virus cannot replicate itself. In their experiments, the researchers created seven variants of primordial thioredoxins that were plucked from four billion years of evolution and were surprised to find that they were able to function in modern E. coli bacteria, albeit with varying degrees of success. According to the study, the thioredoxin that dated back to around 2.5 billion years was the most stable. "The modern organism is a completely different cellular environment," explains researcher Asunción Delgado, who led the experiments. "Ancestral thioredoxins had different molecular partners, different everything. The farther back we get from present, the less they work in a modern organism. But even when we get back to close to the origin of life, they still show some functionality." More importantly, when the researchers introduced the virus T7 to the altered bacteria, they found that it was unable to hijack the primordial thioredoxin and replicate itself, thus proving their hypothesis. Senior author Sanchez-Ruiz likens the co-evolution of pathogen and host as "an arms race," one in which the latter has been on the losing end due to its inability to evade viral hijacking. "Thioredoxin has been changing in evolution to avoid being hijacked by the virus, and the virus has been evolving to hijack the protein," he says, adding that going back in time and resurrecting ancient proteins enables scientists to "spoil all of the virus' strategy." One field they see benefiting from this discovery is agriculture. While human-infecting viruses tend to get all the attention, crop-killing pathogens actually cause far more damage in the form of famines and mass starvation, they point out. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, an estimated 20 to 40 percent of the world's crops are lost each year due to damage caused by pests and disease. Apart from helping boost viral resistance, the University of Granada researchers say that using ancestral variants of proteins also offers another benefit: It could help stave off crop-killing viruses without introducing dramatically different elements. "If this is applied to plants, it wouldn't be genes from ancient bacteria … it would be the ancestral version of a gene from the same plant," says Sanchez-Ruiz. "This is genetic alteration, of course, but it is a mild genetic alteration. This is not like having a gene from one species being transferred to a different species. Also, this would not be like Jurassic Park. It would just be a comparatively small change in a gene that the plant already has." On another note, further studies could also shed light on how evolution works on a molecular level. "What we can do is let the virus evolve to adapt to the ancestral protein and then do the experiment in reverse," says Sanchez-Ruiz. "Once it's adapted to the ancestral protein, we can test how it reacts to the modern protein. We can see if it repeats the evolution. So it would be kind of a molecular version of this Stephen J. Gould 'replaying the tape of life' idea." The study was published in Cell Reports. Sources: University of Granada (in Spanish); Cell Press via Phys.org


News Article | May 11, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

In just a few years, there will be 9 billion people on the Earth. All those mouths will demand food – and especially animal protein. But the current waste produced by mass farming of beef, pork, chicken and other meats may prove unsustainable for a teeming, hungry human population. The solution could be bugs, many have argued. They have more nutritional “bang for the buck” – and they could help feed the growing masses, some food experts say. The environmental impacts of cricket “livestock” was compared to broiler chickens in Thailand, as published recently in the Journal of Cleaner Production. The verdict: the crickets are better than the chicken population for a host of environmental factors. “We have shown here that (crickets) can be produced more environmentally sustainably than meat,” said Afton Halloran of the University of Copenhagen, the lead author. “(This) means that they represent a massive potential for lowering the impact of food production.” The comparison was made on two functional units: a kilogram of edible mass, and a kilogram of protein in that edible mass. The net environmental effect was examined among 15 separate categories, including global-warming potential, resource depletion and eutrophication. Virtually every category showed lower impact from cricket “farming.” But there could be improvements. Since the Thai farmers have taken to using commercial chicken feeds to fatten the crickets, it has proven less efficient than allowing crickets to graze on wild sources of plant matter. Thailand has had a cricket-food industry for approximately 20 years, and currently includes 20,000 or more farms. The concept of entomophagy, or insect-eating, is not a new one. Already an estimated 2 billion people in Asia, Africa and Latin America incorporate an estimated variety of 2,000 bug species into their diet. (Only nine of those are currently farmed – the rest are gathered from the wild, experts say). The United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization and other have extolled expanding the use of insects, since livestock production of beef, chicken and other meats has caused over-grazing, pollution and forest degradation. Insects, on the other hand, convert resources very efficiently, from farm to table, the UN officials argued in a recent report. “Insects are everywhere and they reproduce quickly, and they have high growth and feed conversion rates and a low environmental footprint over their entire life cycle,” the report concludes. “They are nutritious, with high protein, fat and mineral contents. They can be reared on waste streams like food waste. Moreover, they can be eaten whole or ground into a powder or paste, and incorporated into other foods.”


