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Shih C.-C.,Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Ciou J.-L.,Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Lin C.-H.,Fong Yuan Hospital | Wu J.-B.,China Medical University at Taichung | Ho H.-Y.,Jen Li Biotech Company Ltd
Molecules | Year: 2013

The present study investigates the anti-hyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic effects and mechanism in high-fat (HF)-fed mice of cell suspension culture of Eriobotrya japonica (TA), which contains a great number of pentacyclic terpenoids. Firstly, C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups: the control (CON) group was fed with a lowfat diet (n = 9), whereas the experimental group was fed a 45% HF diet for 8 weeks. Afterwards, the CON group was treated with vehicle, whereas the HF group was subdivided into five groups and was orally given TA or rosiglitazone or not for 4 weeks. Blood and visceral adipose tissue, liver tissue and skeletal muscle were examined. Treatment with TA reduced body weight gain, weights of white adipose tissue (WAT) (including epididymal, perirenal, mesenteric WAT and visceral fat), and hepatic triacylglycerol content significantly without affecting food intake in diet-induced diabetic mice. TA effectively prevented HF diet-induced increases in the levels of blood glucose, insulin, leptin and HOMA-IR index (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively) and attenuated insulin resistance. Treatment with TA, adipocytes in the visceral depots showed a reduction in size. TA effectively significantly increased the protein contents of phosphorylation of AMPK-α (Thr172) both in liver and adipose tissue. It is shown that TA exhibits hypolipidemic effect in HF-fed mice by decreasing gene expressions of fatty acid synthesis, including acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 2, which catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of triglycerides, and antidiabetic properties occurred as a result of decreased hepatic glucose production via phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) down- regulation, improved insulin sensitization and TA (at 1.0 g/kg dose) decreased expression of hepatic and adipose 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydroxygenase (11β-HSD1) gene, which contributed in attenuating diabetic state. Futhermore, TA at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg had serum lipid-lowering action characterized by the inhibition of DGAT 1 expression. Thus, amelioration of diabetic and dyslipidemic state by TA in HFfed mice occurred by regulation of PEPCK, DGAT2 and AMPK phosphorylation.


Huang C.-W.,Fong Yuan Hospital | Chen J.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Hu S.-T.,National Yang Ming University | Huang W.-C.,Taichung Veterans General Hospital | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents | Year: 2013

The occurrence of diseases caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) is increasing in Taiwan. In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of tigecycline, minocycline, tetracycline and doxycycline were evaluated against 160 clinical RGM isolates, including 34 Mycobacterium abscessus sensu stricto (s.s.), 44 Mycobacterium massiliense, 1 Mycobacterium bolletii, 58 Mycobacterium fortuitum and 23 Mycobacterium chelonae. Clarithromycin and amikacin were tested alone as well as for synergistic effect with tigecycline. Both amikacin and tigecycline showed excellent activities against the RGM. More than 85% of each of the five RGM species isolates showed susceptibility to the two drugs. The MIC50 and MIC90 values (drug concentrations at which 50% and 90%, respectively, of the tested isolates did not show any visible growth) of amikacin were 1-4 mg/L and 2-8 mg/L, respectively, whilst those of tigecycline were 0.125-1 mg/L and 0.5-2.0 mg/L. Clarithromycin had only moderate activity, with ≥42.9% but ≤87.5% of each RGM species isolates showing susceptibility. The other three drugs had limited or no antimicrobial activity, with <40% of each RGM species isolates showing susceptibility. Combined with clarithromycin, tigecycline had synergistic activity against 92.9%, 68.8%, 100%, 35.7% and 46.2% of M. abscessus s.s., M. massiliense, M. bolletii, M. fortuitum and M. chelonae isolates, respectively. However, tigecycline combined with amikacin had synergistic activity against <25% but antagonistic activity against >18% of each RGM species. Thus, tigecycline alone may be an alternative for treating RGM diseases in patients who are intolerant to cefoxitin, imipenem or amikacin. However, it should be used with caution or not used in combination with amikacin for RGM diseases. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy.


