Leone M.,Headache Center and Pain Neuromodulation Unit |
Cecchini A.P.,Headache Center and Pain Neuromodulation Unit |
Franzini A.,Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Neurologico |
Bussone G.,Headache Center and Pain Neuromodulation Unit
Future Neurology | Year: 2013
Neurostimulation techniques have increased our therapeutic armamentarium, providing additional options for the treatment of patients with drug-resistant headache. Occipital nerve stimulation can be considered in drug-resistant chronic cluster headache and, with more caution, in drug-resistant chronic migraine. Approximately 12 years after its introduction, hypothalamic stimulation is a valid option for drug-resistant chronic cluster headache to be considered when occipital nerve stimulation fails. Several other peripheral stimulation approaches (in addition to occipital nerve stimulation) have been introduced in recent years; however, for the most part, appropriate studies supporting their efficacy are lacking. Transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcutaneous supraorbital nerve stimulation, sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation and vagal nerve stimulation have all been tried, but results are not wholly convincing, and more extensive evaluations are required. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd.