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Pisani L.,S. Orsola Malpighi University Hospital | Mega C.,S. Orsola Malpighi University Hospital | Vaschetto R.,Maggiore Della Carita Hospital | Bellone A.,SantAnna Hospital | And 9 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2015

The choice of the interface for noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a key factor in NIV success. We hypothesised that a new helmet specifically design to improve performance in hypercapnic patients would be clinically equivalent to a standard oronasal mask. In a multicentre, short-term, physiological, randomised trial in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients facing an acute hypercapnic respiratory failure episode, we compared the changes in arterial blood gases (ABGs) and tolerance score obtained using the helmet or mask, and, as secondary end-points, dyspnoea, vital signs, early NIV discontinuation and rate of intubation. 80 patients were randomly assigned to receive NIV either with the helmet (n=39) or mask (n=41), using an intensive care unit ventilator. Compared with baseline, in the first 6 h, NIV improved ABGs, dyspnoea and respiratory rate (p<0.05) in both groups. Changes in ABGs and discomfort were similar with the two groups, while dyspnoea decreased more (p<0.005) using the mask. The rate of intubation and the need for interface change during the whole period of NIV were very low and not different between groups. The new helmet may be a valid alternative to a mask in improving ABGs and achieving a good tolerance during an episode of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Copyright ©ERS 2015.


PubMed | S. Orsola Malpighi University Hospital, University of Mons, University of Pavia, Public Health Care and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The European respiratory journal | Year: 2015

The choice of the interface for noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a key factor in NIV success. We hypothesised that a new helmet specifically design to improve performance in hypercapnic patients would be clinically equivalent to a standard oronasal mask. In a multicentre, short-term, physiological, randomised trial in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients facing an acute hypercapnic respiratory failure episode, we compared the changes in arterial blood gases (ABGs) and tolerance score obtained using the helmet or mask, and, as secondary end-points, dyspnoea, vital signs, early NIV discontinuation and rate of intubation. 80 patients were randomly assigned to receive NIV either with the helmet (n=39) or mask (n=41), using an intensive care unit ventilator. Compared with baseline, in the first 6 h, NIV improved ABGs, dyspnoea and respiratory rate (p<0.05) in both groups. Changes in ABGs and discomfort were similar with the two groups, while dyspnoea decreased more (p<0.005) using the mask. The rate of intubation and the need for interface change during the whole period of NIV were very low and not different between groups. The new helmet may be a valid alternative to a mask in improving ABGs and achieving a good tolerance during an episode of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure.


Moroni G.,IRCCS Fondazione Ca Granda | Raffiotta F.,IRCCS Fondazione Ca Granda | Trezzi B.,Divisone di Nefrologia e Immunologia clinica | Giglio E.,IRCCS Fondazione Ca Granda | And 5 more authors.
Rheumatology (United Kingdom) | Year: 2014

Objective. We report the first comparison between rituximab (RTX) and either MMF or CYC pulses in the treatment of active LN. Methods. Fifty-four patients with active LN received three methylprednisolone pulses for 3 consecutive days followed by oral prednisone and RTX 1 g at days 3 and 18 (17 patients) or MMF 2-2.5 g/day (17 patients) or six CYC pulses (0.5 g every fortnight) (20 patients). At 4 months MMF, AZA or ciclosporin were associated to prednisone as a consolidation/maintenance therapy in all groups. The outcomes of the three groups were compared at 3 and 12 months. Results. Patients in the RTX group were older, had a longer duration of SLE and LN, had more renal flares, had higher activity and had higher chronicity indexes at renal biopsy than the other two groups. Four patients in each group had acute renal dysfunction and ∼50% had nephrotic syndrome. At 3 months, proteinuria was reduced by 50% in 58.8% of patients on RTX, in 64.7% on MMF and in 63.1% on CYC. At 12 months, complete remission was present in 70.6% of patients on RTX, in 52.9% on MMF, and in 65% on CYC. Partial remission was reached in 29.4% on RTX, 41.2% on MMF, and 25% on CYC. Conclusion. RTX seems to be at least as effective as MMF and CYC pulses in inducing remission. Considering that patients treated with RTX had more negative renal prognostic factors, this drug should be considered a viable alternative for the treatment of active LN. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved.


Aliberti S.,University of Milan Bicocca | Messinesi G.,University of Milan Bicocca | Gamberini S.,University of Milan Bicocca | Maggiolini S.,University of Milan Bicocca | And 15 more authors.
BMC Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: To evaluate noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in diffuse interstitial lung diseases (DILD) patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) according to baseline radiological patterns and the etiology of ARF. Methods: In a multicenter, observational, retrospective study, consecutive DILD patients undergoing NIV because of an episode of ARF were evaluated in six Italian high dependency units. Three groups of patients were identified based on the etiology of ARF: those with pneumonia (Group A), those with acute exacerbation of fibrosis, (Group B) and those with other triggers (Group C). Clinical failure was defined as any among in-hospital mortality, endotracheal intubation and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation use. Results: Among the 60 patients enrolled (63% males; median age: 71 years), pneumonia (42%) and acute exacerbation of fibrosis (39%) were the two most frequent causes of ARF. A significant increase of PaO2/FiO2 ratio during NIV treatment was detected in Group A (p = 0.010), but not in Group B. No significant difference in PaO2/FiO2 ratio, PaCO2 and pH values during NIV treatment was detected in patients with a radiological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). 22 patients (37%) suffered for a clinical failure. No significant differences in the study outcome were detected in Group A vs. Group B, as well as among patients with a radiological pattern of UIP vs. NSIP. Conclusions: NIV treatment should be individualized in DILD patients with ARF according to the etiology, but not the baseline radiological pattern, in order to improve oxygenation. © 2014 Aliberti et al.


