Fondation Congolaise Pour la Recherche Medicale

Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo

Fondation Congolaise Pour la Recherche Medicale

Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo

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PubMed | INC Research, Center Antituberculeux Of Brazzaville and Fondation Congolaise pour la Recherche Medicale
Type: | Journal: BMC research notes | Year: 2015

The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT) in resource-limited countries is often solely based on clinical signs, chest X-ray radiography and sputum smear microscopy. We investigated currently used methods for the routine diagnosis of SNPT in the Republic of Congo (RoC) among TB suspected patients. The specific case of HIV positive patients was also studied.A cross-sectional study was conducted at the anti-tuberculosis center (CAT) of Brazzaville, RoC. Tuberculosis suspects were examined for physical signs of TB. Clinical signs, results from sputum smear microscopy, tuberculin skin test (TST) and chest X-ray were recorded.Of the 772 enrolled participants, 372 were diagnosed PTB. Cough was a common symptom for PTB and no PTB patients. Pale skin, positive TST, weight loss and chest X-ray with abnormalities compatible with PTB (PTB-CXR) were significant indicators of PTB. Thirty-six percent of PTB patients were diagnosed SNPT. This category of patients presented less persistent cough and less PTB-CXR. Anorexia and asthenia were significant indicators of SNPT. In the case of HIV+ patients, 57% were SNPT with anorexia, asthenia and shorter cough being strong indicators of SNPT.Chest X-ray abnormalities, weight loss, pale skin and positive TST were significant indicators of PTB. Anorexia and asthenia showed good diagnostic performance for SNPT, which deserve to be recommended as index indicators of SNPT diagnosis. Duration of cough is also a relevant indicator, especially for HIV+ patients.


Koukouikila-Koussounda F.,Fondation Congolaise pour la Recherche Medicale
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to evaluate extracts from two medicinal plants, Acanthospermum hispidum and Ficus thonningii, used in traditional medicine in Congo Brazzaville, for in vitro antiplasmodial activities against two laboratory strains of Plasmodium falciparum: the chloroquine sensitive 3D7 and the chloroquine resistant Dd2. ELISA HRP2 assay was used to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory activity of the extracts alone or in combination with chloroquine. Cytotoxicity was assessed on human HeLa cell line and reflected by the selectivity index. Methanolic extract of Acanthospermum hispidum exhibited a strong and a moderate inhibitory activity on the growth of Dd2 and 3D7 at 2.8 μg/ml and 9.2 μg/ml concentrations respectively with a selectivity index >10. The combination of the most active extract (methanolic extract of Acanthospermum hispidum) with chloroquine showed a synergistic interaction on both strains. The good selectivity index of Acanthospermum hispidum on HeLa cells reflects the safety of this plant. Extracts from Ficus thonningii did not show any promising antiplasmodial activity on both 3D7 and Dd2. Except the methanolic extract which exhibited a slight antiplasmodial activity with inhibitory concentration and selectivity index corresponding to 9.61 μg/ml and 11.16 respectively. Methanolic extract of Acanthospermum hispidum exhibited moderate to high inhibitory activity on 3D7 and Dd2 laboratory strains and a synergistic antimalarial effect when combined with chloroquine. Ficus thonningii seems to have no antimalarial activity. Phytochemical analysis, in vivo investigations using animal models and later clinical trials in collaboration with traditional practitioners are necessary to clarify the potential antimalarial activity of both plants.


Francine N.,University of Tübingen | Damien B.,Fondation Congolaise pour la Recherche Medicale | Anna F.,Fondation Congolaise pour la Recherche Medicale | Michael K.,Fondation Congolaise pour la Recherche Medicale | And 2 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2016

Malaria in pregnancy remains a serious public health problem in the Republic of Congo despite the implementation of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) in 2006. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to characterize Plasmodium falciparum infections and determine possible risk factors in pregnant Congolese women attending an antenatal clinic in a periurban area of southern Brazzaville. This study was conducted from March 2012 to December 2013 in a site where several years ago, high malaria resistance to SP was reported. Pregnant women were enrolled during antenatal visits and the number of received IPTp-SP doses was recorded as well as individual sociodemographic data. Peripheral blood was collected and P. falciparum infection was checked by microscopy and by PCR targeting P. falciparum merozoite surface protein gene (msp2). Haemoglobin concentration was measured and P. falciparum positive samples were typed for msp2 allelic diversity. A total of 363 pregnant women were recruited. The prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection was 7% and 19% by microscopy and by PCR, respectively. More than one half (51.5%) of the pregnant women were anaemic. Multivariate analysis indicated that P. falciparum infection was associated with anaemia. It was also observed that women who have received IPTp-SP have significantly lower prevalence of infection. The administration of IPTp-SP did not influence the multiplicity of infection (MOI). This first study investigating asymptomatic malaria infection on pregnant women of the Republic of Congo shows that P. falciparum infections were clearly associated with maternal anaemia, and use of IPTp-SP reduced the risk of carrying asymptomatic infections. © 2015 .


