Fondazione Institute Of Ricovero E Cura A Carattere Scientifico Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico

Milano, Italy

Fondazione Institute Of Ricovero E Cura A Carattere Scientifico Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico

Milano, Italy
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Boross P.,Leiden University | Boross P.,University Utrecht | Arandhara V.L.,Leiden University | Arandhara V.L.,Loughborough University | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2011

FcγRIIB-deficient mice generated in 129 background (FcγRIIB129-/-) if back-crossed into C57BL/6 background exhibit a hyperactive phenotype and develop lethal lupus. Both in mice and humans, the Fcγr2b gene is located within a genomic interval on chromosome 1 associated with lupus susceptibility. In mice, the 129-derived haplotype of this interval, named Sle16, causes loss of self-tolerance in the context of the B6 genome, hampering the analysis of the specific contribution of FcγRIIB deficiency to the development of lupus in FcγRIIB129-/- mice. Moreover, in humans genetic linkage studies revealed contradictory results regarding the association of "loss of function" mutations in the Fcγr2b gene and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosis. In this study, we demonstrate that FcγRIIB-/- mice generated by gene targeting in B6-derived ES cells (FcγRIIBB6-/-), lacking the 129-derived flanking Sle16 region, exhibit a hyperactive phenotype but fail to develop lupus indicating that in FcγRIIB129-/- mice, not FcγRIIB deficiency but epistatic interactions between the C57BL/6 genome and the 129-derived Fcγr2b flanking region cause loss of tolerance. The contribution to the development of autoimmune disease by the resulting autoreactive B cells is amplified by the absence of FcγRIIB, culminating in lethal lupus. In the presence of the Yaa lupus-susceptibility locus, FcγRIIBB6-/- mice do develop lethal lupus, confirming that FcγRIIB deficiency only amplifies spontaneous autoimmunity determined by other loci. Copyright © 2011 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.


Bonomi M.,Fondazione Instituto Of Ricovero E Cura A Carattere Scientifico Instituto Auxologico Italiano | Somigliana E.,Fondazione Institute Of Ricovero E Cura A Carattere Scientifico Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico | Cacciatore C.,Fondazione Instituto Of Ricovero E Cura A Carattere Scientifico Instituto Auxologico Italiano | Cacciatore C.,University of Milan | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH), and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF) and 42 poor responders (PR) to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001) in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction. © 2012 Bonomi et al.


Giavoli C.,University of Milan | Giavoli C.,Fondazione Institute Of Ricovero E Cura A Carattere Scientifico Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico | Profka E.,University of Milan | Profka E.,Fondazione Institute Of Ricovero E Cura A Carattere Scientifico Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico | And 18 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Objective: Effects of GH replacement in patients with GH deficiency (GHD) after a cure for acromegaly so far have been poorly studied, although its prevalence among acromegalic patients may reach the 60%. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether metabolic parameters and quality of life are improved by GH replacement in patients with prior acromegaly and severe GHD. Design and Methods: This was a prospective study on 42 GHD subjects [22 men, mean age (SD): 48 ± 10]: 10 acromegalics treated with recombinant human GH (group A), 12 acromegalics who refused treatment (group B), and 20 subjects operated for nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma on recombinant human GH (group C). Serum IGF-I levels, lipid profile, glucose levels (fasting and after an oral glucose tolerance test), glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index), anthropometric parameters (body mass index, waist circumference, body composition), and quality of life (Questions on Life Satisfaction-Hypopituitarism Z-scores) were evaluated at baseline and after 12 and 36 months. Results: At baseline, group B showed higher IGF SD score than group A and C, as well as better quality of life and higher post-oral glucose tolerance test glucose levels than group A. After 12-months, similarly in group A and C, the IGF-I SD score significantly increased, and body composition and lipid profile improved, without deterioration of glucose tolerance. Quality of life significantly improved too, and the baseline difference between group A and B disappeared. Results were confirmed after 36 months. Conclusions: In GHD acromegalic patients, GH therapy improved body composition, lipid profile, and quality of life as in patients with GHD due to nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma, without negative effects on glucose metabolism. GH replacement therapy should be considered in these patients, as in patients with GHD from other causes. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.

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