FOFIFA DRZV

Antananarivo, Madagascar

FOFIFA DRZV

Antananarivo, Madagascar
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Paul M.C.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Paul M.C.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Gilbert M.,Free University of Colombia | Gilbert M.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza have occurred and have been studied in a variety of ecological systems. However, differences in the spatial resolution, geographical extent, units of analysis and risk factors examined in these studies prevent their quantitative comparison. This study aimed to develop a high-resolution, comparative study of a common set of agro-environmental determinants of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in domestic poultry in four different environments: (1) lower-Northern Thailand, where H5N1 circulated in 2004-2005, (2) the Red River Delta in Vietnam, where H5N1 is circulating widely, (3) the Vietnam highlands, where sporadic H5N1 outbreaks have occurred, and (4) the Lake Alaotra region in Madagascar, which features remarkable similarities with Asian agro-ecosystems and where low pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been found. We analyzed H5N1 outbreak data in Thailand in parallel with serological data collected on the H5 subtype in Vietnam and on low pathogenic AIV in Madagascar. Several agro-environmental covariates were examined: poultry densities, landscape dominated by rice cultivation, proximity to a water body or major road, and human population density. Relationships between covariates and AIV circulation were explored using spatial generalized linear models. We found that AIV prevalence was negatively associated with distance to the closest water body in the Red River Delta, Vietnam highlands and Madagascar. We also found a positive association between AIV and duck density in the Vietnam highlands and Thailand, and with rice landscapes in Thailand and Madagascar. Our findings confirm the important role of wetlands-rice-ducks ecosystems in the epidemiology of AI in diverse settings. Variables influencing circulation of the H5 subtype in Southeast Asia played a similar role for low pathogenic AIV in Madagascar, indicating that this area may be at risk if a highly virulent strain is introduced. © 2014 Paul et al.


de Almeida R.S.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | de Almeida R.S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Hammoumi S.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Hammoumi S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 25 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most lethal diseases of poultry worldwide. It is caused by an avian paramyxovirus 1 that has high genomic diversity. In the framework of an international surveillance program launched in 2007, several thousand samples from domestic and wild birds in Africa were collected and analyzed. ND viruses (NDV) were detected and isolated in apparently healthy fowls and wild birds. However, two thirds of the isolates collected in this study were classified as virulent strains of NDV based on the molecular analysis of the fusion protein and experimental in vivo challenges with two representative isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on the F and HN genes showed that isolates recovered from poultry in Mali and Ethiopia form new groups, herein proposed as genotypes XIV and sub-genotype VIf with reference to the new nomenclature described by Diel's group. In Madagascar, the circulation of NDV strains of genotype XI, originally reported elsewhere, is also confirmed. Full genome sequencing of five African isolates was generated and an extensive phylogeny reconstruction was carried out based on the nucleotide sequences. The evolutionary distances between groups and the specific amino acid signatures of each cluster allowed us to refine the genotype nomenclature. © 2013 de Almeida et al.


Nicolas G.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Nicolas G.,French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety | Durand B.,French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety | Duboz R.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 3 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2013

In 2008-2009 a Rift Valley Fever (RVF) outbreak occurred in the Anjozorobe area, a temperate and mountainous area of the Madagascar highlands. The results of a serosurvey conducted in 2009 suggested recurrent circulation of RVF virus (RVFV) in this area and potential involvement of the cattle trade in RVFV circulation. The objective of this study was to describe the cattle trade network of the area and analyse the link between network structure and RVFV circulation. Five hundred and sixteen animals that tested negative in 2009 were sampled again in 2010. The 2009-2010 cattle-level seroconversion rate was estimated at 7% (95% CI: 5-10%). Trade data from 386 breeders of 48 villages were collected and analysed using social network analysis methodology, nodes being villages and ties being any movements of cattle connecting villages. The specific practice of cattle barter, known as kapsile, that involves frequent contacts between cattle of two breeders, was observed in addition to usual trade. Trade data were analysed using a logistic model, the occurrence of seroconversion at the village level being the outcome variable and the network centrality measures being the predictors. A negative association was observed between the occurrence of seroconversion in the village and introduction of cattle by trade (p=0.03), as well as the distance to the nearest water point (p=0.002). Conversely, the practice of kapsile, was a seroconversion risk factor (p=0.007). The kapsile practice may be the support for inter-village RVFV circulation whereas the trade network is probably rather implicated in the introduction of RVFV to the area from other parts of Madagascar. The negative association of the distance to the nearest water point suggests that after RVFV introduction, a substantial part of transmission may be due to vectors. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Maminiaina O.F.,FOFIFA DRZV | Gil P.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Briand F.,VIPAC Unit | Albina E.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

In Madagascar, Newcastle disease (ND) has become enzootic after the first documented epizootics in 1946, with recurrent annual outbreaks causing mortality up to 40%. Four ND viruses recently isolated in Madagascar were genotypically and pathotypically characterised. By phylogenetic inference based on the F and HN genes, and also full-genome sequence analyses, the NDV Malagasy isolates form a cluster distant enough to constitute a new genotype hereby proposed as genotype XI. This new genotype is presumably deriving from an ancestor close to genotype IV introduced in the island probably more than 50 years ago. Our data show also that all the previously described neutralising epitopes are conserved between Malagasy and vaccine strains. However, the potential implication in vaccination failures of specific amino acid substitutions predominantly found on surface-exposed epitopes of F and HN proteins is discussed.© 2010 Maminiaina et al.


