Fong Yuan Hospital

Yuan, Taiwan

Fong Yuan Hospital

Yuan, Taiwan
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Shih C.-C.,Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Shlau M.-T.,Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Lin C.-H.,Fong Yuan Hospital | Wu J.-B.,China Medical University at Taichung
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2014

Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) fruit is commonly known as bitter melon. C57BL/6J mice were firstly divided randomly into two groups: the control (CON) group was fed with a low-fat diet, whereas the experimental group was fed a 45% high-fat (HF) diet for 8 weeks. Afterwards, the CON group was treated with vehicle, whereas the HF group was subdivided into five groups and still on HF diet and was given orally M. charantia extract (MCE) or rosiglitazone (Rosi) or not for 4 weeks. M. charantia decreased the weights of visceral fat and caused glucose lowering. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major cellular regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism. MCE significantly increases the hepatic protein contents of AMPK phosphorylation by 126.2-297.3% and reduces expression of phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose production. Most importantly, MCE decreased expression of hepatic 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydroxygenase (11beta-HSD1) gene, which contributed in attenuating diabetic state. Furthermore, MCE lowered serum triglycerides (TGs) by inhibition of hepatic fatty acid synthesis by dampening sterol response element binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthase mRNA leading to reduction in TGs synthesis. This study demonstrates M. charantia ameliorates diabetic and hyperlipidemic state in HF-fed mice occurred by regulation of hepatic PEPCK, 11beta-HSD1 and AMPK phosphorylation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Chen C.-J.,Taichung Veterans General Hospital | Chen C.-J.,Tunghai University | Ou Y.-C.,Taichung Veterans General Hospital | Chang C.-Y.,Fong Yuan Hospital | And 5 more authors.
GLIA | Year: 2012

The substantial activation of microglia in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-induced Japanese encephalitis found in numerous studies demonstrates that the disease pathogenesis involves bystander damage caused by microglia-released mediators. Previously, we reported that microglia synthesized and secreted bioactive mediators with neurotoxic potential into the cultured supernatants in response to JEV infection. In this study, we found that the supernatants of JEV-infected microglia caused MK801-inhibitable neuronal damage in cultured neurons, indicating a potential excitotoxic mechanism. Infection with JEV was found to elicit the extracellular glutamate accumulation from microglia but not from neuron and astrocyte cultures. The glutaminase inhibitor 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine, cystine/glutamate antiporter inhibitor α-aminoadipic acid, and the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone reduced JEV infection-induced microglial glutamate release and neurotoxicity. We further demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was a key cytokine which stimulated extensive microglial glutamate release by up-regulating glutaminase expression via signals involving protein kinase C, cAMP responsive element-binding protein, and CAAT-enhancer-binding protein-beta. Although the elevated expression of excitatory amino acid transporter 1 and 2 was observed in JEV-infected cells, the glutamate uptake activity was significantly inhibited by TNF-α. The JEV infection-induced alterations, such as the extracellular glutamate release and glutamate-mediated excitoneurotoxicity, also occurred in neuron/glia cultures. Our findings support a potential link between neuroinflammation and the development of excitotoxic neuronal injury in Japanese encephalitis. The link between neuroinflammation and excitotoxic death may involve a mechanism in which TNF-α released by microglia plays a facilitory role in glutamate excitoneurotoxicity via up-regulation of glutamate synthesis and down-regulation of glutamate uptake. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Kao T.-K.,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine | Kao T.-K.,Tajen Institute of Technology | Chang C.-Y.,Fong Yuan Hospital | Ou Y.-C.,Taichung Veterans General Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Experimental Neurology | Year: 2013

Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has been used to treat ischemic stroke. However, scientific evidence related to its effectiveness or precise modes of neuroprotective action is largely unclear. This study provides evidence of an alternative target for TMP and sheds light on the mechanism of its physiological benefits. We report a global inhibitory effect of TMP on intracerebral cellular inflammatory response in a rat model of permanent cerebral ischemia. TMP exhibited a neuroprotective effect against ischemic deficits by reduction of behavioral disturbance, brain infarction, and edema. The results of immunohistochemistry, enzymatic assay, Western blot, real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and flow cytometric analysis revealed that TMP reduced the percentages of activated macrophages/microglia and infiltrative lymphocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression after cerebral ischemia. In parallel with these immunosuppressive phenomena, TMP also attenuated the activities of ischemia-induced inflammation-associated signaling molecules and transcription factors. Another finding in this study was that the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of TMP were accompanied by a further elevated expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in ipsilateral neurons and macrophages/microglia after cerebral ischemia. Taken together, our results suggest that both the promotion of endogenous defense capacity and the attenuation of the extent and composition percentage of the major cellular inflammatory responses via targeting of macrophages/microglia by elevating Nrf2/HO-1 expression might actively contribute to TMP-mediated neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Chang C.-Y.,Fong Yuan Hospital | Li J.-R.,Taichung Veterans General Hospital | Chen W.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Ou Y.-C.,Taichung Veterans General Hospital | And 11 more authors.
GLIA | Year: 2015

