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Visser O.,Comprehensive Cancer Center the Netherlands | Adolfsson J.,Karolinska Institutet | Rossi S.,Istituto Superiore Sanita | Verne J.,South West Public Health Observatory | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2012

Background: The RARECARE project aims at increasing knowledge of rare cancers in Europe. This manuscript describes the epidemiology (incidence, prevalence, survival) of rare urogenital cancers, taking into account the morphological characterisation of these tumours. Methods: We used data gathered by RARECARE on cancer patients diagnosed from 1995 to 2002 and archived in 64 European population-based cancer registries, followed up to December 31st, 2003 or later. Results: The annual number of males that develop penile cancer in the EU is estimated at 3100, which is equivalent to an age standardised rate (ASR) of 12 per million males. The 5-year relative survival rate is 69%, while squamous cell carcinoma is the predominant morphological entity. Each year around 650 persons in the EU develop cancer of the urethra and 7200 develop cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter (RPU). The ASR for cancer of the urethra and RPU is 1.1 (males 1.6; females 0.6) and 12 (males 16; females 7) per million inhabitants, respectively. The 5-year relative survival rate for cancer of the urethra and RPU is 54% and 51%, respectively. Transitional cell carcinoma is the predominant morphological entity of cancer of the urethra and RPU. Conclusions: In view of the low number of cases and the fact that one third to one half of the patients die of their disease, centralisation of treatment of these rare tumours to a select number of specialist centres should be promoted. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Van Der Zwan J.M.,Comprehensive Cancer Center the Netherlands | Mallone S.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Van Dijk B.,Comprehensive Cancer Center the Netherlands | Bielska-Lasota M.,National Institute of Public Health | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2012

The rarity or the asymptomatic character of endocrine tumours results in a lack of epidemiological studies on their incidence and survival patterns. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of endocrine tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002, registered in 89 population-based cancer registries (CRs) with follow-up until 31st December 2003. These data give an unique overview of the burden of endocrine carcinomas in Europe. A list of tumour entities based on the third International Classification of Diseases for Oncology was provided by the project Surveillance of rare cancer in Europe (RARECARE) project. Over 33,594 cases of endocrine carcinomas were analysed in this study. Incidence rates increased with age and were highest in patients 65 years of age or older. In 2003, more than 315,000 persons in the EU (27 countries) were alive with a past diagnosis of a carcinoma of endocrine organs. The incidence of pituitary carcinoma equalled four per 1,000,000 person years and showed the strongest decline in survival with increasing age. Thyroid cancer showed the highest crude incidence rates (four per 100,000 person years) and was the only entity with a gender difference: (female-to-male ratio: 2:9). Parathyroid carcinoma was the rarest endocrine entity with two new cases per 10,000,000 person years. For adrenal carcinoma, the most remarkable observations were a higher survival for women compared to men (40% compared to 32%, respectively) and a particularly low relative survival of 24% in patients 65 years of age or older. More high quality studies on rare cancers, with additional information, e.g. on stage and therapeutic approach, are needed and may be of help in partly explaining the observed variation in survival. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Van Der Zwan J.M.,Comprehensive Cancer Center the Netherlands | Trama A.,Fondazione IRCSS | Otter R.,Comprehensive Cancer Center the Netherlands | Larranaga N.,Basque Country Cancer Registry | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Because of the low incidence, and limited opportunities for large patient volume experiences, there are very few relevant studies of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). A large population-based database (including cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002 and registered in 76 population-based cancer registries [CRs]), provided by the project 'surveillance of rare cancers in Europe' (RARECARE) is used to describe the basic indicators of incidence, prevalence and survival of NETs, giving a unique overview on the burden of NETs in Europe. NETs at all cancer sites, excluding lung, were analysed in this study. In total over 20,000 incident cases of NETs were analysed and a data quality check upon specific NETs was performed. The overall incidence rate for NETs was 25/1,000,000 and was highest in patients aged 65 years and older with well differentiated endocrine carcinomas (non-functioning pancreatic and gastrointestinal) (40 per 1,000,000). We estimated that slightly more than 100,000 people were diagnosed with NETs and still alive in EU27 at the beginning of 2008. Overall, NETs had a 5 year relative survival of 50%; survival was low (12%) for poorly differentiated endocrine carcinoma, and relatively high (64%) for well differentiated carcinoma (not functioning of the pancreas and digestive organs). Within NETs, endocrine carcinoma of thyroid gland had the best 5-year relative survival (82%). Because of the complexity and number of the different disciplines involved with NETs (as they arise in many organs), a multidisciplinary approach delivered in highly qualified reference centres and an international network between those centres is recommended. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Gatta G.,Fondazione IRCSS | Ferrari A.,Fondazione IRCSS | Stiller C.A.,University of Oxford | Pastore G.,Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont CPO | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2012