Guerrini L.,CIRAD RP PCP | Guerrini L.,Charles Sadron Institute | Paul M.C.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Leger L.,Charles Sadron Institute | And 6 more authors.
Geospatial Health | Year: 2014

While the spatial pattern of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has been studied throughout Southeast Asia, little is known on the spatial risk factors for avian influenza in Africa. In the present paper, we combined serological data from poultry and remotely sensed environmental factors in the Lake Alaotra region of Madagascar to explore for any association between avian influenza and landscape variables. Serological data from cross-sectional surveys carried out on poultry in 2008 and 2009 were examined together with a Landsat 7 satellite image analysed using supervised classification. The dominant landscape features in a 1-km buffer around farmhouses and distance to the closest water body were extracted. A total of 1,038 individual bird blood samples emanating from 241 flocks were analysed, and the association between avian influenza seroprevalence and these landcape variables was quantified using logistic regression models. No evidence of the presence of H5 or H7 avian influenza subtypes was found, suggesting that only low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) circulated. Three predominant land cover classes were identified around the poultry farms: Grassland savannah, rice paddy fields and wetlands. A significant negative relationship was found between LPAI seroprevalence and distance to the closest body of water. We also found that LPAI seroprevalence was higher in farms characterised by predominant wetlands or rice landscapes than in those surrounded by dry savannah. Results from this study suggest that if highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus were introduced in Madagascar, the environmental conditions that prevail in Lake Alaotra region may allow the virus to spread and persist.


Porphyre V.,CIRAD | Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo H.,FOFIFA DRZV | Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo H.,University of Antananarivo | Rakotoarimanana A.,University of Antananarivo | And 4 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Background: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a parasitic meat-borne disease that is highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Africa, but the burden is vastly underestimated due to the lack of official control along the pork commodity chain, which hampers long-term control policies. Methods: The apparent and corrected prevalences of T. solium cysticercosis were investigated in pork carcasses slaughtered and retailed in Antananarivo (Madagascar), thanks to a 12-month monitoring plan in two urban abattoirs. Results: Overall apparent prevalence was estimated at 4.6 % [4.2-5.0 %]. The corrected overall prevalence defined as the estimated prevalence after accounting for the sensitivity of meat inspection was 21.03 % [19.18-22.87 %]. Significant differences among geoclimatic regions were observed only for indigenous pigs, with an apparent prevalence estimated at 7.9 % [6.0-9.9 %] in the northern and western regions, 7.3 % [6.0-8.6 %] in the central region, and 6.2 % [4.7-7.8 %] in the southern region. In the central region, where both exotic and indigenous pigs were surveyed, indigenous pigs were 8.5 times [6.7-10.7] more likely to be infected than exotic improved pigs. Urban consumers were more likely to encounter cysticercosis in pork in the rainy season, which is a major at risk period, in particular in December. Differences between abattoirs were also identified. Conclusion: Our results underline the need for improved surveillance and control programmes to limit T. solium cysticercosis in carcasses by introducing a risk-based meat inspection procedure that accounts for the origin and breed of the pigs, and the season. © 2015 Porphyre et al.


Rahajarison P.,FOFIFA DRZV | Arimanana A.H.,FOFIFA DRZV | Raliniaina M.,FOFIFA DRZV | Stachurski F.,FOFIFA DRZV | And 2 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

Although Amblyomma variegatum is now regularly recorded up to 1600. m in altitude in the Malagasy highlands, where it was previously reported not to persist without a constant supply of ticks introduced from lower infested regions, some parts of the highlands remain tick-free. Studies were carried out to verify whether the cold climate prevailing in these areas in June-September could prevent the survival and moulting of nymphs, the tick life stage present in the environment at this period. Cohorts of engorged A. variegatum nymphs were released from June to August in six different sites (three in 2010, altitudes 1200-1415. m; three in 2011, altitudes 1585-1960. m) which were reported to be either tick-infested (two in 2010, one in 2011) or tick-free. The ticks were placed in cages driven into the soil and open at the bottom so that they could hide in the soil or root network. Of the 1975 nymphs released in 2010 and the 1494 released in 2011, 86% and 85% were recovered, respectively. Twenty to 23% of the recovered ticks were dead, and some of them were obviously predated; predation also likely contributed to the disappearance of the non-recovered ticks. When the rainy season started in October, 59% of the newly moulted adults were still alive in the cages. The moulting period lasted up to 20. weeks, depending on the site and release period. As verified in 2011, unfed nymphs could also survive the cold season. Various A. variegatum life stages are thus able to survive the adverse cold and/or dry seasons: unfed nymphs, engorged nymphs in developmental diapause, moulted adults in behavioural diapause as observed previously. Strong variation in mortality and recovery rates was observed between cages, highlighting the importance of the micro-environment and micro-climate for tick survival. The minimum temperature recorded in the field sites varied from 1.1. °C to 6.8. °C, but the tick-free sites were not the coldest ones; they were, however, those for which the temperature remained below 10. °C for the longest time over the study period. Recovery and mortality rates in the tick-free sites were similar to those of the tick-infested sites: the temperatures recorded during the study periods did not prevent ticks from surviving and moulting although it did delay the metamorphosis. Low temperature alone can therefore not explain the persistence of tick-free areas in the highlands. To further monitor survival, cohorts of engorged nymphs were also maintained in an incubator at 3.6. °C, 6.2. °C or 12.8. °C. More than 50% mortality was observed after 6. days at 3.6. °C, and after 15. days at 6.2. °C, whereas 18. days at 12.8. °C only delayed moulting. The collected survival, moulting and climatic data presented in this study should help to develop a predictive model to assess the distribution of A. variegatum according to climate characteristics. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | FOFIFA DRZV, Institute Pasteur Paris, CIRAD and University of Antananarivo
Type: | Journal: Parasites & vectors | Year: 2015