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) characteristics are induced and maintained by crosstalk between brain microvascular endothelial cells and neighboring cells. Using in vitro cell models, we previously found that a bystander effect was a cause for Japanese encephalitis-associated endothelial barrier disruption. Brain astrocytes, which neighbor BBB endothelial cells, play roles in the maintenance of BBB integrity. By extending the scope of relevant studies, a potential mechanism has been shown that the activation of neighboring astrocytes could be a cause of disruption of endothelial barrier integrity during the course of Japanese encephalitis viral (JEV) infection. JEV-infected astrocytes were found to release biologically active molecules that activated ubiquitin proteasome, degraded zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-5, and disrupted endothelial barrier integrity in cultured brain microvascular endothelial cells. JEV infection caused astrocytes to release vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2/MMP-9). Our data demonstrated that VEGF and IL-6 released by JEV-infected astrocytes were critical for the proteasomal degradation of ZO-1 and the accompanying disruption of endothelial barrier integrity through the activation of Janus kinase-2 (Jak2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) signaling as well as the induction of ubiquitin-protein ligase E3 component, n-recognin-1 (Ubr 1) in endothelial cells. MMP-induced endothelial barrier disruption was accompanied by MMP-mediated proteolytic degradation of claudin-5 and ubiquitin proteasome-mediated degradation of ZO-1 via extracellular VEGF release. Collectively, these data suggest that JEV infection could activate astrocytes and cause release of VEGF, IL-6, and MMP-2/MMP-9, thereby contributing, in a concerted action, to the induction of Japanese encephalitis-associated BBB breakdown. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Chang N.-W.,China Medical University at Taichung | Wu C.-T.,Fong Yuan Hospital | Chen D.-R.,Changhua Christian Hospital | Yeh C.-Y.,China Medical University at Taichung | Lin C.,China Medical University at Taichung
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Fatty acids are endogenous ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα), which is linked to the regulation of fatty acid uptake, lipid metabolism and breast cancer cell growth. This study was designed to screen candidate fatty acids from breast cancer tissue and to investigate the effects of these candidate fatty acids on PPARα expression, cell growth and cell cycle progression in breast cancer cell lines. One breast cancer tissue and one reference tissue were each taken from 30 individual breasts to examine for fatty acid composition and PPARα expression. The cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 (ER-), MCF-7 (ER++++) and BT-474 (ER++) were used to explore the mechanisms regulating cell proliferation. We found that arachidonic acid (AA) and PPARα were highly expressed in the breast cancer tissues. AA stimulated the growth of all three breast cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The growth stimulatory effect of AA was associated with PPARα activation, and the most potent effect was found in MCF-7 cells. The stimulation of cell proliferation by AA was accompanied by the increased expression of cyclin E, a reduced population of G1 phase cells, and a faster G1/S phase transition. In contrast, AA had no effects on the levels of CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, p27, Bcl-2 and Bax. Our results demonstrate that high levels of AA and PPARα expression in human breast cancer tissues are associated with ER-overexpressed breast cancer cell proliferation, which is involved in activating PPARα, stimulating cyclin E expression, and promoting faster G1/S transition. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Shih C.-C.,Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Lin C.-H.,Fong Yuan Hospital | Wu J.-B.,China Medical University at Taichung
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2010

