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Speck is a meat product obtained from the deboned leg of pork that is salted, smoked and seasoned for four to six months. During speck seasoning, Eurotium rubrum and Penicillium solitum grow on the surface and collaborate with other moulds and tissue enzymes to produce the typical aroma. Both of these strains usually predominate over other moulds. However, moulds producing ochratoxins, such as Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium nordicum, can also co-grow on speck and produce ochratoxin A (OTA). Consequently, speck could represent a potential health risk for consumers. Because A. ochraceus and P. nordicum could represent a problem for artisanal speck production, the aim of this study was to inhibit these mould strains using Debaryomyces hansenii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. Six D. hansenii and six S. fibuligera strains were tested in vitro to inhibit A. ochraceus and P. nordicum. The D. hansenii DIAL 1 and S. fibuligera DIAL 3 strains demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity and were selected for in vivo tests. The strains were co-inoculated on fresh meat cuts for speck production with both of the OTA-producing moulds prior to drying and seasoning. At the end of seasoning (six months), OTA was not detected in the speck treated with both yeast strains. Because the yeasts did not adversely affect the speck odour or flavour, the strains are proposed as starters for the inhibition of ochratoxigenic moulds. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Tolin S.,Food | Tolin S.,Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine | Arrigoni G.,Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine | Arrigoni G.,University of Padua | And 5 more authors.
Proteomics | Year: 2013

The rhizobium-legume interaction is a critical cornerstone of crop productivity and environmental sustainability. Its potential improvement relies on elucidation of the complex molecular dialogue between its two partners. In the present study, the proteomic patterns of gnotobiotic cultures of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 grown for 6 h in presence or absence of the nod gene-inducing plant flavonoid naringenin (10 μM) were analyzed using the iTRAQ approach. A total of 1334 proteins were identified corresponding to 18.67% of the protein-coding genes annotated in the sequenced genome of bv. viciae 3841. The abundance levels of 47 proteins were increased upon naringenin treatment showing fold change ratios ranging from 1.5 to 25 in two biological replicates. Besides the nod units, naringenin enhanced the expression of a number of other genes, many of which organized in operons, including β(1-2) glucan production and secretion, succinoglycan export, the RopA outer membrane protein with homology to an oligogalacturonide-specific porin motif, other enzymes for carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and proteins involved in the translation machinery. Data were validated at the transcriptional and phenotypic levels by RT-PCR and an assay of secreted sugars in culture supernatants, respectively. The current approach provides not only a high-resolution analysis of the prokaryotic proteome but also unravels the rhizobium molecular dialogue with legumes by detecting the enhanced expression of several symbiosis-associated proteins, whose flavonoid-dependency had not yet been reported. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Elhanafi D.,Biomanufacturing Training and Education Center | Elhanafi D.,North Carolina State University | Utta V.,Food | Kathariou S.,North Carolina State University
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010

Quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) are widely used as disinfectants in both food processing and medical environments. BC-resistant strains of Listeria monocytogenes have been implicated in multistate outbreaks of listeriosis and have been frequently isolated from food processing plants. However, the genetic basis for BC resistance in L. monocytogenes remains poorly understood. In this study, we have characterized a plasmid (pLM80)-associated BC resistance cassette in L. monocytogenes H7550, a strain implicated in the 1998-1999 multistate outbreak involving contaminated hot dogs. The BC resistance cassette (bcrABC) restored resistance to BC (MIC, 40 μg/ml) in a plasmid-cured derivative of H7550. All three genes of the cassette were essential for imparting BC resistance. The transcription of H7550 BC resistance genes was increased under sublethal (10 μg/ml) BC exposure and was higher at reduced temperatures (4, 8, or 25°C) than at 37°C. The level of transcription was higher at 10 μg/ml than at 20 or 40 μg/ml. In silico analysis suggested that the BC resistance cassette was harbored by an IS1216 composite transposon along with other genes whose functions are yet to be determined. The findings from this study will further our understanding of the adaptations of this organism to disinfectants such as BC and may contribute to the elucidation of possible BC resistance dissemination in L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology.


