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Aggarwal P.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Baethegan W.E.,IRI Inc | Cooper P.,International Crops Research Institute for Semi Arid Tropics ICRISAT | Gommes R.,Food and Agricultural Organization FAO | And 3 more authors.
Procedia Environmental Sciences | Year: 2010

This paper discusses the key information needs to reduce the negative impacts of weather variability and climate change on land degradation and food security, and identifies the opportunities and barriers between the information and services needed. It suggests that vulnerability assessments based on a livelihood concept that includes climate information and key socio-economic variables can overcome the narrow focus of common one-dimensional vulnerability studies. Both current and future climatic risks can be managed better if there is appropriate policy and institutional support together with technological interventions to address the complexities of multiple risks that agriculture has to face. This would require effective partnerships among agencies dealing with meteorological and hydrological services, agricultural research, land degradation and food security issues. In addition a state-of-the-art infrastructure to measure, record, store and disseminate data on weather variables, and access to weather and seasonal climate forecasts at desired spatial and temporal scales would be needed. © 2010 Published by Elsevier.

Kabir M.H.B.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Mondal M.M.H.,Bangladesh Agricultural University | Eliyas M.,CVASU | Mannan M.A.,CVASU | And 7 more authors.
African Journal of Microbiology Research | Year: 2011

Epidemiology of tick infestations was studied in cattle at different upazila of Chittagong District from November, 2008 to May, 2009 to know the prevalence of ticks in relation to age, sex, breed, management of cattle, seasons of the year, topography of the area and different body parts of the host. A total number of 380 cattle were examined, of which 138 (36.31%) cattle were found infested. Three species of ticks were identified namely Boophilus microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis bispinosa. The range of tick burden was 1 to 7 per four square inch of heavily infested area of Chittagong District. Mean tick burden was also high in case of B. microplus (2.77 ± 0.18) followed by H. bispinosa (1.03 ± 0.12) and R. sanguineus (0.83 ± 0.10). Prevalence was significantly (p<0.01) higher in cattle of ≤1.5 years of age (46.28%) than in cattle of >1.5 years of age (27.80%). Infestation of tick was significantly higher (p<0.01) in female (59.37%) than the male (35.83%) cattle. Tick infestation was more prevalent in local (43.82%) cattle than the cross-bred (24.13%) cattle. Field grazing (41.96%) cattle were more susceptible (p<0.01) to tick infestation than the stall-feeding (24.8%) animals. Prevalence of tick infestation was significantly (p<0.01) higher in summer (41.66%) season followed by winter (31.5%) season. Ticks were widely distributed in different parts of the host body such as ear, neck, tail, mammary gland, udder, groin and perianal region of which groin (48.75%) was most affected parts of animal body and face and neck (30%) was the least. Prevalence of tick infestation was significantly (p<0.01) higher in hilly area (44.44%) followed by plain area (30.27%). It is concluded that B. microplus is the main tick species identified and threatening to the cattle population in Chittagong District irrespective of age, sex, breed of the animal, seasons of the year and topography of the study area. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Okell C.N.,Lane College | Mariner J.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | Allport R.,Food and Agricultural Organization FAO | Buono N.,VSF Germany | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2016

Internal parasites are a significant determinant of the productivity of ruminant species in the tropics. Provision of anthelmintics has become a predominant part of animal health interventions in emergency drought responses, aiming to maintain the food conversion efficiency of livestock when pasture is scarce. This study aimed to assess the owner-perceived impact of anthelmintic provision on the health and productivity of small ruminants in the drought-prone counties of Isiolo and Marsabit, northern Kenya. Participatory approaches were used to retrospectively measure differences in key indicators of livestock output before and after anthelmintic administration. Results showed that there was no perceived impact of anthelmintic administration during droughts on small ruminant health and productivity, but some benefit of anthelmintic administration during rainy season was perceived. The study also provided some evidence of potential differences in the epidemiology of internal parasites between the counties. These findings may be utilised to inform future livestock intervention programmes in drought-prone areas. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Van Hoolst R.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research | Eerens H.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research | Haesen D.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research | Royer A.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2016

Agricultural production is highly dependent on climate variability in many parts of the world. In particular, drought may severely reduce crop yields, potentially affecting food availability at local, regional, and global scales. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) operates the Global Early Warning System (GIEWS), which monitors global food supply and demand. One of the key challenges is to obtain synoptic information on a recurrent and timely basis about drought-affected agricultural zones. This is needed to quickly identify areas requiring immediate attention. The Agricultural Stress Index System (ASIS), based on imagery from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Meteorological Operational Satellite (METOP) satellites, was specifically developed to meet this need. The system is based on a methodology developed by Rojas, Vrieling, and Rembold over the African continent. This approach has been modified and adapted to the global scale to produce an agricultural stress index (ASI) representing, per administrative unit, the percentage of cropland (or pasture) areas affected by drought over the growing season. The vegetation health index (VHI), based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and temperature anomalies, is used as a drought indicator. A fused time series of AVHRR data from METOP and NOAA was used to produce a consistent time series of VHI at 1 km resolution. Global phenology maps, indicating the number of growing seasons and their start and end dates, were derived from a multi-annual image set of SPOT-Vegetation (1999–2011). The VHI time series and phenology maps were then combined to produce the ASI for the years 1984 to the present. This allowed evaluation of the suitability of the ASIS to identify drought using historical reports and ancillary data. As a result of this analysis, ASIS was positively evaluated to support the FAO early warning system. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

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