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An in situ study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between ruminal dry matter digestibility (DMD) and seed hardness or malting characteristics of barley grain. Samples were selected for low and high values of seed hardness index (53 vs. 65; N=18), beta-glucan content in wort (122 vs. 316 ppm; N=18), diastatic power (146 vs. 2038L; N=18), and friability (46 vs. 81%; N=18) in malt, and incubated in the rumen of three beef heifers for 4, 12 and 48 h. In situ DMD did not vary with beta-glucan concentration or friability. However, barley grain with low seed hardness had lower (P=0.02) in situ DMD than those with high seed hardness after 4 h of incubation. The barley samples with low diastatic power also had (P=0.02) higher DMD than with high diastatic power after 4 h, a trend (P=0.07) that continued after 12 h of incubation. Seed hardness and malting characteristics may have the potential to predict DMD of barley grain in the rumen. However, observed differences in in situ DMD were relatively minor, and we did not detect a relationship between malting characteristics and in situ DMD at longer incubation times. This suggests that the identified grain physical and malt parameters may impact the rate, but not the extent of barley grain digestion in the rumen.


Goyal A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Beres B.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Randhawa H.S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Navabi A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 2 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Plant Science | Year: 2011

Triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) is a cereal crop with high grain yield and biomass potential, which are traits desired in biorefmery processes that currently utilize wheat (Triticum aestivum). This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of introduced germplasm for its adaptability to selected Canadian prairie agroecosystems, and to benchmark both introduced and registered triticale lines against hard red spring wheat. To investigate the genotype × environment interaction effects on the performance of triticale genotypes, 30 genotypes (27 triticale; 3 hard red spring wheat) were grown in three environments for 3 yr (2005-2007) in southern and central Alberta, Canada. Variance due to genotypes, years, locations, and their interactions were studied by employing several stability analysis models. Site Regression Model (SREG) and GGE biplot analysis were conducted to rank the relative yield performance of cultivars and to identify stable genotypes. Triticale consistently produced higher grain and biomass than hard red spring wheat, but some lines were high in pentosan content, produced low test weight, and possessed unacceptable growing degree day requirements. However, several of the introduction lines displayed superior trait performance and high stability. Five advanced to "C" level registration testing with one subsequently recommended for registration. The results provide evidence that some of the global triticale germplasm are well-suited to the production environments of the Canadian prairies, and that triticale has potential to be the ideal cereal platform for future technological and biorefmery end-use applications.


Collier G.R.S.,University of Alberta | Beres B.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Salmon D.F.,Alberta Agriculture and Food | Nyachiro J.M.,University of Alberta | And 2 more authors.
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2013

Triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) is a minor cereal crop in Alberta which has recently garnered interest as a biofuel feedstock. Basic agronomic information is lacking for triticale cultivars released since 1990. Field experiments were initiated in 2010 and conducted for 2 yr at four sites in central and southern Alberta to compare the impact of cultivar selection, seeding date, and seeding rate on grain yield, grain quality, and other agronomic traits. Six triticale cultivars released between 1996 and 2011, and one SoftWhite Spring wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L.) were evaluated over two seeding dates; one before and one after 15% of the total seasonal growing degree days (GDD; base = 0°C) had elapsed. Th e cultivars were evaluated at seeding rates of 250, 375, and 500 seeds m-2. Older triticale cultivars had higher grain yields but lower grain quality than cultivars released after 2000. Th e triticale cultivars produced more grain than SoftWhite Spring wheat in five of seven environments; however, SoftWhite Spring wheat exhibited better grain quality than the triticales. Yield generally increased linearly with seeding rate but the highest return on investment was observed at 375 seeds m-2. Provided there was not an early frost, triticale seeded after 15% of the seasonal GDD had elapsed could produce grain yield similar to the earlier-seeded triticale. A sustainable management system for triticale includes modern cultivars, a seeding date that can accumulate 1750 GDD's before frost, and a sowing density of at least 375 seeds m-2. © 2013 by the American Society of Agronomy, 5585 Guilford Road, Madison, WI 53711. All rights reserved.


Chaves A.V.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Dugan M.E.R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Stanford K.,Alberta Agriculture and Food | Gibson L.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 4 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different doses of cinnamaldehyde on feed intake, gain, feed efficiency, ruminal fermentation parameters, blood metabolites, carcass yield, and meat quality of lambs fed barley-based diets. Forty-eight ewe lambs were stratified by live weight (LW) and randomized among treatments (n= 4) at weaning (LW = 20.4 ± 1.12 kg). Animals had ad libitum access to pelleted diets (140 g CP/kg of DM; 309 g NDF/kg of DM) and water over 18-week period. There were four treatments with 12 animals each: 1) Control (no cinnamaldehyde); 2) cinnamaldehyde at 100 mg/kg of dry matter (DM); 3) cinnamaldehyde at 200 mg/kg of DM; 4) cinnamaldehyde at 400 mg/kg of DM. Dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion (DMI/ADG) were not affected by cinnamaldehyde supplementation. Ruminal pH, total VFA concentrations, molar proportions of individual VFA (acetate, propionate and valerate) and ammonia concentration were similar between lambs fed cinnamaldehyde and those fed the control diet. For blood metabolites, except urea nitrogen concentration which was higher (P= 0.05) in lambs fed cinnamaldehyde at 200 mg/kg compared to those fed the control diet, no changes were observed for non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. The addition of cinnamaldehyde to the diet had no effect on carcass characteristics [liver and rumen weights, hot carcass weight, dressing percent, back fat thickness (grade), quality grade, saleable meat yield (as primal cuts)] and fatty acid (FA) composition of back fat and liver. Overall, sensory attributes of sirloins were not altered although off-flavor intensity was higher (P<. 0.01) for sirloins from lambs fed cinnamaldehyde at 100 and 400 mg/kg of DM compared to the control. Results from this study suggest that cinnamaldehyde may have limited potential to improve feed efficiency and growth in lambs fed concentrate-based diets. © 2011.

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