PubMed | University of Tübingen, Marien Ngouabi University and Fondation Congolaise pour la Recherche Medicale
Type: | Journal: Acta tropica | Year: 2015

Malaria in pregnancy remains a serious public health problem in the Republic of Congo despite the implementation of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) in 2006. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to characterize Plasmodium falciparum infections and determine possible risk factors in pregnant Congolese women attending an antenatal clinic in a periurban area of southern Brazzaville. This study was conducted from March 2012 to December 2013 in a site where several years ago, high malaria resistance to SP was reported. Pregnant women were enrolled during antenatal visits and the number of received IPTp-SP doses was recorded as well as individual sociodemographic data. Peripheral blood was collected and P. falciparum infection was checked by microscopy and by PCR targeting P. falciparum merozoite surface protein gene (msp2). Haemoglobin concentration was measured and P. falciparum positive samples were typed for msp2 allelic diversity. A total of 363 pregnant women were recruited. The prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection was 7% and 19% by microscopy and by PCR, respectively. More than one half (51.5%) of the pregnant women were anaemic. Multivariate analysis indicated that P. falciparum infection was associated with anaemia. It was also observed that women who have received IPTp-SP have significantly lower prevalence of infection. The administration of IPTp-SP did not influence the multiplicity of infection (MOI). This first study investigating asymptomatic malaria infection on pregnant women of the Republic of Congo shows that P. falciparum infections were clearly associated with maternal anaemia, and use of IPTp-SP reduced the risk of carrying asymptomatic infections.


PubMed | Fondation Congolaise pour la Recherche Medicale
Type: | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2011

The characterization of malaria parasite populations circulating in an area is part of site characterization, as a basis for evaluating the impact of malaria interventions on genetic diversity, parasite species, and multiplicity of infection. The present study was aimed at analysing genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 (MSP-1 and MSP-2) and to determine the multiplicity of infection in clinical isolates collected from children living in the Southern district of Brazzaville in the Republic of Congo.A total of 125 isolates from patients with uncomplicated malaria attending Terinkyo and Madibou health centres were collected between January and June 2005 while evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of amodiaquine-artesunate combination. DNA was extracted and msp-1 and msp-2 genes were genotyped using allele-specific nested-PCR.Out of 468 distinct fragments detected, 15 msp-1 and 20 msp-2 genotypes were identified. For the msp-1 gene, K1 family was the predominant allelic type carried alone or in association with RO33 and Mad20 types, whereas the 3D7 family was the most prevalent in the msp-2 gene. Overall, the mean multiplicity of infection was 2.2. Out of 125 samples, 104 (83%) harboured more than one parasite genotype. There was no statistical significant difference in the multiplicity of infection by either sex or age of patients. However, a statistically significant correlation was found between parasite densities and the number of genotypes.Polymorphism in P. falciparum clinical isolates from Brazzaville was high and mainly of multiple clones. The basis for the positive association between parasite densities and multiplicity of infection is discussed.


Linguissi L.S.G.,Marien Ngouabi University | Mayengue P.I.,Marien Ngouabi University | Sidibe A.,Marien Ngouabi University | Vouvoungui J.C.,Marien Ngouabi University | And 8 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2014

Background: In the Republic in Congo, the national algorithm for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) relies on Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) sputum smear microscopy, chest X-ray radiography (CXR) and clinical symptoms. Microscopy positive pulmonary TB (MPT+) is defined as symptoms of TB and a positive ZN smear. Microscopy negative pulmonary TB (MPT-) is defined as symptoms of TB, a negative ZN smear but CXR changes consistent with TB. The present cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of positive and negative MPT individuals among HIV positive and HIV negative individuals presenting to an ambulatory TB treatment center (CTA) in Brazzaville.Methods. All study participants underwent a physical examination, chest radiography and three ZN sputum smear examinations and HIV testing. Viral load and CD4 counts were determined for HIV positive individuals.Results: 775 individuals presented with symptoms of TB. 425 individuals accepted the voluntary HIV test. 133 (31.3%) were HIV positive (HIV+) and 292 (68.7%) were HIV negative (HIV-). Of the 292 HIV- individuals 167 (57%) were classified as positive MPT and 125 (43%) as negative MPT. Of the 133 HIV positive individuals 39 (29%) were classified as MPT + and 94 (71%) as MPT-.Conclusion: Our study shows that the prevalence of positive MPT individuals is lower among HIV positive individuals compared to HIV negative individuals in agreement to reports from other countries. The data suggest that a substantial number of HIV positive pulmonary TB cases are not detected by the national algorithm and highlight the need for new diagnostic tests in this population. © 2014Linguissi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Fondation Congolaise Pour la Recherche Medicale
Type: Review | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2016

