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San Michele Mondovì, Italy

Danezis G.P.,Agricultural University of Athens | Tsagkaris A.S.,Agricultural University of Athens | Camin F.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Brusic V.,Nazarbayev University | Georgiou C.A.,Agricultural University of Athens
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2016

Food authentication is a rapidly growing field due to increasing public awareness concerning food quality and safety. This review presents critically the analytical techniques which are used for authenticity assessment, explaining how and why they give plausible solutions. Classification of different methodologies is based on authenticity indicators providing insight into future developments. Analytical breakthroughs and novel techniques that emerged recently are discussed, along with their applications on food authentication. We have discussed current limits and gaps, related to informatics needs for data analysis of large quantities. Reporting standards and reference database are elaborated indicating urgent needs for the progress of this field. A scientometric evaluation highlighted the research trends and emerging approaches of this evolving field. Popular analytical techniques are commented, while the potential of the field is depicted in the temporal evolution of the research output focusing on geographical distribution of research activity and preferred journals used for dissemination. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Fahrentrapp J.,ETH Zurich | Broggini G.A.L.,ETH Zurich | Gessler C.,ETH Zurich | Peil A.,Julius Kuhn Institute | And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Fire blight is one of the most damaging diseases in the majority of apple (Malus × domestica) producing countries worldwide. The region of the quantitative trait for resistance to Erwinia amylovora and the same data mapped as single gene in the wild apple Malus × robusta 5 was enriched with additional molecular markers. Generated phenotypic data of individuals that carry a crossing over in the region of interest allowed to position the locus coding for resistance into a short section at the top of linkage group 3 flanked by molecular markers.

Fahrentrapp J.,ETH Zurich | Broggini G.A.L.,ETH Zurich | Kellerhals M.,Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW | Peil A.,Julius Kuhn Institute | And 3 more authors.
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2013

Fire blight is the most important bacterial disease in apple (Malus × domestica) and pear (Pyrus communis) production. Today, the causal bacterium Erwinia amylovora is present in many apple- and pear-growing areas. We investigated the natural resistance of the wild apple Malus × robusta 5 against E. amylovora, previously mapped to linkage group 3. With a fine-mapping approach on a population of 2,133 individuals followed by phenotyping of the recombinants from the region of interest, we developed flanking markers useful for marker-assisted selection. Open reading frames were predicted on the sequence of a BAC spanning the resistance locus. One open reading frame coded for a protein belonging to the NBS-LRR family. The in silico investigation of the structure of the candidate resistance gene against fire blight of M. × robusta 5, FB_MR5, led us hypothesize the presence of a coiled-coil region followed by an NBS and an LRR-like structure with the consensus 'LxxLx[IL]xxCxxLxxL'. The function of FB_MR5 was predicted in agreement with the decoy/guard model, that FB_MR5 monitors the transcribed RIN4_MR5, a homolog of RIN4 of Arabidopsis thaliana that could interact with the previously described effector AvrRpt2EA of E. amylovora. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Fahrentrapp J.,ETH Zurich | Broggini G.A.L.,ETH Zurich | Gessler C.,ETH Zurich | Peil A.,Julius Kuhn Institute | And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Malus × robusta 5 is a crab apple highly resistant against the disease fire blight attributed to a potential resistance gene at the top of linkage group three. The resistance gene was identified on a 162 kb BAC clone spanning the region of a major QTL. The protein sequence of this gene was further analyzed and classified as CCNBS-LRR (CNL). By comparing the previously described CNLs of other plants targeting bacterial pathogens and the presence or absence of the interacting proteins, the hypothetical mode of function was suggested to be homolog to the resistance protein RPS2 in Arabidopsis. The remaining predicted genes on the BAC sequence were annotated. Additional potential candidate resistance genes were analyzed in detail, but their predicted function could not be verified.

Perini M.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Paolini M.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Simoni M.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Bontempo L.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

In this paper, we investigate whether the analysis of stable isotope ratios D/H and 13C/12C in ethanol and acetic acid and of 18O/16O in water can be applied to the ingredients of "aceto balsamico di Modena IGP" (ABM) to evaluate their authenticity. We found that impurities in the extraction solution do not affect the 13C/12C of acetic acid and the D/H values of acetic acid are not affected under a composite NMR experiment. The standard deviation of repeatability and standard deviation of reproducibility are comparable in wine vinegar and ABM and generally lower than those quoted in the official methods. This means that the validation parameters quoted in the official methods can also be applied to the ingredients of ABM. In addition, we found no changes in the isotopic values from wine to vinegar and to ABM, and from the original must to the ABM must, providing experimental evidence that reference data from wine databanks can also be used to evaluate the authenticity of vinegar and ABM. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

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