Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM

San Michele Mondovì, Italy

Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM

San Michele Mondovì, Italy

Time filter

Source Type

Perini M.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Rolle L.,University of Turin | Franceschi P.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Simoni M.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

In this study we investigated the effect of the grape withering process occurring during the production of Italian passito wines on the variability of the (D/H)I, (D/H)II, δ13C, and δ18O of wine ethanol and the δ18O of wine water. The production of PDO Erbaluce di Caluso Passito in five different cellars in Piedmont (Italy) was considered in two successive years. Moreover, samples of 17 different traditional Italian passito wines taken at different stages of maturation were taken into account. We found that the δ18O of must and wine water and the δ18O of ethanol decrease in the case of passito wines produced in northern and central Italy using postharvest drying of the grapes in dedicated ventilated or unventilated fruit drying rooms (fruttaio), during autumn-winter. For passito wines produced in southern Italy, where the main technique involves withering on the plant (en plein air), δ18O tends to increase. The (DH)I of wine ethanol did not change during withering, whereas the (DH)II and δ13C values changed slightly, but without any clear trend. Particular attention must be therefore paid in the evaluation of the δ18O data of passito wines for fraud detection. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Danezis G.P.,Agricultural University of Athens | Tsagkaris A.S.,Agricultural University of Athens | Camin F.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Brusic V.,Nazarbayev University | Georgiou C.A.,Agricultural University of Athens
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2016

Food authentication is a rapidly growing field due to increasing public awareness concerning food quality and safety. This review presents critically the analytical techniques which are used for authenticity assessment, explaining how and why they give plausible solutions. Classification of different methodologies is based on authenticity indicators providing insight into future developments. Analytical breakthroughs and novel techniques that emerged recently are discussed, along with their applications on food authentication. We have discussed current limits and gaps, related to informatics needs for data analysis of large quantities. Reporting standards and reference database are elaborated indicating urgent needs for the progress of this field. A scientometric evaluation highlighted the research trends and emerging approaches of this evolving field. Popular analytical techniques are commented, while the potential of the field is depicted in the temporal evolution of the research output focusing on geographical distribution of research activity and preferred journals used for dissemination. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Bontempo L.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Caruso R.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Fiorillo M.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Gambino G.L.,Laboratorio Of Catania | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2014

Stable isotope ratios (SIRs) of C, N, H and O have been exensively used in fruit juices quality control (ENV and AOAC methods) to detect added sugar and the watering down of concentrated juice, practices prohibited by European legislation (EU Directive 2012/12). The European Fruit Juice Association (AIJN) set some reference guidelines in order to allow the judging of the genuiness of a juice. Moreover, various studies have been carried out to determine the natural variability of SIRs in fruit juices, but none of these has investigated SIRs extensively in authentic citrus juices from Italy. In this work, about 500 citrus juice samples were officially collected in Italy by the Italian Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies from 1998 onwards. (D/H)I and (D/H)II in ethanol and δ13Cethanol,δ13Cpulp, δ13Csugars, δ18Ovegetalwater, δ15Npulp, and δ18Opulp were determined using Site-Specific Natural Isotope Fractionation-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry, respectively. The characteristic ranges of variability in SIRs in genuine Italian citrus juice samples are here presented as well as their relationships and compliance with the limits indicated by the AIJN and others proposed in the literature. In particular, the Italian range of values was found to be not completely in agreement with AIJN guidelines, with the risk that genuine juices could be judged as not genuine. Variety seems not to influence SIRs, whereas harvest year and region of origin have some influence on the different ratios, although their data distribution shows overlapping when principal component analysis is applied. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Perini M.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Paolini M.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Simoni M.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Bontempo L.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

In this paper, we investigate whether the analysis of stable isotope ratios D/H and 13C/12C in ethanol and acetic acid and of 18O/16O in water can be applied to the ingredients of "aceto balsamico di Modena IGP" (ABM) to evaluate their authenticity. We found that impurities in the extraction solution do not affect the 13C/12C of acetic acid and the D/H values of acetic acid are not affected under a composite NMR experiment. The standard deviation of repeatability and standard deviation of reproducibility are comparable in wine vinegar and ABM and generally lower than those quoted in the official methods. This means that the validation parameters quoted in the official methods can also be applied to the ingredients of ABM. In addition, we found no changes in the isotopic values from wine to vinegar and to ABM, and from the original must to the ABM must, providing experimental evidence that reference data from wine databanks can also be used to evaluate the authenticity of vinegar and ABM. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Camin F.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Bontempo L.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Perini M.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Piasentier E.,University of Udine
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2016

The main elemental constituents (H, C, N, O, and S) of bio-organic material have different stable isotopes (2H, 1H; 13C,12C; 15N,14N; 18O,17O,16O; 36S, 34S, 33S, and 32S). Isotopic ratios can be measured precisely and accurately using dedicated analytical techniques such as isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Analysis of these ratios shows potential for assessing the authenticity of food of animal origin. In this review, IRMS analysis of food of animal origin and variability factors related to stable isotope ratios in animals are described. The study also lists examples of application of stable isotope ratio analysis to meat, dairy products, fish, and shellfish and emphasizes the strengths and weaknesses of the technique. Geographical, climatic, pedological, geological, botanical, and agricultural factors affect the stable isotope ratios (SIR) of bio-elements, and SIR variations are ultimately incorporated into animal tissue through eating, drinking, breathing, and exchange with the environment, being recorded in the resulting foods. SIR analysis was capable of determining geographical origin, animal diet, and the production system (such as organic/conventional or wild/farmed) for pork, beef, lamb, poultry, milk, butter, cheese, fish, and shellfish. In the case of the hard PDO (protected designations of origin) cheeses Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano it is also used in real-life situations to assess the authenticity of grated and shredded cheese on the market. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®


