Courtételle, Switzerland
Courtételle, Switzerland

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Mascher F.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW | Matasci C.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW | Kellenberger S.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW | Beuret B.,Fondation Rurale Interjurassienne | And 11 more authors.
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2012

Breeding for powdery mildew resistant wheat varieties needs information on the presence of virulences and the virulence structure of the current powdery mildew populations. In this work, we present a novel approach for virulence analyses by global analysis and not by analyzing the constituents of the population, as this was done in previous studies. Here, by planting the tester lines directly in the field, it is possible to screen the upcome of virulences during the whole season. Monitoring plots have been installed between 2003 and 2010 at 8 up to 17 sites all over Switzerland. More than 104 powdery mildew populations could be screened. The results show only little changes among the dominating resistances, but multiple virulences are likely to have increased. The virulence structures of the populations show very changing patterns over the years and over the sites. This may be linked to the wheat varieties cultivated and, probably more important, due to environmental factors. Unfortunately, these factors could not be studied within the present work. Overall, the here presented method of global virulence analysis meets the needs for breeding of resistant varieties. Future virulence screenings will analyse the efficacy and the durability of novel resistances.


Furst T.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Furst T.,University of Basel | Tschannen A.B.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cte Divoire | Raso G.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | And 10 more authors.
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology | Year: 2010

Background. Current conceptual frameworks on the interrelationship between armed conflict and poverty are based primarily on aggregated macro-level data and/or qualitative evidence and usually focus on adherents of warring factions. In contrast, there is a paucity of quantitative studies about the socioeconomic consequences of armed conflict at the micro-level, i.e., noncommitted local households and civilians. Methods. We conducted a secondary analysis of data pertaining to risk factors for malaria and neglected tropical diseases. Standardized questionnaires were administered to 182 households in a rural part of western Cte d'Ivoire in August 2002 and again in early 2004. Between the two surveys, the area was subject to intensive fighting in the Ivorian civil war. Principal component analysis was applied at the two time points for constructing an asset-based wealth-index and categorizing the households in wealth quintiles. Based on quintile changes, the households were labeled as 'worse-off', 'even' or 'better-off'. Statistical analysis tested for significant associations between the socioeconomic fates of households and head of household characteristics, household composition, village characteristics and self-reported events associated with the armed conflict. Most-poor/least-poor ratios and concentration indices were calculated to assess equity changes in households' asset possession. Results. Of 203 households initially included in the first survey, 21 were lost to follow-up. The population in the remaining 182 households shrunk from 1,749 to 1,625 persons due to migration and natural population changes. However, only weak socioeconomic dynamics were observed; every seventh household was defined as 'worse-off' or 'better-off' despite the war-time circumstances. Analysis of other reported demographic and economic characteristics did not clearly identify more or less resilient households, and only subtle equity shifts were noted. However, the results indicate significant changes in livelihood strategies with a significant return to agricultural production and a decrease in the diversity of socioeconomic activities. Conclusion. Situational constraints and methodological obstacles are inherent in conflict settings and hamper conflict-related socioeconomic research. Furthermore, sensitive methods to assess and meaningfully interpret longitudinal micro-level wealth data from low-income countries are lacking. Despite compelling evidence of socioeconomic dynamics triggered by armed conflicts at the macro-level, we could not identify similar effects at the micro-level. A deeper understanding of household profiles that are more resilient to armed conflict could help to better prevent and/or alleviate adverse conflict-related and increasingly civilian-borne socioeconomic effects. © 2010 Fürst et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Gallot M.,Fondation Rurale Interjurassienne | Buchwalder G.,Fondation Rurale Interjurassienne | Beuret B.,Fondation Rurale Interjurassienne | Cecilio J.-M.,Association de Developpement de l'Apiculture en Rhone Alpes ADARA | And 4 more authors.
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2016

Establishing an autumn vegetation cover following the grain harvests is common practice in the farming community. Although certain beekeepers look forward to this foraging opportunity, others suspect a weakening of the bee colonies after they forage on these cover crops, and fear the premature exhaustion of the winter bees. The experiment presented here attempts to evaluate whether late foraging weakens or stimulates the colonies before winter, and whether it has an impact on overwintering. It also aims to determine whether the intermediate crops established directly after a straw cereal coated in neonicotinoids may represent a potential danger for bees. The study shows that foraging on intermediate crops has neither an adverse nor a positive effect on bee populations during flowering and in the following months. Moreover, winter losses are no greater. Chemical analyses show that neonicotinoids may be present in the soil whatever the treatment of the previous crop, and that traces are sometimes found in the pollen brought back to the hive, as well as in the bee bread. These conditions prevent us from comparing two groups with clear different exposures, which would allow us to test the effect of the neonicotinoids in the previous crop on the colonies. © 2016, AMTRA - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique. All Rights Reserved.


Soro D.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques Csrs | Dao D.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques Csrs | Girardin O.,Fondation rurale interjurassienne | Bi T.T.,British Petroleum | Tschannen B.A.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques Csrs
Cahiers Agricultures | Year: 2010

The yam is one of the most important food crops in the Ivory Coast in terms of production and consumption. Thirty improved varieties from the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) were introduced by the Centre suisse de recherches scientifiques (CSRS) in Côte d'Ivoire for diffusion. ANADER (the National Agency for Rural Development) participated in the identification of the pilot farmers and helped to conduct the trials in order to understand the mechanisms for technological transfer in agriculture. The varieties introduced proved to give better agronomical performance than the local ones. Still, their poorer culinary quality limited their acceptability. In fact, the decision of farmers was based on two principal criteria: quality and productivity. Two varieties of Dioscorea alata and two varieties of Dioscorea rotundata were particularly appreciated for their quality and productivity. In addition, D. alata varieties proved to be better ground cover. Some yam varieties were appreciated by producers for their broad distribution phase but were finally rejected due to their purplish coloured flesh. After selection, the most appreciated varieties were spontaneously distributed among producers. This distribution was initially supported by ANADER, the main agency. The distribution took into account the economic value and the relative utility of the varieties. The diffusion curve was sigmoid for all species. In total, 38% of producers (n = 1,283) accepted the varieties and the adoption process of these varieties today is still going on.

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