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Chiodini I.,University of Milan | Morelli V.,University of Milan | Salcuni A.S.,University of Milan | Eller-Vainicher C.,University of Milan | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Context: In patients with adrenal incidentalomas, subclinical hypercortisolism (SH) is associated with an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The effect of surgical/conservative approach is debated. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the surgical and conservative approaches on the metabolic syndrome in patients with adrenal incidentalomas. Design: This was a retrospective longitudinal study (18-48 months follow-up). Setting: The study was conducted on an in- and outpatient basis. Patients: One hundred eight patients with adrenal incidentalomas were studied for the presence of SH, which was diagnosed in the presence of more than two of the following: urinary free cortisol greater than 70 μg per 24 h (193 nmol per 24 h), cortisol after 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test greater than 3.0 μg/dl (83 nmol/liter), ACTH less than 10 pg/ml (2.2 pmol/liter). Interventions: Surgery was performed in 25 patients with SH (group TrSH+) and 30 without SH (group TrSH-), whereas the conservative approach was chosen by 16 patients with SH (group UntrSH+) and 37 without SH (group UntrSH-). Main Outcome Measures: During the follow-up, the improvement/worsening of body weight, blood pressure, or glucose and cholesterol levels was defined in the presence of a greater than 5% weight decrease/increase and following the European Society of Cardiology or the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, respectively. Results: In group TrSH+, weight, blood pressure, and glucose levels improved (32, 56, and 48%, respectively) more frequently than in group UntrSH+ (12.5%, P = 0.05; 0.0%, P < 0.0001; 0.0%, P = 0.001; and 0.0%, P = 0.0014, respectively). In group UntrSH+, blood pressure, glucose, and low-density lipoprotein levels worsened more frequently (50.0, 37.5, and 50.0%, respectively) than in group TrSH+ (0.0%, P < 0.0001; 0.0%, P = 0.001; and 20.0%, P = 0.05, respectively). Conclusions: Regarding the various components of the metabolic syndrome, in patients with adrenal incidentalomas and SH, surgery is beneficial. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society.

Polvi A.,Folkhalsan Institute of Genetics | Polvi A.,University of Helsinki | Linnankivi T.,University of Helsinki | Kivela T.,University of Helsinki | And 12 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2012

Cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts (CRMCC) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by extensive intracranial calcifications and cysts, leukoencephalopathy, and retinal vascular abnormalities. Additional features include poor growth, skeletal and hematological abnormalities, and recurrent gastrointestinal bleedings. Autosomal-recessive inheritance has been postulated. The pathogenesis of CRMCC is unknown, but its phenotype has key similarities with Revesz syndrome, which is caused by mutations in TINF2, a gene encoding a member of the telomere protecting shelterin complex. After a whole-exome sequencing approach in four unrelated individuals with CRMCC, we observed four recessively inherited compound heterozygous mutations in CTC1, which encodes the CTS telomere maintenance complex component 1. Sanger sequencing revealed seven more compound heterozygous mutations in eight more unrelated affected individuals. Two individuals who displayed late-onset cerebral findings, a normal fundus appearance, and no systemic findings did not have CTC1 mutations, implying that systemic findings are an important indication for CTC1 sequencing. Of the 11 mutations identified, four were missense, one was nonsense, two resulted in in-frame amino acid deletions, and four were short frameshift-creating deletions. All but two affected individuals were compound heterozygous for a missense mutation and a frameshift or nonsense mutation. No individuals with two frameshift or nonsense mutations were identified, which implies that severe disturbance of CTC1 function from both alleles might not be compatible with survival. Our preliminary functional experiments did not show evidence of severely affected telomere integrity in the affected individuals. Therefore, determining the underlying pathomechanisms associated with deficient CTC1 function will require further studies. © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics.

Gertz M.A.,Mayo Medical School | Landau H.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Comenzo R.L.,Tufts Medical Center | Seldin D.,Boston University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2016

Purpose: Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is caused by the accumulation of misfolded proteins, which induces the dysfunction of vital organs. NEOD001 is a monoclonal antibody targeting these misfolded proteins. We report interim data from a phase I/II dose-escalation/expansion study of NEOD001 in patients with AL amyloidosis and persistent organ dysfunction (NCT01707264). Patients and Methods: Patients who had completed at least one previous anti-plasma cell-directed therapy, had partial hematologic response or better, and had persistent organ dysfunction received NEOD001 intravenously every 28 days. Dose levels of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 μg/kg were evaluated (3 + 3 study design). Primary objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose and the recommended dose for future studies and to evaluate safety/tolerability. Secondary and exploratory objectives included pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and organ responses on the basis of published consensus criteria. Results: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled in seven cohorts (dose-escalation component). No drugrelated serious adverse events (AEs), discontinuations because of drug-related AEs, dose-limiting toxicities, or antidrug antibodies were reported. The most frequent AEs were fatigue, upper respiratory tract infection, cough, and dyspnea. Recommended dosing was 24 μg/kg. Pharmacokinetics support intravenous dosing every 28 days. Of 14 cardiac-evaluable patients, eight (57%) met the criteria for cardiac response and six (43%) had stable disease. Of 15 renal-evaluable patients, nine (60%) met the criteria for renal response and six (40%) had stable disease. Conclusion: Monthly infusions of NEOD001 were safe and well tolerated. Recommended future dosing was 24 μg/kg. Organ response rates compared favorably with those reported previously for chemotherapy. A phase II expansion is ongoing. A global phase III study (NCT02312206) has been initiated. Antibody therapy targeting misfolded proteins is a potential new therapy for the management of AL amyloidosis. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

Daly A.F.,University of Liege | Tichomirowa M.A.,University of Liege | Petrossians P.,University of Liege | Heliovaara E.,University of Helsinki | And 63 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Context: AIP mutations (AIPmut) give rise to a pituitary adenoma predisposition that occurs in familial isolated pituitary adenomas and less often in sporadic cases. The clinical and therapeutic features of AIPmut-associated pituitary adenomas have not been studied comprehensively. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess clinical/therapeutic characteristics of AIPmut pituitary adenomas. Design: This study was an international, multicenter, retrospective case collection/database analysis. Setting: The study was conducted at 36 tertiary referral endocrine and clinical genetics departments. Patients: Patients included 96 patients with germline AIPmut and pituitary adenomas and 232 matched AIPmut-negative acromegaly controls. Results: The AIPmut population was predominantly young and male (63.5%); first symptoms occurred as children/adolescents in 50%. At diagnosis, most tumors were macroadenomas (93.3%); extension and invasion was common. Somatotropinomas comprised 78.1% of the cohort; there were also prolactinomas (n = 13), nonsecreting adenomas (n = 7), and a TSH-secreting adenoma. AIPmut somatotropinomas were larger (P = 0.00026), with higher GH levels (P = 0.00068), more frequent extension (P = 0.018) and prolactin cosecretion (P = 0.00023), and occurred 2 decades before controls (P < 0.000001). Gigantism was more common in the AIPmut group (P < 0.000001). AIPmut somatotropinoma patients underwent more surgical interventions (P = 0.00069) and had lower decreases in GH (P = 0.00037) and IGF-I (P = 0.028) and less tumor shrinkage with somatostatin analogs (P < 0.00001) vs. controls. AIPmut prolactinomas occurred generally in young males and frequently required surgery or radiotherapy. Conclusions: AIPmut pituitary adenomas have clinical features that may negatively impact treatment efficacy. Predisposition for aggressive disease in young patients, often in a familial setting, suggests that earlier diagnosis of AIPmut pituitary adenomas may have clinical utility. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society.

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