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Pizzichetta M.A.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Kittler H.,University of Vienna | Stanganelli I.,Skin Cancer Unit | Bono R.,Istituto Dermopatico Immacolata | And 7 more authors.
British Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2015

Background Nodular melanoma (NM), representing 10-30% of all melanomas, plays a major role in global mortality related to melanoma. Nonetheless, the literature on dermoscopy of NM is scanty. Objectives To assess odds ratios (ORs) to quantify dermoscopic features of pigmented NM vs. pigmented superficial spreading melanoma (SSM), and pigmented nodular nonmelanocytic and benign melanocytic lesions. Methods To assess the presence or absence of global patterns and dermoscopic criteria, digitized images of 457 pigmented skin lesions from patients with a histopathological diagnosis of NM (n = 75), SSM (n = 93), and nodular nonmelanocytic and benign melanocytic lesions (n = 289; namely, 39 basal cell carcinomas, 85 seborrhoeic keratoses, 81 blue naevi, and 84 compound/dermal naevi) were retrospectively collected and blindly evaluated by three observers. Results Multivariate analysis showed that ulceration (OR 4·07), homogeneous disorganized pattern (OR 10·76), and homogeneous blue pigmented structureless areas (OR 2·37) were significantly independent prognostic factors for NM vs. SSM. Multivariate analysis of dermoscopic features of NM vs. nonmelanocytic and benign melanocytic lesions showed that the positive correlating features leading to a significantly increased risk of NM were asymmetric pigmentation (OR 6·70), blue-black pigmented areas (OR 7·15), homogeneous disorganized pattern (OR 9·62), a combination of polymorphous vessels and milky-red globules/areas (OR 23·65), and polymorphous vessels combined with homogeneous red areas (OR 33·88). Conclusions Dermoscopy may be helpful in improving the recognition of pigmented NM by revealing asymmetric pigmentation, blue-black pigmented areas, homogeneous disorganized pattern and abnormal vascular structures, including polymorphous vessels, milky-red globules/areas and homogeneous red areas. What's already known about this topic? Nodular melanoma (NM) often exhibits features associated with deep tumour extension and less commonly displays the classic dermoscopic features of superficial spreading melanoma (SSM). What does this study add? The study identifies dermoscopic features that are significantly associated with pigmented NM compared with pigmented SSM and nonmelanoma nodular lesions. This study validates, with a multivariate analysis, the dermoscopic features leading to a significantly increased likelihood of a diagnosis of pigmented NM. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

Mazzola R.F.,Fondazione Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico IRCCS
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery | Year: 2014

Most craniofacial malformations are identified by their appearance. The majority of the classification systems are mainly clinical or anatomical, not related to the different levels of development of the malformation, and underlying pathology is usually not taken into consideration. In 1976, Tessier first emphasized the relationship between soft tissues and the underlying bone stating that "a fissure of the soft tissue corresponds, as a general rule, with a cleft of the bony structure". He introduced a cleft numbering system around the orbit from 0 to 14 depending on its relationship to the zero line (ie, the vertical midline cleft of the face). The classification, easy to understand, became widely accepted because the recording of the malformations was simple and communication between observers facilitated. It represented a great breakthrough in identifying craniofacial malformations, named clefts by him. In the present paper, the embryological-based classification of craniofacial malformations, proposed in 1983 and in 1990 by us, has been revisited. Its aim was to clarify some unanswered questions regarding apparently atypical or bizarre anomalies and to establish as much as possible the moment when this event occurred. In our opinion, this classification system may well integrate the one proposed by Tessier and tries at the same time to find a correlation between clinical observation and morphogenesis.Terminology is important. The overused term cleft should be reserved to true clefts only, developed from disturbances in the union of the embryonic facial processes, between the lateronasal and maxillary process (or oro-naso-ocular cleft); between the medionasal and maxillary process (or cleft of the lip); between the maxillary processes (or cleft of the palate); and between the maxillary and mandibular process (or macrostomia).For the other types of defects, derived from alteration of bone production centers, the word dysplasia should be used instead. Facial dysplasias have been ranged in a helix form and named after the site of the developmental arrest. Thus, an internasal, nasal, nasomaxillary, maxillary and malar dysplasia, depending on the involved area, have been identified.The classification may provide a useful guide in better understanding the morphogenesis of rare craniofacial malformations. Copyright © 2014 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.

Mazzola R.F.,Fondazione Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico IRCCS | Mazzola I.C.,Fondazione Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico IRCCS
Clinics in Plastic Surgery | Year: 2015

Fat injection empirically started 100 year ago to correct contour deformities mainly on the face and breast. The German surgeon Eugene Hollaender (1867-1932) proposed a cocktail of human and ram fat, to avoid reabsorption. Nowadays, fat injection has evolved, and it ranks among the most popular procedures, for it provides the physician with a range of aesthetic and reconstructive clinical applications with regenerative effects on the surrounding tissues. New research from all over the world has demonstrated the role of adipose-derived stem cells, present in the adipose tissue, in the repair of damaged or missing tissues. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

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