Brambilla A.M.,IRCCS Fondazione Ca Granda | Aliberti S.,University of Milan Bicocca | Prina E.,IRCCS Fondazione Ca Granda | Nicoli F.,IRCCS Fondazione Ca Granda | And 8 more authors.
Intensive Care Medicine | Year: 2014

Purpose: The efficacy of noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to improve outcomes in severe hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (hARF) due to pneumonia has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to compare CPAP vs. oxygen therapy to reduce the risk of meeting criteria for endotracheal intubation (ETI). Methods: In a multicenter randomized controlled trial conducted in four Italian centers patients with severe hARF due to pneumonia were randomized to receive helmet CPAP (CPAP group) or oxygen delivered with a Venturi mask (control group). The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients meeting criteria for ETI, including either one or more major criteria (respiratory arrest, respiratory pauses with unconsciousness, severe hemodynamic instability, intolerance) or at least two minor criteria (reduction of at least 30 % of basal PaO2/FiO2 ratio, increase of 20 % of PaCO2, worsening of alertness, respiratory distress, SpO2 less than 90 %, exhaustion). Results: Between February 2010 and 2013, 40 patients were randomized to CPAP and 41 to Venturi mask. The proportion of patients meeting ETI criteria in the CPAP group was significantly lower compared to those in the control group (6/40 = 15 % vs. 26/41 = 63 %, respectively, p < 0.001; relative risk 0.24, 95 % CI 0.11-0.51; number needed to treat, 2) two patients were intubated in the CPAP group and one in the control group. The CPAP group showed a faster and greater improvement in oxygenation in comparison to controls (p < 0.001). In either study group, no relevant adverse events were detected. Conclusions: Helmet CPAP reduces the risk of meeting ETI criteria compared to oxygen therapy in patients with severe hARF due to pneumonia. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.


Aliberti S.,University of Milan Bicocca | Aliberti S.,University of Milan | Di Pasquale M.,University of Milan | Zanaboni A.M.,University of Milan | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

(See the Editorial Commentary by Kollef, on pages 479-82.)Background. Not all risk factors for acquiring multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms are equivalent in predicting pneumonia caused by resistant pathogens in the community. We evaluated risk factors for acquiring MDR bacteria in patients coming from the community who were hospitalized with pneumonia. Our evaluation was based on actual infection with a resistant pathogen and clinical outcome during hospitalization. Methods. An observational, prospective study was conducted on consecutive patients coming from the community who were hospitalized with pneumonia. Data on admission and during hospitalization were collected. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate risk factors for acquiring MDR bacteria independently associated with the actual presence of a resistant pathogen and in-hospital mortality.Results.Among the 935 patients enrolled in the study, 473 (51%) had at least 1 risk factor for acquiring MDR bacteria on admission. Of all risk factors, hospitalization in the preceding 90 days (odds ratio [OR], 4.87 95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.90-12.4]; P =. 001) and residency in a nursing home (OR, 3.55 [95% CI, 1.12-11.24]; P =. 031) were independent predictors for an actual infection with a resistant pathogen. A score able to predict pneumonia caused by a resistant pathogen was computed, including comorbidities and risk factors for MDR. Hospitalization in the preceding 90 days and residency in a nursing home were also independent predictors for in-hospital mortality. Conclusions. Risk factors for acquiring MDR bacteria should be weighted differently, and a probabilistic approach to identifying resistant pathogens among patients coming from the community with pneumonia should be embraced. © 2011 The Author.


Aliberti S.,University of Milan Bicocca | Chalmers J.D.,University of Dundee | Zanaboni A.M.,University of Milan | Cosentini R.,IRCCS Fondazione Ca Granda | And 3 more authors.
Thorax | Year: 2013

Background Probabilistic scores have been recently suggested to identify pneumonia caused by multidrugresistant (MDR) bacteria. The aim of the study was to validate both Aliberti and Shorr scores in predicting MDR pneumonia, comparing them with healthcare associated pneumonia (HCAP) classification. Methods Two independent European cohorts of consecutive patients hospitalised with pneumonia were prospectively evaluated in Barcelona, Spain (BC) and Edinburgh, UK (EC). Data on admission and during hospitalisation were collected. The predictive value of the three scores was explored for correctly indicating the presence of MDR pneumonia via a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results A total of 1591 patients in the BC and 1883 patients in the EC were enrolled. The prevalence of patients with MDR pathogen among those with isolated bacteria was 7.6% in the BC and 3.3% in the EC. The most common MDR pathogen found in both cohorts was MRSA, followed by MDR P aeruginosa. A significantly higher prevalence of MDR bacteria was found among patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). The two probabilistic scores, and particularly the Aliberti one, showed an area under the ROC curve higher than the HCAP classification in predicting MDR pneumonia, especially in the ICU. Conclusions Risk scores able to identify MDR pneumonia could help in developing strategies for antimicrobial stewardship.


