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Grimaldi F.,Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit | Muser D.,Cardiothoracic Surgery | Beltrami C.A.,Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia di Udine | Machin P.,Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia di Udine | And 8 more authors.
Frontiers in Endocrinology

Introduction: Histological distinction between typical and atypical bronchopulmonary car- cinoids is based on mitotic activity and necrosis. Regardless of these two parameters, outcome after surgery is often unpredictable. In this study the prognostic value of different clinico-pathological factors was retrospectively analyzed in a large series of patients with bronchopulmonary carcinoid. Materials and Methods: The long-term post-surgical out- come of 106 radically treated patients affected by bronchopulmonary carcinoid from two Italian centers was correlated with tumor characteristics assessed by combining conven- tional histology with a panel of immunohistochemical markers of neuroendocrine differen- tiation (chromogranin-A, NSE) and proliferation activity (Ki-67 score). Results: Carcinoids were assessed as typical (TC = 75; 70.8%) and atypical (AC = 31; 29.2%). Mean follow-up was 8.3 years (range: 0-20; median: 8.0). All cases expressed neuroendocrine markers. At univariate analysis, tumor recurrence [14/75 TC (18.7%), 15/31 AC (48.4%)] correlated with carcinoid histotype (P = 0.003), tumor size (P = 0.012), mitotic index (P = 0.044), Ki-67 score (P < 0.0001), and synchronous node metastasis (P = 0.037). Of these, Cox multivari- ate analysis confirmed only Ki-67 score as independent predictor of disease recurrence (P = 0.009). The best cut-off for Ki-67 score (calculated by ROC curves) discriminating recurrent vs non-recurrent disease was 4% (sensitivity 79.3%; specificity 83.8%; area under the curve 0.85). By stratifying patients according to this cut-off, a significantly dif- ferent disease-free survival was found (log-rank test P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Ki-67 score accurately separates bronchopulmonary carcinoids in two well-distinct histo-prognostic categories. Ki-67 score predicts the patients outcome better than mitotic count, histotype, and tumor stage and it is therefore helpful in establishing the appropriate follow-up. © 2011 Grimaldi, Muser, Beltrami, Machin, Morelli, Pizzolitto, Talmassons, Marciello, Colao, Monaco, Monaco and Faggiano. Source

Faggiano A.,Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Fondazione | Milone F.,University of Naples Federico II | Ramundo V.,University of Naples Federico II | Chiofalo M.G.,Italian National Cancer Institute | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

Context and Objectives: The prognosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) depends on the completeness of the first surgical treatment. To date, it is not possible to predict whether the tumor has been completely removed after surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of an intraoperative calcitonin monitoring as a predictor of the final outcome after surgery in patients with MTC. Patients and Methods: Twenty patients underwent total thyroidectomy and central lymph node dissection on the basis of a positive pentagastrin test. In six cases a preoperative diagnosis of MTC was achieved at the cytological examination. During the surgical intervention, calcitonin was measured at the time of anesthesia, at the time of manipulation, and 10 and 30 min after surgical excision. At the histological examination, 10 patients had MTC and 10 had C cell hyperplasia. Results: As compared with calcitonin levels before thyroidectomy, a decrease of calcitonin greater than 50% 30 min after surgery was able to significantly distinguish patients who were cured from those who experienced persistence of disease. It was not possible to find a similar result when the decrease of calcitonin 10 min after surgery was considered. Conclusions: A rate of calcitonin decrease less than 50% 30 min after thyroidectomy plus central neck lymph node dissection suggests the persistence of tumor tissue in patients operated for MTC. These results indicate that intraoperative calcitonin monitoring may be a useful tool to predict the completeness of surgery in patients with MTC. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society. Source

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