News Article | May 23, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

•         •          "Superfruits" is a marketing term used to increase the sale of some special fruits that have extra nutritional benefits when compared to other fruits. •         •          Organization (FAO), the scientific definition of "superfruit" is based on two criteria – the nutritive value and the extra nutritional benefits. •         •          The global processed superfruits market accounted for US$ 38.1 Bn in 2015 and has been estimated to reach US$ 40.1 Bn by 2016 end, reflecting a Y-o-Y growth rate of 5.2%. •         •          The global processed superfruits market accounted for US$ 38.1 Bn in 2015 and has been estimated to reach US$ 40.1 Bn by 2016 end, reflecting a Y-o-Y growth rate of 5.2%. •         •          In terms of volume, the global processed superfruits market is projected to reach 18 Mn tons by 2026 end, exhibiting a CAGR of 5.9% over the forecast period (2016 – 2026). "Superfruits" is a marketing term used to increase the sale of some special fruits that have extra nutritional benefits when compared to other fruits. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the scientific definition of "superfruit" is based on two criteria – the nutritive value and the extra nutritional benefits. Antioxidant capacity is the most widely recognised bioactive attribute of a superfruit. The global processed superfruits market accounted for US$ 38.1 Bn in 2015 and has been estimated to reach US$ 40.1 Bn by 2016 end, reflecting a Y-o-Y growth rate of 5.2%. In terms of volume, the global processed superfruits market is projected to reach 18 Mn tons by 2026 end, exhibiting a CAGR of 5.9% over the forecast period (2016 – 2026). Significant demand for superfruits based antioxidants expected to drive overall market growth Growth of the global processed superfruits market is expected to be driven by an increasing demand for antioxidant-rich superfruits. Consumer inclination towards natural food products such as frozen fruits and an increasing demand for ready-to-eat (RTE) foods and ready-to-drink (RTD) beverages is further likely to boost market growth. The multiple uses of superfruits as natural food colouring, natural food flavouring, and other purposes besides dietary food and functional ingredients is another key driver for the growth of the global processed superfruits market. However, high costs associated with the production, processing, and preservation of processed superfruits and a lack of consistency in terms of superfruits flavour is likely to pose challenges and restrict the growth of the global processed superfruits market over the forecast period. Powder form segment likely to hold the highest market share throughout the forecast period The Powder segment accounted for US$ 26.84 Bn in 2015 and this is estimated to reach US$ 28.21 Bn by the end of 2016, reflecting a growth rate of 5.1%. The Liquid segment is anticipated to reach 94,207 tons in volume by the end of 2026, registering a volume CAGR of 4.9% during the forecast period. Beverages application segment likely to account for the highest market share between 2016 and 2026 The Beverages segment is anticipated to account for a market share of 65.8% of the global processed superfruits market by the end of 2016. The Food segment is estimated to reach a market valuation of US$ 20.75 Bn by 2026 and register a CAGR of 5.3% during the forecast period. APEJ market slated to be the fastest growing market throughout the forecast period The APEJ processed superfruits market is estimated to reach 3,422,838 tons in terms of volume by the end of 2026, registering a healthy volume CAGR of 5.9% during the forecast period. In 2015, the North America processed superfruits market was valued at US$ 10.52 Bn, which has been estimated to reach US$ 11.11 Bn by 2016 end, reflecting a growth rate of 5.6%. The Latin America processed superfruits market accounted for US$ 4,043.8 Mn in 2015, and is estimated to increase to US$ 4,268.2 Mn by the end of 2016, reflecting a growth rate of 5.6%. The Japan processed superfruits market is anticipated to represent absolute $ opportunity of US$ 94.7 Mn in 2016 over 2015. Global processed superfruits market players are adopting robust growth strategies to compete in the market Read the full report: http://www.reportlinker.com/p04394416/Processed-Superfruits-Market-Global-Industry-Analysis-and-Opportunity-Assessment.htmlAbout Reportlinker ReportLinker is an award-winning market research solution. Reportlinker finds and organizes the latest industry data so you get all the market research you need - instantly, in one place. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/processed-superfruits-market-is-projected-to-reach-18-million-tons-by-2026-300462071.html


News Article | May 25, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

ClinicalKey is Elsevier's premier clinical search engine, providing access to the most current scientific and medical information, and it will help Research4Life meet the 2012 World Health Organization (WHO) declaration that health policies and practices globally should be informed by the best research evidence. "In 2012 the WHO Strategy on Research declared that health policies and practices globally should be informed by the best research evidence - and so we are delighted that ClinicalKey will help us grow the evidence-based medicine materials available for low- and middle-income countries through Hinari and provide an expanded basis for the informed decision-making of practitioners and policymakers," said Kimberly Parker, Hinari Programme Manager. Hinari is part of the Research4Life program managed by the WHO, in partnership with Yale University, and provides access to health and medical research. As a founding partner of Research4Life, Elsevier contributes more than a quarter of the 77,000 peer-reviewed journals, books and scholarly databases that are available through the program. Access to ClinicalKey adds to an existing collection of research resources offered by Elsevier, including ScienceDirect and Scopus. Elsevier also provides technical, strategic and communications expertise to help advance and promote Research4Life. Dr. Kristina Krohn, Health Frontiers Field Representative in Laos, said she was gratified to see how the Lao doctors reacted the first time they had access to medical journal articles through Hinari. "The Lao resident doctors devoured everything," said Dr. Krohn. "Hopefully ClinicalKey can help them sort through the medical literature without getting overwhelmed by the sheer amount of information available." Dr. John Danaher, President of Clinical Solutions at Elsevier, said, "Making ClinicalKey available to doctors and nurses in developing countries through Research4Life will help those medical professionals utilize the latest evidence-based clinical information to achieve the best outcomes for their patients." Adding ClinicalKey to Research4Life follows Elsevier's recent agreement to provide ClinicalKey to Doctors without Borders and strengthens Elsevier's commitment to the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals. Research4Life is a public-private partnership between over 200 international scientific publishers, the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers (STM), Cornell and Yale Universities and several technology partners. The goal of Research4Life is to reduce the knowledge gap between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries by providing affordable access to critical scientific research. Since 2002, the four programmes - Research for Health (Hinari), Research in Agriculture (AGORA), Research in the Environment (OARE) and Research for Development and Innovation (ARDI) - have provided researchers at some 8000 institutions in more than 100 low- and middle-income countries with free or low-cost online access to 77,000 leading journals and books in the fields of health, agriculture, environment, and applied sciences. www.research4life.org Elsevier is a global information analytics company that helps institutions and professionals progress science, advance healthcare and improve performance for the benefit of humanity. Elsevier provides digital solutions and tools in the areas of strategic research management, R&D performance, clinical decision support, and professional education; including ScienceDirect, Scopus, ClinicalKey and Sherpath. Elsevier publishes over 2,500 digitized journals, including The Lancet and Cell, more than 35,000 e-book titles and many iconic reference works, including Gray's Anatomy. Elsevier is part of RELX Group, a global provider of information and analytics for professionals and business customers across industries. www.elsevier.com


