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Majerus S.,University of Liege | D'Argembeau A.,Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique FNRS
Journal of Memory and Language | Year: 2011

Many studies suggest that long-term lexical-semantic knowledge is an important determinant of verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This study explored the impact of emotional valence on word immediate serial recall as a further lexico-semantic long-term memory (LTM) effect on STM. This effect is particularly interesting for the study of STM-LTM interactions since emotional words not only activate specific lexico-semantic LTM features but also capture attentional resources, and hence allow for the study of both LTM and attentional factors on STM tasks. In Experiments 1 and 2, we observed a robust effect of emotional valence on pure list recall in both young and elderly adults, with higher recall performance for emotional lists as opposed to neutral lists, as predicted by increased LTM support for emotional words. In Experiments 3 and 4 however, using mixed lists, it was the lists containing a minority of emotional words which led to higher recall performance over lists containing a majority of emotional words. This was predicted by a weak version of the attentional capture account. These data add new evidence to the theoretical position that LTM knowledge is a critical determinant of STM performance, with further, list type dependent intervention of attentional factors. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Sequeiros O.E.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Spinewine B.,Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique FNRS | Beaubouef R.T.,ExxonMobil | Sun T.,ExxonMobil | And 2 more authors.
Sedimentology | Year: 2010

Turbidity currents in the ocean are driven by suspended sediment. Yet results from surveys of the modern sea floor and turbidite outcrops indicate that they are capable of transporting as bedload and depositing particles as coarse as cobble sizes. While bedload cannot drive turbidity currents, it can strongly influence the nature of the deposits they emplace. This paper reports on the first set of experiments which focus on bedload transport of granular material by density underflows. These underflows include saline density flows, hybrid saline/turbidity currents and a pure turbidity current. The use of dissolved salt is a surrogate for suspended mud which is so fine that it does not settle out readily. Thus, all the currents can be considered to be model turbidity currents. The data cover four bed conditions: plane bed, dunes, upstream-migrating antidunes and downstream-migrating antidunes. The bedload transport relation obtained from the data is very similar to those obtained for open-channel flows and, in fact, is fitted well by an existing relation determined for open-channel flows. In the case of dunes and downstream-migrating antidunes, for which flow separation on the lee sides was observed, form drag falls in a range that is similar to that due to dunes in sand-bed rivers. This form drag can be removed from the total bed shear stress using an existing relation developed for rivers. Once this form drag is subtracted, the bedload data for these cases collapse to follow the same relation as for plane beds and upstream-migrating antidunes, for which no flow separation was observed. A relation for flow resistance developed for open-channel flows agrees well with the data when adapted to density underflows. Comparison of the data with a regime diagram for field-scale sand-bed rivers at bankfull flow and field-scale measurements of turbidity currents at Monterey Submarine Canyon, together with Shields number and densimetric Froude number similarity analyses, provide strong evidence that the experimental relations apply at field scale as well. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 International Association of Sedimentologists. Source

Fernandez N.,University of Montreal | Dory V.,Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique FNRS | Dory V.,Catholic University of Louvain | Ste-Marie L.-G.,University of Montreal | And 3 more authors.
Medical Education | Year: 2012