Shih C.-C.,Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Lin C.-H.,Fong Yuan Hospital | Wu J.-B.,China Medical University at Taichung
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2010

The effect of Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. (loquat) on insulin resistance was examined in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. First, the mice were divided randomly into two groups: the control (CON) group was fed a low-fat diet, whereas the experimental group was fed with a 45% HF diet for 10 weeks. After 6 weeks of induction, the HF group was subdivided into five groups and was given orally loquat or not for 4 weeks afterward. It was demonstrated that loquat was effective in ameliorating the HF diet-induced hyperglycemia, hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia, as well as in decreasing the levels of free fatty acid (FFA), but increasing the adipose PPARIγ (peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor Iγ) and hepatic PPARα mRNA levels. Loquat significantly decreased the body weight gain, weights of white adipose tissue and visceral fat accompanying the suppressed leptin mRNA levels. Loquat not only suppressed the hepatic mRNA levels of enzymes involved in fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis and lowered the sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA level, but also affected fatty acid oxidation enzyme levels. These regulations may contribute to triacylglycerol accumulation in white adipose tissue. The findings provide a nutritional basis for the use of loquat as a functional food factor that may have benefits for the prevention of hyperlipidemia and diabetes. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Shih C.-C.,Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Lin C.-H.,Fong Yuan Hospital | Lin Y.-J.,Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Wu J.-B.,China Medical University at Taichung
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Since with the increased use of antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of phytonutrients for daily supplement has gained considerable attention worldwide, we examine the effect and molecular mechanism of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E. Br. (hawthorn) by quantifying the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis on diabetes and dyslipidemia in high-fat (HF)-fed C57BL/6J mice. Firstly, mice were divided randomly into two groups: the control (CON) group was fed with a low-fat diet, whereas the experimental group was fed a 45% HF diet for 8 weeks. Afterwards, the CON group was treated with vehicle, whereas the HF group was subdivided into five groups and was given orally hawthorn extract (including 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 g/kg/day extracts) or rosiglitazone (Rosi) or vehicle for 4 weeks afterward. Diabetic mice showed an increase in plasma glucose and insulin. Glucose lowering was comparable with Rosi-treated mice. This study demonstrated that hawthorn was effective in ameliorating the HF diet-induced hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolaemia. Hawthorn extract significantly increases the hepatic protein contents of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and reduces expression of phosphenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose production. Furthermore, hawthorn decreased in hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol synthesis (including sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), SREBP2). An increase in expressions of apoA-I gene and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was detected in HF-fed mice treated with high dose hawthorn. Our data suggest that hawthorn extract are capable of decreasing glucose production and triacylglycerol synthesis by inducing AMPK-phosphorylation and hawthorn is a candidate source of antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic phytonutrients factors. © 2013 Chun-Ching Shih et al.


Chang Y.-C.,Fong Yuan Hospital | Lo H.-H.,Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease | Year: 2013

No literature is available on the prevalence and clinical aspects of beta-haemolytic group G Streptococcus anginosus group in central Taiwan. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer sequencing (where necessary) as the gold standard for molecular identification. Twenty-seven S. anginosus group isolates were identified from 273 beta-haemolytic GGS isolates collected from patients in central Taiwan between February 2007 and August 2011. Of the 27 isolates, 22 were S. anginosus and 5 were Streptococcus constellatus. The 3 commercial methods, Rapid ID 32 Strep, API 20 Strep, and Vitek 2 GP card, identified 77.8%, 40.7%, and 37.0% of S. anginosus group isolates, respectively, with acceptable %ID or probability level. All the S. constellatus isolates possessed the lmb gene (encoding laminin-binding protein); however, none of the S. anginosus isolates possessed this gene. All the 27 isolates were susceptible to penicillin. Five S. anginosus group isolates (18.5%) were resistant to erythromycin. The resistance genes, ermB and mefA, were detected in 3 (2 S. anginosus and 1 S. constellatus) and 2 (2 S. anginosus) isolates, respectively. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed that most S. anginosus group isolates were genetically diverse. This is the first study to evaluate 3 commercial methods for the identification of beta-haemolytic group G S. anginosus group species, and only the Rapid ID 32 Strep system showed considerable ability. The clinical aspects, susceptibility pattern, and molecular epidemiology of beta-haemolytic group G S. anginosus group isolates from central Taiwan were also first presented. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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