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Rocca G.D.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery Istituto Agrario di San Michele allAdige | Rocca G.D.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Eyre C.A.,University of California at Berkeley | Danti R.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Garbelotto M.,University of California at Berkeley
Phytopathology | Year: 2011

Seiridium cardinale is the pathogenic fungus of unknown origin responsible for a world pandemic known as cypress canker affecting several species of Cupressaceae in both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. In this study, a comparative genetic analysis of worldwide populations was performed using sequence analysis of a portion of the ß- tubulin locus and seven polymorphic simple-sequence repeat (SSR) loci on 96 isolates. Sequence analysis identified two distinct ß-tubulin alleles, both present in California. Only one of the two alleles was detected in the Mediterranean basin, while two isolates from the Southern Hemisphere were characterized by the presence of the allele absent from the Mediterranean. SSRs identified a total of 46 multilocus genotypes (MGs): genotypic diversity was always higher in the California population, and calculations of the index of association (IA) determined the presence of linkage disequilibrium associated with the absence of sexual reproduction only in the Mediterranean population but not in California. In 50 instances, the same MG was found at great geographic distances, implying a role played by humans in spreading the disease. Network analysis performed on SSR data identified three clusters of MGs: California, Morocco, and the rest of the Mediterranean. Both the Morocco and the Mediterranean clusters were linked to the California cluster. Coalescent analysis identified insignificant migration between California and Italy, as expected in the presence of a single introduction event, and very high migration from Italy into Greece, as expected of an outbreak still in exponential growth phase and starting from an Italian source. © 2011 The American Phytopathological Society. Source


Duhamel N.,University of Auckland | Piano F.,University of Auckland | Piano F.,University of Milan | Davidson S.J.,University of Auckland | And 3 more authors.
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2015

The synthesis of the low molecular weight sulfonic acids, 2-methyl-4-oxopentane-2-sulfonic acid, 1-hydroxyhexane-3-sulfonic acid, 1-oxohexane-3-sulfonic acid and 1-hydroxyhexane-1,3-disulfonic acid from trans-2-hexenal and ethyl hex-2-enoate is reported. These sulfonic acids are putative precursors to the important wine aroma thiols, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol, 3-mercaptohexyl acetate and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Roman Villegas T.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery Istituto Agrario di San Michele allAdige | Tonidandel L.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery Istituto Agrario di San Michele allAdige | Fedrizzi B.,University of Auckland | Larcher R.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery Istituto Agrario di San Michele allAdige | Nicolini G.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery Istituto Agrario di San Michele allAdige
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

Grape pomace is a winemaking by-product that can be used to extract oenological tannins. Recently, some grape skin tannins were shown to contain very high amounts of two polyfunctional thiol precursors (3-S-glutathionylhexan-1-ol, 3-S-cysteinylhexan-1-ol) whose free forms are responsible for appreciated tropical-like flavours. This study shows that an oxidative treatment (no SO2) of white grape pomace and the presence of grape leaves and stems can increase the content of the above mentioned precursors. Moreover, it shows significant differences between Sauvignon Blanc, Gewuerztraminer and Mueller-Thurgau grape pomace for the 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol precursors and 4-S-cysteinyl-4-methylpentan-2-one. The grape cultivar is crucial, but the technological ability of enhancing the level of the volatile thiol precursors simply by treating the grape marc in different ways is a promising and powerful tool for the production of potentially flavouring tannins intended for food and beverage industry. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Bertoldi D.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery Istituto Agrario di San Michele allAdige | Larcher R.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery Istituto Agrario di San Michele allAdige | Bertamini M.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery Istituto Agrario di San Michele allAdige | Otto S.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

This paper describes the accumulation pattern of 42 mineral elements in Vitis vinifera L. berries during development and ripening and their distribution in berry skin, seeds, and flesh around harvest time. Grape berries were sampled in two different vineyards with alkaline soil and analyzed using a ICP-MS. Although elemental amounts were significantly different in the grapes from the two vineyards, the accumulation pattern and percentage distribution in different parts of the berries were generally quite similar. Ba, Eu, Sr, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn accumulate prior to veraison. Al, Ce, Dy, Er, Ga, Gd, Ho, La, Nd, Pr, Sm, Sn, Zr, Th, Tm, U, Y, and Yb accumulate mainly prior to veraison but also during ripening. Ag, As, B, Cd, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ge, Hg, K, Li, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Se, and Tl accumulate progressively during growth and ripening. With regard to distribution, Ba, Ca, Eu, Fe, Mn, P, Sr, and Zn accumulate mainly in the seeds, Al, B, Ga, Sn, and the rare earths analyzed, except for Eu, accumulate mainly in the skin, and Ag, As, Cd, Cs, Cu, Ge, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Na, Rb, Sb, Se, Th, Tl, U, and Zr accumulate mainly in the flesh. A joint representation of the accumulation and distribution patterns for the elements in the berry is also given. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


Bertoldi D.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery Istituto Agrario di San Michele allAdige | Bontempo L.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery Istituto Agrario di San Michele allAdige | Larcher R.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery Istituto Agrario di San Michele allAdige | Nicolini G.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery Istituto Agrario di San Michele allAdige | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2011

As part of the European TRACE project (Tracing Food commodities in Europe, VI FP, Contract N. 006942), this paper provides a wide-ranging survey of the chemical composition of 571 mineral waters bottled and marketed in 23 European countries, and discusses 39 compositional parameters (specific electric conductivity, pH, hardness, total alkalinity, ammonia, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, sulphate, Ca, K, Mg, Na, Al, B, Ba, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, La, Li, Lu, Mn, Mo, Nd, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sm, Sr, Tl, U, V, Yb, Zn) mainly referring to legal limits and nutritional implications. According to European legislation 58.1% of samples could be defined as 'suitable for a low-sodium diet' while 8.1% could be defined as 'containing sodium', 13.7% could be labelled as 'containing magnesium', 10.2% as 'containing fluoride', 4.9% as 'containing chloride', 13.5% as 'containing sulphate' and 17.5% as 'containing calcium'. 2.8% of samples did not conform with European Community limits for at least one parameter (Se, NO2 -, Mn, Ni, Ba, F and NO3 -). About 9% of samples had boron, nitrate or nitrite levels above the legal limit existing in individual European countries. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

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