Trevisan S.,Food | Manoli A.,Food | Quaggiotti S.,Food
Plant signaling & behavior | Year: 2014

Roots are considered to be a vital organ system of plants due to their involvement in water and nutrient uptake, anchorage, propagation, storage functions, secondary metabolite (including hormones) biosynthesis, and accumulation. Crops are strongly dependent on the availability of nitrogen in soil and on the efficiency of nitrogen utilization for biomass production and yield. However, knowledge about molecular responses to nitrogen fluctuations mainly derives from the study of model species. Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed to be implicated in plant adaptation to environment, but its exact role in the response of plants to nutritional stress is still under evaluation. Recently a novel role for NO production and scavenging, thanks to the coordinate spatio-temporal expression of nitrate reductase and non-symbiotic hemoglobins, in the maize root response to nitrate has been postulated. This control of NO homeostasis is preferentially accomplished by the cells of the root transition zone (TZ) which seem to represent the most nitrate responsive portion of maize root. The TZ is already known to function as a sensory center able to gather information from the external environment and to re-elaborate them in an adequate response. These results indicate that it could play a central role also for nitrate sensing by roots. A lot of work is still needed to identify and characterize other upstream and downstream signals involved in the "nitrate-NO" pathway, leading to root architecture adjustments and finally to stress adaptation.


Fogliano V.,University of Naples | Corollaro M.L.,University of Naples | Vitaglione P.,University of Naples | Napolitano A.,University of Naples | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2011

Scope: Cocoa, especially the water-insoluble cocoa fraction (WICF), is a rich source of polyphenols. In this study, sequential in vitro digestion of the WICF with gastrointestinal enzymes as well as its bacterial fermentation in a human colonic model system were carried out to investigate bioaccessibility and biotransformation of WICF polyphenols, respectively. Methods and results: The yield of each enzymatic digestion step and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured and solubilized phenols were characterized by MS/MS. Fermentation of WICF and the effect on the gut microbiota, SCFA production and metabolism of polyphenols was analyzed. In vitro digestion solubilized 38.6% of WICF with pronase and Viscozyme L treatments releasing 51% of the total phenols from the insoluble material. This release of phenols does not determine a reduction in the total antioxidant capacity of the digestion-resistant material. In the colonic model WICF significantly increased of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli as well as butyrate production. Flavanols were converted into phenolic acids by the microbiota following a concentration gradient resulting in high concentrations of 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (3-HPP) in the last gut compartment. Conclusion: Data showed that WICF may exert antioxidant action through the gastrointestinal tract despite its polyphenols being still bound to macromolecules and having prebiotic activity. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


The study was conducted to investigate the effects of the grape seed-, olive leaf- and pomegranate peel-extract supplementation to diets on performance, serum lipid profile and ileum bacteria content of broilers at 42 d of age. The diets were as follows: a basal diet (CONT) which contained no feed additive, a diet supplemented with either a probiotic (Protexin™) (P), oleuropein (as olive leaf extract) (OLE100 and OLE200), proanthocyanidin (as grape seed extract) (GSE100 and GSE200) and proanthocyanidin (as pomegranate peel extract) (PPE100 and PPE200) at two levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg. The OLE100, OLE200, PPE100 and PPE200 diets increased BWG and improved FCR of broilers during the period of 0 to 6 weeks compared to the CONT, GSE100 and GSE200 diets. Feeding especially the PPE100 and PPE200 diets increased serum HDL cholesterol level compared to the other (except OLE100 and OLE200) diets. Serum LDL cholesterol level was decreased by especially the PPE200, PPE100 and OLE200 diets compared to the other dietary treatments. Morever, all dietary treatments significantly decreased serum triglyceride level compared to that of broilers fed on the CONT diet. The hot and cold carcass yields of broilers were increased by the experimental treatments (except GSE 100 and GSE200) compared to the CONT diet. Especially the PPE100, PPE200, OLE100, OLE200 and P diets were more effective in reducing the concentrations of total coliform bacteria and E. coli compared to the CONT and GSE100 diets. The P, OLE100, OLE200, PPE100 and PPE200 diets increased the concentration of Lactobacillus bacteria in the ileal digesta compared to those of broilers fed on the CONT, GSE100 and GSE200 diets. In conclusion, oleuropein in OLE and proanthocyanidin in PPE in maize-soybean meal based diets positively modified the growth performance, serum lipid concentration and ileum microflora content of broilers and can be used as natural antimicrobials in broiler diets instead of probiotics. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.


PubMed | Food, University of Trieste and Piazzale Kolbe
Type: | Journal: Fish & shellfish immunology | Year: 2016

