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PubMed | University of Catania, Policlinico G.B. Morgagni, Fondazione Mediterranea G.B. Morgagni and Msc Health Research Methodology Fondazione Mediterranea Gb Morgagni
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Igiene e sanita pubblica | Year: 2014

A cross-sectional survey was performed among 50 to 75 year-old residents in the town of Regalbuto in Sicily (Italy), to evaluate risk factors and prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in this geographically- defined population. Subjects were invited to participate by letter and those accepting to participate were asked to complete a questionnaire collecting personal data and information regarding the presence of risk factors for CVD. All participating subjects aged >50 years and with a minimum of four risk factors for CVD (smoking, hypertension, diabetes, obesity) were screened for cardiac disease and carotid stenosis (> 50% stenosis). Screening for aortic aneurysms was performed only in male participants aged >65, regardless of the presence or absence of risk factors. Screening was performed by electrocardiography, bi-dimensional echography and ecodoppler. Overall 3,073 subjects were invited to participate, of whom 564 (18%) accepted to participate, 54% of whom female. Mean age of responders was 64 years. No differences were found in the prevalence of risk factors amongst men and women. Twenty-seven percent had one risk factor for CV disease, 35% had two risk factors, 19% had three and 6% had four or more risk factors. Hypertension was the most common risk factor detected (62%), followed by dyslipidemia (57%), obesity (26%), tobacco smoke (23%) and diabetes mellitus (17%). Overall, 134 responders (24%) underwent screening, of whom 38 were screened for cardiac diseases and carotid stenosis and 126 for aortic aneurysms. Screening identified 14 new cases of cardiovascular disease: three cases of carotid stenosis, eight of ischemic cardiopathy, and three aneurysms. In conclusion, screening in high risk subjects identified a high percentage of subects with CVD.

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