Livestock diseases remain a threat to achieving food security and are a source of economic losses for people who depend on livestock for their livelihood. Beatrice Wanjiku, a smallholder poultry farmer in Thika, Kenya, realizes the challenges of disease prevalence, noting, "My main challenge has been mycoplasma (infection), where the birds would develop the condition at three months (old). This would eventually lead to a drop in production." "Elanco is a cause-driven organization and our vision of Food and Companionship Enriching Life is at the core of why we do what we do. We are committed to addressing global hunger by supporting efforts that ensure nutritious food is accessible and affordable to all. The grant from the foundation will further advance our vision by improving the lives of smallholder farmers through sustainable livestock production," said Jeffrey N. Simmons, president, Elanco Animal Health." "The more people with whom we can share our knowledge and expertise and provide access to products, the more impact we can have on their animals," said Comfort Phiri, Elanco business unit manager for Sub-Saharan Africa. "Since this education translates into positive impacts on farmers and their families for many generations, it's a privilege for me to be on this team and to have the opportunity to do social good and business good." According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 32 percent of the people in East Africa are undernourished1 and 40 percent of those living in sub-Saharan Africa are living on less than $1.25 per day2. In East Africa, 18 percent of children are underweight.3 Through this collaboration, Elanco intends to apply the learnings from East Africa to other geographies and continue its leadership in food security efforts. About Elanco Elanco provides comprehensive products and knowledge services to improve animal health and food-animal production in more than 70 countries around the world. We value innovation, both in scientific research and daily operations, and strive to cultivate a collaborative work environment for more than 6,500 employees worldwide. Together with our customers, we are committed to raising awareness about global food security, and celebrating and supporting the human-animal bond. Founded in 1954, Elanco is a division of Eli Lilly and Company. Our worldwide headquarters and research facilities are located in Greenfield, Indiana. Visit us at Elanco.com. 1 New M49 country classification adopted by the UN – a list of countries included is available in Table A1.1 in Annex and at http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49regin.htm 2,3 World Food Summit goal: halve, between 1990-92 and 2015, the number of people undernourished. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/elanco-animal-health-works-to-bring-products-to-small-holder-farmers-increasing-food-security-in-east-africa-300462813.html


News Article | May 25, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Physicians, nurses and other healthcare professionals in under-resourced communities around the world to receive access to the latest clinical information Philadelphia, PA, May 25, 2017 - Elsevier, the information analytics company specializing in science and health, will add ClinicalKey to its global research and health resources available through Research4Life starting in June 2017. The expansion of the Research4Life access program with ClinicalKey benefits healthcare professionals in under-resourced, low- and middle-income communities around the globe. ClinicalKey is Elsevier's premier clinical search engine, providing access to the most current scientific and medical information, and it will help Research4Life meet the 2012 World Health Organization (WHO) declaration that health policies and practices globally should be informed by the best research evidence. "In 2012 the WHO Strategy on Research declared that health policies and practices globally should be informed by the best research evidence - and so we are delighted that ClinicalKey will help us grow the evidence-based medicine materials available for low- and middle-income countries through Hinari and provide an expanded basis for the informed decision-making of practitioners and policymakers," said Kimberly Parker, Hinari Programme Manager. Hinari is part of the Research4Life program managed by the WHO, in partnership with Yale University, and provides access to health and medical research. As a founding partner of Research4Life, Elsevier contributes more than a quarter of the 77,000 peer-reviewed journals, books and scholarly databases that are available through the program. Access to ClinicalKey adds to an existing collection of research resources offered by Elsevier, including ScienceDirect and Scopus. Elsevier also provides technical, strategic and communications expertise to help advance and promote Research4Life. Dr. Kristina Krohn, Health Frontiers Field Representative in Laos, said she was gratified to see how the Lao doctors reacted the first time they had access to medical journal articles through Hinari. "The Lao resident doctors devoured everything," said Dr. Krohn. "Hopefully ClinicalKey can help them sort through the medical literature without getting overwhelmed by the sheer amount of information available." Dr. John Danaher, President of Clinical Solutions at Elsevier, said, "Making ClinicalKey available to doctors and nurses in developing countries through Research4Life will help those medical professionals utilize the latest evidence-based clinical information to achieve the best outcomes for their patients." Adding ClinicalKey to Research4Life follows Elsevier's recent agreement to provide ClinicalKey to Doctors without Borders and strengthens Elsevier's commitment to the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals. Research4Life is a public-private partnership between over 200 international scientific publishers, the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers (STM), Cornell and Yale Universities and several technology partners. The goal of Research4Life is to reduce the knowledge gap between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries by providing affordable access to critical scientific research. Since 2002, the four programmes - Research for Health (Hinari), Research in Agriculture (AGORA), Research in the Environment (OARE) and Research for Development and Innovation (ARDI) - have provided researchers at some 8000 institutions in more than 100 low- and middle-income countries with free or low-cost online access to 77,000 leading journals and books in the fields of health, agriculture, environment, and applied sciences. http://www. Elsevier is a global information analytics company that helps institutions and professionals progress science, advance healthcare and improve performance for the benefit of humanity. Elsevier provides digital solutions and tools in the areas of strategic research management, R&D performance, clinical decision support, and professional education; including ScienceDirect, Scopus, ClinicalKey and Sherpath. Elsevier publishes over 2,500 digitized journals, including The Lancet and Cell, more than 35,000 e-book titles and many iconic reference works, including Gray's Anatomy. Elsevier is part of RELX Group, a global provider of information and analytics for professionals and business customers across industries. http://www.