Cathelicidins, a major family of vertebrate antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), have a recognized role in the first line of defense against infections. They have been identified in several salmonid species, where the putative mature peptides are unusually long and rich in serine and glycine residues, often arranged in short multiple repeats (RLGGGS/RPGGGS) intercalated by hydrophobic motifs. Fragments of 24-40 residues, spanning specific motifs and conserved sequences in grayling or brown, rainbow and brook trout, were chemically synthesized and examined for antimicrobial activity against relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative salmonid pathogens, as well as laboratory reference strains. They were not active in complete medium, but showed varying potency and activity spectra in diluted media. Bacterial membrane permeabilization also occurred only under these conditions and was indicated by rapid propidium iodide uptake in peptide-treated bacteria. However, circular dichroism analyses indicated that they did not significantly adopt ordered conformations in membrane-like environments. The peptides were not hemolytic or cytotoxic to trout cells, including freshly purified head kidney leukocytes (HKL) and the fibroblastic RTG-2cell line. Notably, when exposed to them, HKL showed increased metabolic activity, while a growth-promoting effect was observed on RTG-2cells, suggesting a functional interaction of salmonid cathelicidins with host cells similar to that shown by mammalian ones. The three most active peptides produced a dose-dependent increase in phagocytic uptake by HKL simultaneously stimulated with bacterial particles. The peptide STF(1-37), selected for further analyses, also enhanced phagocytic uptake in the presence of autologous serum, and increased intracellular killing of live E.coli. Furthermore, when tested on HKL in combination with the immunostimulant -glucan, it synergistically potentiated both phagocytic uptake and the respiratory burst response, activities that play a key role in fish immunity. Collectively, these data point to a role of salmonid cathelicidins as modulators of fish microbicidal mechanisms beyond a salt-sensitive antimicrobial activity, and encourage further studies also in view of potential applications in aquaculture.


Trademark
Food | Date: 2014-10-10

Books in the field of cooking and flower arrangements.; Recipe books.


Speck is a meat product obtained from the deboned leg of pork that is salted, smoked and seasoned for four to six months. During speck seasoning, Eurotium rubrum and Penicillium solitum grow on the surface and collaborate with other moulds and tissue enzymes to produce the typical aroma. Both of these strains usually predominate over other moulds. However, moulds producing ochratoxins, such as Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium nordicum, can also co-grow on speck and produce ochratoxin A (OTA). Consequently, speck could represent a potential health risk for consumers. Because A.ochraceus and P.nordicum could represent a problem for artisanal speck production, the aim of this study was to inhibit these mould strains using Debaryomyces hansenii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. Six D.hansenii and six S.fibuligera strains were tested invitro to inhibit A.ochraceus and P.nordicum. The D.hansenii DIAL 1 and S.fibuligera DIAL 3 strains demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity and were selected for invivo tests. The strains were co-inoculated on fresh meat cuts for speck production with both of the OTA-producing moulds prior to drying and seasoning. At the end of seasoning (six months), OTA was not detected in the speck treated with both yeast strains. Because the yeasts did not adversely affect the speck odour or flavour, the strains are proposed as starters for the inhibition of ochratoxigenic moulds.


News Article | November 24, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

MarketStudyReport.com adds “Global Food and Beverage Packaging Machinery Market 2016-2020” new report to its research database. The report spread across 68 pages with table and figures in it. The research analysts forecast the global food and beverage packaging machinery market to grow at a CAGR of 5.61% during the period 2016-2020. About Food and Beverage Packaging Machinery Packaging machinery is used to package products before they are dispatched to distribution networks and for storage. Packaging machinery are used in the primary and secondary packaging of food, beverage, and pharmaceutical and personal care products. Primary packaging is an important part of the marketing mix as it has a strong impact on the buying decision. In addition, packaging machinery is widely used for filling, labeling, coding, and wrapping products. Covered in this report The report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global food and beverage packaging machinery market for 2016-2020. To calculate the market size, the report presents the vendor landscape and a corresponding detailed analysis of the top vendors in the market. The market is divided into the following segments based on geography: - Americas - APAC - EMEA Research report, Global Food and Beverage Packaging Machinery Market 2016-2020, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the market landscape and its growth prospects over the coming years. The report also includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in this market. Browse full table of contents and data tables at https://www.marketstudyreport.com/reports/global-food-and-beverage-packaging-machinery-market-2016-2020/ Key vendors - Bosch Packaging Technology - GEA - Tetra Laval - MULTIVAC Other prominent vendors - ARPAC - Bajaj ProcessPack Limited - Combi Packaging Systems - Nichrome Packaging Solutions - Orbital Food Machinery - SAMA Engineering - Selo - Triangle Package Machinery - VELTEKO - WeighPack Systems Market driver ?Increasing demand for single-serve, multipacks, and sustainable packaging. - For a full, detailed list, view our report Market challenge - Increased concerns over hygiene and safety of machinery parts. - For a full, detailed list, view our report Market trend - Rise in demand for light-weight packaging. - For a full, detailed list, view our report Key questions answered in this report - What will the market size be in 2020 and what will the growth rate be? - What are the key market trends? - What is driving this market? - What are the challenges to market growth? - Who are the key vendors in this market space? - What are the market opportunities and threats faced by the key vendors? - What are the strengths and weaknesses of the key vendors? To receive personalized assistance, write to us @ [email protected] with the report title in the subject line along with your questions or call us at +1 866-764-2150

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