Paolini M.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Paolini M.,University of Udine | Ziller L.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Bertoldi D.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2016

The feasibility of using δ15N as an additional isotopic marker able to link wine to its area of origin was investigated. The whole production chain (soil–leaves–grape–wine) was considered. Moreover, the research included evaluation of the effect of the fermentation process, the use of different types of yeast and white and red vinification, the addition of nitrogen adjuvants and ultrasound lysis simulating wine ageing. The δ15N of grapes and wine was measured in bulk samples and compounds, specifically in proline, for the first time. Despite isotopic fractionation from soil to wine, the δ15N values of leaves, grapes, wine and particularly must and wine proline conserved the variability of δ15N in the growing soil. Fermentation and ultrasound treatment did not affect the δ15N values of grape must, which was therefore conserved in wine. The addition of inorganic or organic adjuvants was able to influence the δ15N of bulk wine, depending on the amount and the difference between the δ15N of must and that of the adjuvant. The δ15N of wine proline was not influenced by adjuvant addition and is therefore the best marker for tracing the geographical origin of wine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


PubMed | University of Rome La Sapienza, Icqrf Dg Pref Ufficio Pref V E Laboratorio Centrale Of Rome, CNR Methodological Chemistry Institute and Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2015

Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS), (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR), conventional chemical analysis and chemometric elaboration were used to assess quality and to define and confirm the geographical origin of 177 Italian PDO (Protected Denomination of Origin) olive oils and 86 samples imported from Tunisia. Italian olive oils were richer in squalene and unsaturated fatty acids, whereas Tunisian olive oils showed higher (18)O, (2)H, linoleic acid, saturated fatty acids -sitosterol, sn-1 and 3 diglyceride values. Furthermore, all the Tunisian samples imported were of poor quality, with a K232 and/or acidity values above the limits established for extra virgin olive oils. By combining isotopic composition with (1)H NMR data using a multivariate statistical approach, a statistical model able to discriminate olive oil from Italy and those imported from Tunisia was obtained, with an optimal differentiation ability arriving at around 98%.


Perini M.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Guzzon R.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Simoni M.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Malacarne M.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | And 2 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2014

Stopping fermentation using chemical or physical agents is an oenological procedure carried out in order to leave a pleasant amount of residual sugar in the wine. This process is typically used in the production of some Italian sweet wines (such as the famous Moscato d'Asti), where alcoholic fermentation is stopped once the alcoholic content reaches 4.5-10%. In this study, we investigated the effect of stopping fermentation on the isotopic values of (D/H)I, (D/H)II, δ13C and δ18O of ethanol obtained from wine. We examined 126 samples obtained by partially fermenting five different must samples (N=4 fresh musts, N=1 desulphited must) and 18 commercial Italian sweet wines. Fermentation stage was positively correlated with the δ13C and, in particular, the (D/H)II values of ethanol, but not with the (D/H)I and δ18O values. Partially fermented musts and traditional sweet wines were characterized by lower δ13C and (D/H)II isotopic values. The (D/H)II values were outside the normal range of variability for natural wines, which means that particular care must be taken in assessing the (D/H)II of sweet wines in order to avoid misinterpreting the results. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Bontempo L.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Camin F.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Ziller L.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Perini M.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | And 2 more authors.
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2015

According to EU law, the country of origin in which the honey was produced must be declared on the label and the botanical origin can be indicated. Conventional honey analyses are not always applicable and effective for determining the geographical and botanical origin of honey. In this study 265 honey samples of different botanical origin (polyfloral, citrus, rhododendron, eucalyptus, acacia, chestnut and honeydew) produced throughout Italy in different years were analysed to determine stable isotope ratios (SIRs) using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry and mineral element content using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy. The aim was to verify the relationship between these parameters and the geographical origin of honey and the botanical species, as has already successfully taken place for other commodities. The characteristic ranges of variability in terms of SIRs and mineral content in genuine Italian honey samples are presented, as well as their compliance with AOAC limit. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of mass spectrometry : JMS | Year: 2014

Stable isotope ratios (SIRs) of C, N, H and O have been exensively used in fruit juices quality control (ENV and AOAC methods) to detect added sugar and the watering down of concentrated juice, practices prohibited by European legislation (EU Directive 2012/12). The European Fruit Juice Association (AIJN) set some reference guidelines in order to allow the judging of the genuiness of a juice. Moreover, various studies have been carried out to determine the natural variability of SIRs in fruit juices, but none of these has investigated SIRs extensively in authentic citrus juices from Italy. In this work, about 500 citrus juice samples were officially collected in Italy by the Italian Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies from 1998 onwards. (D/H)(I) and (D/H)(II) in ethanol and (13) C(ethanol), (13) C(pulp), (13) C(sugars), (18) O(vegetalwater), (15) N(pulp), and (18) O(pulp) were determined using Site-Specific Natural Isotope Fractionation-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry, respectively. The characteristic ranges of variability in SIRs in genuine Italian citrus juice samples are here presented as well as their relationships and compliance with the limits indicated by the AIJN and others proposed in the literature. In particular, the Italian range of values was found to be not completely in agreement with AIJN guidelines, with the risk that genuine juices could be judged as not genuine. Variety seems not to influence SIRs, whereas harvest year and region of origin have some influence on the different ratios, although their data distribution shows overlapping when principal component analysis is applied.

Loading Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM collaborators
Loading Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM collaborators