Embryonal cancers are a heterogeneous group of rare cancers which mainly occur in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to estimate the burden (incidence, prevalence, survival and proportion of cured) for the principal embryonal cancers in Europe (EU27), using population-based data from cancer registries (CRs) participating in RARECARE. We identified 3322 cases diagnosed from 1995 to 2002 (latest period for which data are available): 44% neuroblastoma, 35% nephroblastoma, 13% retinoblastoma and 6% hepatoblastoma. Very few cases of pulmonary blastoma (43 cases) and pancreatoblastoma (seven cases) were diagnosed. About 2000 new embryonal cancers were estimated every year in EU27, for an annual incidence rate of 4 per million (1.8 neuroblastoma, 1.4 nephroblastoma, and 0.5 retinoblastoma); 91% of cases occurred in patients under 15 years. Five-year relative survival for all embryonal cancers was 80% (99% retinoblastoma, 90% nephroblastoma, 71% hepatoblastoma and 68% neuroblastoma). Overall survival was lower in adolescents and adults than in those under 15 years. The cure rate was estimated at 80%. Slightly less than 40,000 persons were estimated alive in EU27 with a diagnosis of embryonal cancer in 2008. Nephroblastoma was the most prevalent (18,150 cases in EU27), followed by neuroblastoma (12,100), retinoblastoma (5200), hepatoblastoma (2700) and pulmonary blastoma (614). This is the first study to delineate the embryonal cancer burden in Europe by age, sex and European region. Survival/cure rate is generally high, but there are considerable gaps in our understanding of the natural histories of these rare diseases particularly in adults. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Siesling S.,Comprehensive Cancer Center the Netherlands | Siesling S.,University of Twente | Zwan J.M.V.D.,Comprehensive Cancer Center the Netherlands | Izarzugaza I.,Basque Country Cancer Registry | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2012

Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002, registered in 89 population-based cancer registries (CRs) and followed-up to 31st December 2003. Over 17,688 cases of rare thoracic cancers were selected based on the list of the RACECARE project. Mesothelioma was the most common tumour (19 per million per year) followed by epithelial tumours of the trachea and thymus (1.3 and 1.7, respectively). The age standardised incidence rates of epithelial tumours of the trachea was double in Eastern and Southern Europe versus the other European regions: 2 per million per year. Epithelial tumours of the thymus had the lowest incidence in Northern and Eastern Europe and UK and Ireland 1 and somewhat higher incidence in Central and Southern Europe. 2 Highest incidence in mesothelioma was seen in UK and Ireland 23 and lowest in Eastern Europe.4 Patients with tumours of the thymus had the best prognosis (1-year survival 85%, 66% at 5 years). Five year survival was lowest for the mesothelioma 5% compared to 14% of patients with tumours of the trachea. Mesothelioma was the most prevalent rare cancer (12,000 cases), followed by thymus (7000) and trachea (1400). Cancer Registry (CR) data play an important role in revealing the burden of rare thoracic cancers and monitoring the effect of regulations on asbestos use and smoking related policies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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