Edgecumbe, New Zealand
Edgecumbe, New Zealand

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Sparling G.P.,University of Waikato | Littler R.,University of Waikato | Schipper L.A.,University of Waikato | Stevenson B.,Landcare Research | And 2 more authors.
Soil Research | Year: 2015

Application to land is the preferred method for the treatment of wastewaters in New Zealand. For land treatment to be effective, it is essential that the soils can accept the volumes of wastewater applied and degrade or store the constituents in the wastewater. We report on 14 soil chemical, biochemical and physical characteristics of soils (0-10cm depth) used for wastewater treatment at the Fonterra dairy factories at Hautapu, Lichfield and Edgecumbe in the North Island of New Zealand. The soils are under grazed pasture for dairying and receive wastewater by spray irrigation. The soils were monitored approximately every 2 years between 1995 and 2005 and at the end of monitoring had been under irrigation for 10-26 years. Matched, non-irrigated pasture soils on adjacent dairy farms were sampled for comparison. The wastewater composition from the three factories differed, reflecting the products manufactured. Loadings were greatest at the Hautapu factory, which also had the longest history of irrigation (26 years). At all three sites, the physical characteristics of irrigated soils were very similar to their non-irrigated comparisons. A consistent trend was for microbial mass and activity, and particularly nitrogen (N) turnover, to be markedly greater on the irrigated soils. The C (carbon):N ratios of irrigated and non-irrigated soils at Lichfield and Edgecumbe were similar, but at Hautapu the C:N ratio of irrigated soil was 8.3 and significantly (P<0.05) lower than non-irrigated soil (11.1), suggesting little further capacity to store additional N as organic matter. Irrigation tended to increase the soil pH at all sites to above neutral even though the wastewater was acidic. We consider that the characteristics of irrigated soils at Edgecumbe and Lichfield factories are generally satisfactory. Fonterra is continuing to reduce loadings in both composition and volumes of wastewater irrigated. © 2015 CSIRO.


Mitchell M.D.,University of Queensland | Mitchell M.D.,University of Auckland | Henare K.,University of Auckland | Balakrishnan B.,University of Auckland | And 3 more authors.
Placenta | Year: 2012

Objectives: Gangliosides are structural and functional glycosphingolipids, considered to have important roles in neuronal development in fetal and neonatal development and in memory formation. In this report, we have investigated the ability of bovine milk-derived gangliosides GM3 and GD3 to cross the human placenta. Study design: We have employed the ex-vivo model of dually-perfused isolated human placental lobules. Results: There was significant uptake of both GD3 and GM3 from the maternal perfusate. There was significant increase of GM3 in the fetal side and a non-statistically significant trend for GD3 to increase on the fetal side. Conclusions: Hence an apparent preference for GM3 release into fetal circulation. We suggest that gangliosides consumed by the mother enter her circulation, can be transferred across the placenta and may be available to the developing fetus for building neural connections. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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