Taenia solium cysticercosis is a parasitic meat-borne disease that is highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Africa, but the burden is vastly underestimated due to the lack of official control along the pork commodity chain, which hampers long-term control policies.The apparent and corrected prevalences of T. solium cysticercosis were investigated in pork carcasses slaughtered and retailed in Antananarivo (Madagascar), thanks to a 12-month monitoring plan in two urban abattoirs.Overall apparent prevalence was estimated at 4.6% [4.2 - 5.0%]. The corrected overall prevalence defined as the estimated prevalence after accounting for the sensitivity of meat inspection was 21.03% [19.18- 22.87%]. Significant differences among geoclimatic regions were observed only for indigenous pigs, with an apparent prevalence estimated at 7.9% [6.0 - 9.9%] in the northern and western regions, 7.3% [6.0 - 8.6%] in the central region, and 6.2% [4.7 - 7.8%] in the southern region. In the central region, where both exotic and indigenous pigs were surveyed, indigenous pigs were 8.5 times [6.7 - 10.7] more likely to be infected than exotic improved pigs. Urban consumers were more likely to encounter cysticercosis in pork in the rainy season, which is a major at risk period, in particular in December. Differences between abattoirs were also identified.Our results underline the need for improved surveillance and control programmes to limit T. solium cysticercosis in carcasses by introducing a risk-based meat inspection procedure that accounts for the origin and breed of the pigs, and the season.


PubMed | Royal Veterinary College, FOFIFA DRZV, CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development, Chu Of La Reunion Groupe Hospitalier Sud Reunion and Spruce Health
Type: | Journal: Veterinary parasitology | Year: 2016

Taenia solium cysticercosis was reported in official veterinary and medical statistics to be highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Madagascar, but few estimates are available for pigs. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis among pigs slaughtered in Antananarivo abattoirs. Firstly, the diagnostic performance of two antigen-ELISA techniques (B158B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an immunoblotting method were compared with meat inspection procedures on a sample of pigs suspected to be infected with (group 1; n=250) or free of (group 2; n=250) T. solium based on direct veterinary inspection in Madagascar. Sensitivity and specificity of the antigen ELISAs were then estimated using a Bayesian approach for detection of porcine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard. Then, a third set of pig sera (group 3, n=250) was randomly collected in Antananarivo slaughterhouses and tested to estimate the overall prevalence of T. solium contamination in pork meat traded in Antananarivo. The antigen ELISAs showed a high sensitivity (>84%), but the B158B60 Ag-ELISA appeared to be more specific than the HP10 Ag-ELISA (model 1: 95% vs 74%; model 2: 87% vs 71%). The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Antananarivo slaughterhouses was estimated at 2.3% (95% credibility interval [95%CrI]: 0.09-9.1%) to 2.6% (95%CrI: 0.1-10.3%) depending on the model and priors used. Since the sample used in this study is not representative of the national pig population, village-based surveys and longitudinal monitoring at slaughter are needed to better estimate the overall prevalence, geographical patterns and main risk factors for T. solium contamination, in order to improve control policies.


In Madagascar, Newcastle disease (ND) has become enzootic after the first documented epizootics in 1946, with recurrent annual outbreaks causing mortality up to 40%. Four ND viruses recently isolated in Madagascar were genotypically and pathotypically characterised. By phylogenetic inference based on the F and HN genes, and also full-genome sequence analyses, the NDV Malagasy isolates form a cluster distant enough to constitute a new genotype hereby proposed as genotype XI. This new genotype is presumably deriving from an ancestor close to genotype IV introduced in the island probably more than 50 years ago. Our data show also that all the previously described neutralising epitopes are conserved between Malagasy and vaccine strains. However, the potential implication in vaccination failures of specific amino acid substitutions predominantly found on surface-exposed epitopes of F and HN proteins is discussed.

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