News Article | May 25, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.co.uk

ClinicalKey is Elsevier's premier clinical search engine, providing access to the most current scientific and medical information, and it will help Research4Life meet the 2012 World Health Organization (WHO) declaration that health policies and practices globally should be informed by the best research evidence. "In 2012 the WHO Strategy on Research declared that health policies and practices globally should be informed by the best research evidence - and so we are delighted that ClinicalKey will help us grow the evidence-based medicine materials available for low- and middle-income countries through Hinari and provide an expanded basis for the informed decision-making of practitioners and policymakers," said Kimberly Parker, Hinari Programme Manager. Hinari is part of the Research4Life program managed by the WHO, in partnership with Yale University, and provides access to health and medical research. As a founding partner of Research4Life, Elsevier contributes more than a quarter of the 77,000 peer-reviewed journals, books and scholarly databases that are available through the program. Access to ClinicalKey adds to an existing collection of research resources offered by Elsevier, including ScienceDirect and Scopus. Elsevier also provides technical, strategic and communications expertise to help advance and promote Research4Life. Dr. Kristina Krohn, Health Frontiers Field Representative in Laos, said she was gratified to see how the Lao doctors reacted the first time they had access to medical journal articles through Hinari. "The Lao resident doctors devoured everything," said Dr. Krohn. "Hopefully ClinicalKey can help them sort through the medical literature without getting overwhelmed by the sheer amount of information available." Dr. John Danaher, President of Clinical Solutions at Elsevier, said, "Making ClinicalKey available to doctors and nurses in developing countries through Research4Life will help those medical professionals utilize the latest evidence-based clinical information to achieve the best outcomes for their patients." Adding ClinicalKey to Research4Life follows Elsevier's recent agreement to provide ClinicalKey to Doctors without Borders and strengthens Elsevier's commitment to the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals. Research4Life is a public-private partnership between over 200 international scientific publishers, the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers (STM), Cornell and Yale Universities and several technology partners. The goal of Research4Life is to reduce the knowledge gap between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries by providing affordable access to critical scientific research. Since 2002, the four programmes - Research for Health (Hinari), Research in Agriculture (AGORA), Research in the Environment (OARE) and Research for Development and Innovation (ARDI) - have provided researchers at some 8000 institutions in more than 100 low- and middle-income countries with free or low-cost online access to 77,000 leading journals and books in the fields of health, agriculture, environment, and applied sciences. www.research4life.org Elsevier is a global information analytics company that helps institutions and professionals progress science, advance healthcare and improve performance for the benefit of humanity. Elsevier provides digital solutions and tools in the areas of strategic research management, R&D performance, clinical decision support, and professional education; including ScienceDirect, Scopus, ClinicalKey and Sherpath. Elsevier publishes over 2,500 digitized journals, including The Lancet and Cell, more than 35,000 e-book titles and many iconic reference works, including Gray's Anatomy. Elsevier is part of RELX Group, a global provider of information and analytics for professionals and business customers across industries. www.elsevier.com

Loading Food and Agriculture Organization collaborators
Loading Food and Agriculture Organization collaborators