The effect of Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. (loquat) on insulin resistance was examined in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. First, the mice were divided randomly into two groups: the control (CON) group was fed a low-fat diet, whereas the experimental group was fed with a 45% HF diet for 10 weeks. After 6 weeks of induction, the HF group was subdivided into five groups and was given orally loquat or not for 4 weeks afterward. It was demonstrated that loquat was effective in ameliorating the HF diet-induced hyperglycemia, hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia, as well as in decreasing the levels of free fatty acid (FFA), but increasing the adipose PPARIγ (peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor Iγ) and hepatic PPARα mRNA levels. Loquat significantly decreased the body weight gain, weights of white adipose tissue and visceral fat accompanying the suppressed leptin mRNA levels. Loquat not only suppressed the hepatic mRNA levels of enzymes involved in fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis and lowered the sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA level, but also affected fatty acid oxidation enzyme levels. These regulations may contribute to triacylglycerol accumulation in white adipose tissue. The findings provide a nutritional basis for the use of loquat as a functional food factor that may have benefits for the prevention of hyperlipidemia and diabetes. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Shih C.-C.,Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Lin C.-H.,Fong Yuan Hospital | Lin Y.-J.,Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Wu J.-B.,China Medical University at Taichung
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Since with the increased use of antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of phytonutrients for daily supplement has gained considerable attention worldwide, we examine the effect and molecular mechanism of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E. Br. (hawthorn) by quantifying the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis on diabetes and dyslipidemia in high-fat (HF)-fed C57BL/6J mice. Firstly, mice were divided randomly into two groups: the control (CON) group was fed with a low-fat diet, whereas the experimental group was fed a 45% HF diet for 8 weeks. Afterwards, the CON group was treated with vehicle, whereas the HF group was subdivided into five groups and was given orally hawthorn extract (including 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 g/kg/day extracts) or rosiglitazone (Rosi) or vehicle for 4 weeks afterward. Diabetic mice showed an increase in plasma glucose and insulin. Glucose lowering was comparable with Rosi-treated mice. This study demonstrated that hawthorn was effective in ameliorating the HF diet-induced hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolaemia. Hawthorn extract significantly increases the hepatic protein contents of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and reduces expression of phosphenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose production. Furthermore, hawthorn decreased in hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol synthesis (including sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), SREBP2). An increase in expressions of apoA-I gene and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was detected in HF-fed mice treated with high dose hawthorn. Our data suggest that hawthorn extract are capable of decreasing glucose production and triacylglycerol synthesis by inducing AMPK-phosphorylation and hawthorn is a candidate source of antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic phytonutrients factors. © 2013 Chun-Ching Shih et al.

Chang Y.-C.,Fong Yuan Hospital | Lo H.-H.,Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease | Year: 2013

No literature is available on the prevalence and clinical aspects of beta-haemolytic group G Streptococcus anginosus group in central Taiwan. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer sequencing (where necessary) as the gold standard for molecular identification. Twenty-seven S. anginosus group isolates were identified from 273 beta-haemolytic GGS isolates collected from patients in central Taiwan between February 2007 and August 2011. Of the 27 isolates, 22 were S. anginosus and 5 were Streptococcus constellatus. The 3 commercial methods, Rapid ID 32 Strep, API 20 Strep, and Vitek 2 GP card, identified 77.8%, 40.7%, and 37.0% of S. anginosus group isolates, respectively, with acceptable %ID or probability level. All the S. constellatus isolates possessed the lmb gene (encoding laminin-binding protein); however, none of the S. anginosus isolates possessed this gene. All the 27 isolates were susceptible to penicillin. Five S. anginosus group isolates (18.5%) were resistant to erythromycin. The resistance genes, ermB and mefA, were detected in 3 (2 S. anginosus and 1 S. constellatus) and 2 (2 S. anginosus) isolates, respectively. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed that most S. anginosus group isolates were genetically diverse. This is the first study to evaluate 3 commercial methods for the identification of beta-haemolytic group G S. anginosus group species, and only the Rapid ID 32 Strep system showed considerable ability. The clinical aspects, susceptibility pattern, and molecular epidemiology of beta-haemolytic group G S. anginosus group isolates from central Taiwan were also first presented. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Wu C.-L.,Fong Yuan Hospital | Yu C.-C.,Fong Yuan Hospital
Hernia | Year: 2010

The contents of an incarcerated inguinal hernia sac usually consist of small bowel or omentum. Amyand's hernia, the situation in which appendicitis is noted in the hernia sac, is a rare occurrence. Also, neoplasms of the appendix is quite uncommon. The occurrence of these two conditions together is even more rarely reported. We report the case of a 62-year-old male with these two diseases simultaneously. Incarcerated inguinal hernia was noted before operation. Amyand's hernia was noted during the operation. Adenocarcinoid tumor of the appendix was noted after the operation. Operative decisions were changed during the medical course.

Lo H.-H.,Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Chang S.-M.,Fong Yuan Hospital
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease | Year: 2014

Chryseobacterium gleum is not commonly isolated from clinical source(s). Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we identified 15 C. gleum isolates from the Central Region Hospital Alliance, Taiwan, which were all misidentified: 14 as Chryseobacterium indologenes and 1 as Elizabethkingia meningoseptica using the Vitek 2 GN card. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, a rapid and clinically applicable method, was evaluated for the identification of C. gleum, and the rate of species or probable species level identification reached 13.3% and 86.6%, respectively. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, all C. gleum isolates from central Taiwan were found to be epidemiologically unrelated. The most prevalent sample was urine (35.7%, 5/14), followed by sputum (28.6%, 4/14), whereas 1 isolate was from an unknown source. All of the isolates were susceptible to minocycline, 93.3% susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, but were completely or highly resistant to the other drugs examined. Biofilm-forming ability was observed in 40.0% (6/15) isolates using the Luria-Bertani broth. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first focusing on exploring clinical C. gleum isolates. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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