Aliberti S.,University of Milan Bicocca | Brambilla A.M.,IRCCS Fondazione Ca Granda | Chalmers J.D.,University of Dundee | Ramirez J.,University of Louisville | And 6 more authors.
Respiratory Research | Year: 2014

Background: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) and severe sepsis (SS) are possible complications in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The aim of the study was to evaluate prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and impact on mortality of hospitalized patients with CAP according to the presence of ARF and SS on admission.Methods: This was a multicenter, observational, prospective study of consecutive CAP patients admitted to three hospitals in Italy, Spain, and Scotland between 2008 and 2010. Three groups of patients were identified: those with neither ARF nor SS (Group A), those with only ARF (Group B) and those with both ARF and SS (Group C) on admission.Results: Among the 2,145 patients enrolled, 45% belonged to Group A, 36% to Group B and 20% to Group C. Patients in Group C were more severe than patients in Group B. Isolated ARF was correlated with age (p < 0.001), COPD (p < 0.001) and multilobar infiltrates (p < 0.001). The contemporary occurrence of ARF and SS was associated with age (p = 0.002), residency in nursing home (p = 0.007), COPD (p < 0.001), multilobar involvement (p < 0.001) and renal disease (p < 0.001). 4.2% of patients in Group A died, 9.3% in Group B and 26% in Group C, p < 0.001. After adjustment, the presence of only ARF had an OR for in-hospital mortality of 1.85 (p = 0.011) and the presence of both ARF and SS had an OR of 6.32 (p < 0.001).Conclusions: The identification of ARF and SS on hospital admission can help physicians in classifying CAP patients into three different clinical phenotypes. © 2014 Aliberti et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


OBJECTIVE: We report the first comparison between rituximab (RTX) and either MMF or CYC pulses in the treatment of active LN.METHODS: Fifty-four patients with active LN received three methylprednisolone pulses for 3 consecutive days followed by oral prednisone and RTX 1 g at days 3 and 18 (17 patients) or MMF 2-2.5 g/day (17 patients) or six CYC pulses (0.5 g every fortnight) (20 patients). At 4 months MMF, AZA or ciclosporin were associated to prednisone as a consolidation/maintenance therapy in all groups. The outcomes of the three groups were compared at 3 and 12 months.RESULTS: Patients in the RTX group were older, had a longer duration of SLE and LN, had more renal flares, had higher activity and had higher chronicity indexes at renal biopsy than the other two groups. Four patients in each group had acute renal dysfunction and ∼50% had nephrotic syndrome. At 3 months, proteinuria was reduced by 50% in 58.8% of patients on RTX, in 64.7% on MMF and in 63.1% on CYC. At 12 months, complete remission was present in 70.6% of patients on RTX, in 52.9% on MMF, and in 65% on CYC. Partial remission was reached in 29.4% on RTX, 41.2% on MMF, and 25% on CYC.CONCLUSION: RTX seems to be at least as effective as MMF and CYC pulses in inducing remission. Considering that patients treated with RTX had more negative renal prognostic factors, this drug should be considered a viable alternative for the treatment of active LN. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.


PubMed | IRCCS Fondazione Ca Granda
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Rheumatology (Oxford, England) | Year: 2014

We report the first comparison between rituximab (RTX) and either MMF or CYC pulses in the treatment of active LN.Fifty-four patients with active LN received three methylprednisolone pulses for 3 consecutive days followed by oral prednisone and RTX 1 g at days 3 and 18 (17 patients) or MMF 2-2.5 g/day (17 patients) or six CYC pulses (0.5 g every fortnight) (20 patients). At 4 months MMF, AZA or ciclosporin were associated to prednisone as a consolidation/maintenance therapy in all groups. The outcomes of the three groups were compared at 3 and 12 months.Patients in the RTX group were older, had a longer duration of SLE and LN, had more renal flares, had higher activity and had higher chronicity indexes at renal biopsy than the other two groups. Four patients in each group had acute renal dysfunction and 50% had nephrotic syndrome. At 3 months, proteinuria was reduced by 50% in 58.8% of patients on RTX, in 64.7% on MMF and in 63.1% on CYC. At 12 months, complete remission was present in 70.6% of patients on RTX, in 52.9% on MMF, and in 65% on CYC. Partial remission was reached in 29.4% on RTX, 41.2% on MMF, and 25% on CYC.RTX seems to be at least as effective as MMF and CYC pulses in inducing remission. Considering that patients treated with RTX had more negative renal prognostic factors, this drug should be considered a viable alternative for the treatment of active LN.

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