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Santalucia P.,Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda
Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Posterior circulation stroke accounts for about 20% of all ischemic strokes in a variety of syndromic pictures ranging from lacunar and limited infarcts to more extensive involvement. Furthermore, infarcts in the vertebrobasilar (VB) region are frequently multiple and not univocally identifiable in one single clinical entity; the prognosis is sometimes unpredictable and very often is unfavorable having a high early mortality rate. The basilar artery (BA), which is the main vessel of the posterior circulation, supplies most of the brainstem and occipital lobes and part of the cerebellum and thalami, its occlusion (BAO) is the most severe occurrence in the posterior circulation infarct context. The optimum management of BAO is still under debate and in the absence of randomized studies the most appropriate approach is still unclear. In the previous chapters, single territory infarcts involving the posterior circulation have been discussed. The present chapter will discuss extended infarcts in the VB territory due to different degrees of VB involvement or to BAO. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Garavello W.,University of Milan Bicocca | Pignataro L.,University of Milan | Gaini L.,University of Milan | Torretta S.,University of Milan | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2011

Objective: To seek evidence supporting a role for tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy in the management of affected children with periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharnygitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome. Study design: A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all published English-language observational and randomized studies evaluating the efficacy of tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy on PFAPA syndrome. A combination of keywords was used to identify relevant articles. Results: A total of 15 studies including 149 treated children were found, including 13 observational noncomparative studies and 2 randomized controlled trials. The pooled rate of complete resolution emerging from the combined analysis of all treated children was 83% (95% CI, 77%-89%). A meta-analysis of the two randomized controlled trials showed homogeneity of the results (P = .37, Breslow-Day test) and a common odds ratio for complete resolution of 13 (95% CI, 4-43; P < .001). Conclusions: Surgery appears to be a possible option for management of PFAPA syndrome. Available evidence is limited, however, and the precise role of surgery remains to be clarified. We suggest considering this option when symptoms markedly interfere with the child's quality of life and medical treatment has failed. Copyright © 2011 Mosby Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Vaira V.,Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda | Faversani A.,University of Milan | Dohi T.,Wistar Institute | Maggioni M.,University of Milan | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2011

Human Scribble (Scrib) is an evolutionary-conserved cell polarity protein, but its potential role in human cancer is controversial. Herein, we show that Scrib is nearly universally overexpressed in cultured tumor cell lines and genetically disparate cancer patient series compared with matched normal tissues in vivo. Instead of a membrane association seen in normal epithelia, tumor-associated Scrib is mislocalized and found predominantly in the cytosol. Small-interfering RNA silencing of Scrib in model lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells inhibited cell migration in wound-healing assays, suppressed tumor cell invasion across Matrigelcoated inserts, and down-regulated the expression of cell motility markers and mediators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These data uncover a previously unrecognized exploitation of Scrib for aberrant tumor cell motility and invasion, thus potentially contributing to disease progression in humans. Source

Bianchi C.,Centro IRCCS Santa Maria Nascente | Cantarella G.,Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda
Dysphagia | Year: 2011

We report the long-term history of two patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia subsequent to partial resection of the larynx (supraglottic and subtotal laryngectomy, respectively). Both fiberendoscopic and videofluoroscopy swallowing studies demonstrated aspiration of liquids and solids in the lower respiratory tract. The patients underwent a swallowing rehabilitation program and respiratory exercises to improve the efficacy of their cough, and both continued oral feeding despite their persistent dysphagia. They were followed annually over the subsequent 12 and 9 years, respectively, which included overseeing the clinical status of their bronchopulmonary apparatus (i.e., whether a productive cough was present or not), nutritional status, spirometric parameters, arterial blood gas analysis, pulse oximetry, and measurement of cough effectiveness. They also underwent serial videofluoroscopy swallowing studies, which demonstrated persistent tracheobronchial aspiration of both liquids and solids. Based on the absence of respiratory hospitalizations as well as pulmonary deterioration during the follow-up period, we discuss the importance of cough effectiveness and its enhancement as a possible protective factor to avoid pulmonary morbidity in chronic aspiration. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010. Source

Fekete K.,University of Pecs | Gyorei E.,University of Pecs | Lohner S.,University of Pecs | Verduci E.,University of Milan | And 2 more authors.
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2015

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status has recently been related to the pathogenesis of obesity. Our aims were to systematically review observational studies investigating LCPUFA status from different blood compartments in overweight or obese subjects and to assess the relationship between LCPUFA profile and obesity. The Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane Library CENTRAL databases were searched from inception to January 2014. The meta-analysis showed significant differences in the LCPUFA composition of total plasma lipids, plasma phospholipids and plasma cholesteryl esters between overweight or obese subjects and controls. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) values were significantly higher in overweight or obese subjects compared with controls in all the investigated biomarkers. In addition, the DGLA/linoleic acid ratio (surrogate parameter for Δ6 desaturase activity) in plasma phospholipids was significantly elevated (mean difference [MD]: 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02, 0.08; n=280), while the arachidonic acid/DGLA ratio (surrogate parameter for Δ5 desaturase activity) was significantly decreased (MD: -0.55; 95% CI: -0.71, -0.39; n=347) in overweight or obese subjects compared with controls. The results of the present meta-analysis confirm that LCPUFA profile is altered in obesity and suggest that the differences observed in desaturase activities may be responsible for the disturbed LCPUFA metabolism in obesity. © 2015 World Obesity. Source

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