Context Current debate in medical education focuses on the nature of 'competency-based medical education' (CBME) and whether or not it should be adopted. Many medical schools claim to run 'competency-based' curricula, but the structure of their programmes can differ radically. A review of the existing CBME literature reveals that little attention has been paid to defining the concept of competence. A straightforward examination of what is meant by the term 'competence' is noticeably missing from the literature, despite its impact on medical training. Objectives This paper aims to illustrate the varying conceptions of 'competence' by comparing and contrasting definitions provided in the health sciences education literature and discussing their respective impacts on medical education. Methods A systematic review of recent publications in medical education journals published in English and French was conducted to extract definitions of competence or, if definitions were not explicitly stated, to derive the authors' implicit conception of competence. A sample of 14 definitions from articles in the health sciences education field was studied using thematic analysis. Results There is agreement that competence is composed of knowledge, skills and other components. Although agreement about the nature of these other components is lacking, attitudes and values are suggested to be essential ingredients of competence. Furthermore, a clear divergence in conceptions of how a competent person utilises these components is apparent. One view specifies that competence involves selecting components according to specific situations, as required. A second view places greater emphasis on the synergy that results from the use of a combination of components in a given situation. Conclusions These conceptual distinctions have many implications for the way CBME is implemented. A conception of competence as the selection of components may lead to a greater emphasis, in a training setting, on the mastery of each component separately. A conception of competence as the use of a combination of components leads to greater emphasis on the synergy that results as they are deployed in clinical situations. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012. Source

Vistoli D.,University of Versailles | Vistoli D.,Laval University | Vistoli D.,Center Interdisciplinaire Of Recherche En Readaptation Et Integration Sociale | Passerieux C.,University of Versailles | And 5 more authors.
Social Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Chronometric properties of theory of mind and intentions understanding more specifically are well documented. Notably, it was demonstrated using magnetoencephalography that the brain regions involved were recruited as soon as 200 ms post-stimulus. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to characterize an electrophysiological marker of attribution of intentions. We also explored the robustness of this ERP signature under two conditions corresponding to either explicit instructions to focus on others’ intentions or implicit instructions with no reference to mental states. Two matched groups of 16 healthy volunteers each received either explicit or no instructions about intentions and performed a nonverbal attribution of intentions task based on sequential four-image comic strips depicting either intentional or physical causality. A bilateral posterior positive component, ranging from 250 to 650 ms post-stimulus, showed greater amplitude in intentional than in physical condition (the intention ERP effect). This effect occurs during the third image only, suggesting that it reflects the integration of information depicted in the third image to the contextual cues given by the first two. The intention effect was similar in the two groups of subjects. Overall, our results identify a clear ERP marker of the first hundreds of milliseconds of intentions processing probably related to a contextual integrative mechanism and suggest its robustness by showing its blindness to task demands manipulation. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Dory V.,Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique FNRS | Dory V.,Catholic University of Louvain | Gagnon R.,University of Montreal | Vanpee D.,Catholic University of Louvain | Charlin B.,University of Montreal
Medical Education | Year: 2012

Context Programmes of assessment should measure the various components of clinical competence. Clinical reasoning has been traditionally assessed using written tests and performance-based tests. The script concordance test (SCT) was developed to assess clinical data interpretation skills. A recent review of the literature examined the validity argument concerning the SCT. Our aim was to provide potential users with evidence-based recommendations on how to construct and implement an SCT. Methods A systematic review of relevant databases (MEDLINE, ERIC [Education Resources Information Centre], PsycINFO, the Research and Development Resource Base [RDRB, University of Toronto]) and Google Scholar, medical education journals and conference proceedings was conducted for references in English or French. It was supplemented by ancestry searching and by additional references provided by experts. Results The search yielded 848 references, of which 80 were analysed. Studies suggest that tests with around 100 items (25-30 cases), of which 25% are discarded after item analysis, should provide reliable scores. Panels with 10-20 members are needed to reach adequate precision in terms of estimated reliability. Panellists' responses can be analysed by checking for moderate variability among responses. Studies of alternative scoring methods are inconclusive, but the traditional scoring method is satisfactory. There is little evidence on how best to determine a pass/fail threshold for high-stakes examinations. Conclusions Our literature search was broad and included references from medical education journals not indexed in the usual databases, conference abstracts and dissertations. There is good evidence on how to construct and implement an SCT for formative purposes or medium-stakes course evaluations. Further avenues for research include examining the impact of various aspects of SCT construction and implementation on issues such as educational impact, correlations with other assessments, and validity of pass/fail decisions, particularly for high-stakes examinations. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012. Source

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