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Cacho O.J.,University of New England of Australia | Lipper L.,Food and Agriculture Organization | Moss J.,University of New England of Australia
Ecological Economics | Year: 2013

The land-use change and forestry sector can be a cost-effective contributor to climate mitigation in at least three ways: providing carbon offsets through carbon sequestration in biomass and soils, reducing emissions of methane and other greenhouse gases, and producing biofuels that replace fossil fuels. The presence of carbon markets should help encourage these activities; however, most carbon trades to date have occurred in the energy sector. A major obstacle to carbon trades from land-use systems is the presence of high transaction costs of converting a carbon offset into a tradable commodity, so the prevailing market carbon prices may not provide enough incentive for adoption. This paper presents a model of the exchange of carbon offsets between a project developer and a group of landholders. The model is solved to derive project feasibility frontiers that show the minimum number of contracts necessary to make a project feasible at any given carbon price. The model is applied to two case studies (smallholder agroforestry in Indonesia and partial reforestation of family farms in Australia) under two types of contract (purchase of carbon flows and rental of carbon stocks). The paper concludes by identifying possible strategies to reduce transaction costs while maintaining project integrity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..

Horm S.V.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Sorn S.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Allal L.,Food and Agriculture Organization | Buchy P.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

In Cambodia, influenza A(H5N1) virus surveillance at live poultry markets (LPMs) relies on virus isolation from poultry specimens; however, virus is rarely detected by this method. We tested 502 environmental LPM samples: 90 were positive by PCR, 10 by virus isolation. Virus circulation could be better monitored by environmental sampling of LPMs.

Van der Knaap M.,Food and Agriculture Organization
Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management | Year: 2013

Some of the characteristics of the African Great Lakes are the numerous species of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, plankton, and other phyla, most of them endemic. The usual sources of perturbation when speaking about Great Lakes also have their impacts on the African Great Lakes, such as overfishing, dumping of untreated sewage, pebble and sand mining, agricultural run-off and other threats. Should this biodiversity be protected in times of sheer poverty of the riparian populations? Should it be exposed to exploitation for food security? What are the values of these endemic species in economic terms? This article reviews the impacts on biodiversity by human-induced factors like exotic fish introductions and the invasive water hyacinth, but also by indirect factors like climate change. Lake Victoria has a long history of fish introductions and invasive weeds, but on Lake Tanganyika the original species composition of many taxa can still be preserved and protected, at a cost. The Great Lakes surrounding these countries, by means of conventions and regional management bodies, sought to protect the environments and called for international collaboration to improve management of the natural resources, both terrestrial and aquatic. The way forward will be to involve local fishing communities in nature conservation and management, but there are many communities and many fishermen. How to reach them in areas where there is no municipal electricity supply, no portable phone network, nor internet facilities. In the 21st century, around the African Great Lakes the keyword is survival, not only of biodiversity, but also of the inhabitants of their basins. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Immink M.D.C.,Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2010

This paper reviews research with policy relevance for food and nutrition in Central America and similar areas. The research was conducted by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) during the last three decades of the past millennium (1970-99). Six policy areas were selected for this review: agricultural commercialization and rural development; wage and price policies; human resource development; social safety nets, particularly complementary food programs; multi-sectoral nutrition planning; and food and nutrition monitoring for policy formulation. The contents and major conclusions of the work are described, as well as their public policy implications. © 2010, The United Nations University.

Weisell R.,Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and nutrition bulletin | Year: 2012

Knowledge of the amount and quality of food consumed by a population is essential in determining the adequacy of the food availability and supply. Since its founding the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has developed methods for determining food availability and consumption that may be useful to other investigators. Based on FAO's 60 years of experience in conducting Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES), to explain and demonstrate the advantages and use of the Adult Male Equivalent (AME) and Equivalent Nutrition Unit (ENU) concepts. The important factors related to the AME and ENU, such as energy requirements, size and composition of the food consumer unit, and attendance at meals, are explained through the examples of two hypothetical families: a family consisting of a father, a mother, a 12-year old daughter, and a 3-year old son plus an adult guest; and a family consisting of a single mother, a 10-year old son, and two daughters, 6 and 4 years of age. The reader is guided through the steps in calculating the AME and ENU. The various scenarios of the composition, size, and attendance at meals of the consumer unit show that the calculated food energy adequacy can range from +2% to -29%. Care and attention must be given to correctly attributing the consumers of the food intake measured or estimated. In addition, use of these concepts allows for a valid comparison of food consumption units of various sizes and compositions.

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