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Mobley A.R.,University of Connecticut | Slavin J.L.,University of Minnesota | Hornick B.A.,Food
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Grain foods serve as an important source of energy, essential nutrients, and sometimes fiber. Recognizing that fiber continues to be identified as a nutrient of public health priority, there is an urgent need to address the ongoing fiber intake deficit. The focus in dietary guidance on whole grains as a source of fiber from the grains food group has not improved levels of fiber consumption. Consumer confusion around whole grains and fiber, combined with the wide range of fiber amounts found in whole-grain-labeled products, suggests that the current recommendation to "make half your grains whole"may be oversimplified in its intent to support increased fiber intakes. Nutrition educators and policy makers need to bring the conversation back to balancing all grain food choices, including enriched grains, whole grains, bran-based grain foods, and other grain-based foods with fiber, with greater emphasis on differentiating grain foods by the fiber they deliver. Changes in labeling, policy recommendations, and consumer messages are needed to help make this happen. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Elhanafi D.,Biomanufacturing Training and Education Center | Elhanafi D.,North Carolina State University | Utta V.,Food | Kathariou S.,North Carolina State University
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010

Quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) are widely used as disinfectants in both food processing and medical environments. BC-resistant strains of Listeria monocytogenes have been implicated in multistate outbreaks of listeriosis and have been frequently isolated from food processing plants. However, the genetic basis for BC resistance in L. monocytogenes remains poorly understood. In this study, we have characterized a plasmid (pLM80)-associated BC resistance cassette in L. monocytogenes H7550, a strain implicated in the 1998-1999 multistate outbreak involving contaminated hot dogs. The BC resistance cassette (bcrABC) restored resistance to BC (MIC, 40 μg/ml) in a plasmid-cured derivative of H7550. All three genes of the cassette were essential for imparting BC resistance. The transcription of H7550 BC resistance genes was increased under sublethal (10 μg/ml) BC exposure and was higher at reduced temperatures (4, 8, or 25°C) than at 37°C. The level of transcription was higher at 10 μg/ml than at 20 or 40 μg/ml. In silico analysis suggested that the BC resistance cassette was harbored by an IS1216 composite transposon along with other genes whose functions are yet to be determined. The findings from this study will further our understanding of the adaptations of this organism to disinfectants such as BC and may contribute to the elucidation of possible BC resistance dissemination in L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Ince S.,Afyon Kocatepe University | Kucukkurt I.,Afyon Kocatepe University | Demirel H.H.,Afyon Kocatepe University | Turkmen R.,Afyon Kocatepe University | Sever E.,Food
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2012

Cypermethrin (Cyp) is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide mainly used to control household pests. Because of the widespread use of pesticides for domestic and industrial applications, evaluation of their toxic effects is of major concern to public health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of thymoquinone (TQ), an antioxidant agent, against Cyp-induced oxidative stress in mice. Thirty Swiss Albino male mice were divided into five equal groups: the animals in the control group (vehicle treated) were given corn oil with a standard rodent diet, and the animals in the experimental groups were orally given 10. mg/kg/day Cyp alone, and with TQ at three different doses (5, 10 and 20. mg/kg/day) for 28. days. Cyp resulted in significant increase in serum urea, serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglyceride, lipid peroxidation and significant decrease in glucose, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, blood reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in a dose dependent manner. However, supplementation of TQ resulted in reversal of Cyp-induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, TQ exhibited protective action against the Cyp-induced necrosis, degeneration, and loss of striation in hearts, necrosis of hepatic cells, with degeneration, dilatation of sinusoids and dissociated remark cordons in livers, sloughing off epithelial cell, shrinkage of glomeruli, and necrosis of renal tubules in kidneys of mice. During the experimental period, there were significant decreases between initial body weights and final body weights of Cyp treated mice. In conclusion, TQ is effective in protecting mice against Cyp-induced oxidative stress and enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerate of tissues in Swiss albino mice. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Food | Date: 2014-10-10

Books in the field of cooking and flower arrangements.; Recipe books.

McCloskey B.,Global Center for Mass Gathering Medicine | McCloskey B.,Public Health England | Endericks T.,Public Health England | Catchpole M.,Center for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control | And 22 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Mass gatherings are regarded as potential risks for transmission of infectious diseases, and might compromise the health system of countries in which they are hosted. The evidence for increased transmission of infectious diseases at international sporting mass gatherings that attract many visitors from all over the world is not clear, and the evidence base for public health surveillance, epidemiology, and response at events such as the Olympics is small. However, infectious diseases are a recognised risk, and public health planning is, and should remain, a crucial part of the overall planning of sporting events. In this Series paper, we set out the planning and the surveillance systems that were used to monitor public health risks during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games in the summer of 2012, and draw attention to the public health issues-infectious diseases and chemical, radiation, and environmental hazards-that arose. Although the absolute risk of health-protection problems, including infectious diseases, at sporting mass gatherings is small, the need for reassurance of the absence of problems is higher than has previously been considered; this could challenge conventional public health surveillance systems. Recognition of the limitations of health-surveillance systems needs to be part of the planning for future sporting events. Source

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