Reliable and comprehensive information on the burden of malaria is critical for guiding national and international efforts in malaria control. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of published data and available information on malaria resulting from field studies/investigations conducted in the Republic of Congo (RoC) from 1992 to 2015, as baseline for assisting public health authorities and researchers to define future research priorities as well as interventions.This review considers data from peer-reviewed articles and information from the National Malaria Control Programme reports, based on field investigations or samples collected from 1992 to 2015. Peer-reviewed papers were searched throughout online bibliographic databases PubMed, HINARI and Google Scholar using the following terms: malaria, Congo, Brazzaville, prevalence, antimalarial, efficacy, falciparum, genetic, diversity. Original articles and reviews were included and selection of relevant papers was made.Twenty-eight published articles were included in this review and two additional records from the National Malaria Control Programme were also considered. The majority of studies were conducted in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire.The present systematic review reveals that number of studies have been conducted in the RoC with regard to malaria. However, their results cannot formally be generalized at the country level. This suggests a need for implementing regular multisite investigations and surveys that may be representative of the country, calling for the support and lead of the Ministry of Health.


PubMed | Fondation Congolaise pour la Recherche Medicale
Type: | Journal: BMC research notes | Year: 2014

In the Republic in Congo, the national algorithm for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) relies on Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) sputum smear microscopy, chest X-ray radiography (CXR) and clinical symptoms. Microscopy positive pulmonary TB (MPT+) is defined as symptoms of TB and a positive ZN smear. Microscopy negative pulmonary TB (MPT-) is defined as symptoms of TB, a negative ZN smear but CXR changes consistent with TB. The present cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of positive and negative MPT individuals among HIV positive and HIV negative individuals presenting to an ambulatory TB treatment center (CTA) in Brazzaville.All study participants underwent a physical examination, chest radiography and three ZN sputum smear examinations and HIV testing. Viral load and CD4 counts were determined for HIV positive individuals.775 individuals presented with symptoms of TB. 425 individuals accepted the voluntary HIV test. 133 (31.3%) were HIV positive (HIV+) and 292 (68.7%) were HIV negative (HIV-). Of the 292 HIV- individuals 167 (57%) were classified as positive MPT and 125 (43%) as negative MPT. Of the 133 HIV positive individuals 39 (29%) were classified as MPT + and 94 (71%) as MPT-.Our study shows that the prevalence of positive MPT individuals is lower among HIV positive individuals compared to HIV negative individuals in agreement to reports from other countries. The data suggest that a substantial number of HIV positive pulmonary TB cases are not detected by the national algorithm and highlight the need for new diagnostic tests in this population.


PubMed | Fondation Congolaise pour la Recherche Medicale
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medical virology | Year: 2016

Infectious Diarrhea caused by rotavirus and adenovirus, is a leading cause of death in children in sub-Sahara Africa but there is limited published data on the diverse rotavirus genotypes and adenovirus serotypes circulating in the Republic of Congo. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of severe diarrhea caused by rotavirus A (RVA) and Adenovirus serotype 40 and 41 in Congolese children hospitalized with severe gastroenteritis. Stool samples were collected from 655 Congolese children less than 60 months of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis between June 2012 and June 2013. Rotavirus and adenovirus antigens were tested using commercially available ELISA kits and the RVA G- and P- genotypes were identified by seminested multiplex RT-PCR. Three hundred and four (46.4%) children were tested positive for RVA. Adenovirus infection was found in 5.5% of the 564 tested children. Rotavirus infection was frequently observed in children between 6-12 months (55.9%). The dry season months recorded increased RVA infection while no seasonality of adenovirus infection was demonstrated. The most common RVA genotypes were G1 (57.5%), G2 (6.4%), G1G2 mixture (15.5%), P[8] (58%), P[6] (13.2%), and P[8]P[6] mixture (26%). Additionally, the genotype G12P[6] was significantly associated with increased vomiting. This first study on Congolese children demonstrates a high prevalence and clinical significance of existing rotavirus genotypes. Adenovirus prevalence is similar to that of other Central African countries. This baseline epidemiology and molecular characterization study will contribute significantly to the RVA surveillance after vaccine implementation in the country.


PubMed | Fondation Congolaise pour la Recherche Medicale
Type: | Journal: BMC research notes | Year: 2015

This study was carried out to identify factors affecting the acceptability of voluntary HIV testing among pregnant women in a semi-rural city, Gamboma, Republic of Congo.A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and September 2012. Pregnant women attending antenatal heath care at an integrated health center were enrolled after informed consent and followed through voluntary HIV testing.Among 136 participants, 98 women (72 %) accepted voluntary HIV testing after pre-test counseling. Women with basic education, those who cited blood transfusion as a mode of transmission and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) were more likely to accept testing as well those informed about free HIV testing. Interestingly, pregnant women who had heard about HIV/AIDS from hospital setting were less likely to accept testing.Our data indicate that increasing general education on HIV transmission/prevention modes is crucial for increasing acceptability of screening. Furthermore, HIV/AIDS knowledge disseminated to patients in hospital settings should be carefully monitored. Lastly, scaling-up MTCT services along with a better and larger community information, may address accessibility barriers observed in the present study.

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