Fodder Research Institute

Faisalābād, Pakistan

Fodder Research Institute

Faisalābād, Pakistan
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Kalyar T.,University of Sargodha | Rauf S.,University of Sargodha | Teixeira Da Silva J.A.,Kagawa University | Shahzad M.,Fodder Research Institute
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2014

Sustainable sunflower yield is under threat by a significant rise in global temperatures. Therefore, the development of a heat-resistant sunflower breeding population or hybrid is important for sustainable yield under high temperatures. Although there are a significant number of studies aimed at understanding the mechanism of heat resistance, only few direct approaches were made to improve heat resistance in sunflower. When breeding for heat resistance, the selection criteria are important. A desirable screening criterion should be rapid, highly heritable, and allow for the discrimination of resistant and susceptible ecotypes before reproductive maturity so that undesirable plants can be eliminated. In contrast, destructive selection criteria are not applicable for a segregating population. On the basis of an extensive review of data and experimentation, traits such as leaf and head orientation at the time of anthesis are proposed for practical utilization of sunflower heat-resistant breeding. These traits could be utilized as markers linked with heat avoidance. The traits are simply inherited, non-destructive, non-laborious, and show no impact of the environment and are independent of genotype × environment. © 2013 © Taylor & Francis.


Yusuf M.J.,Fodder Research Institute | Nabi G.,Fodder Research Institute | Basit A.,Fodder Research Institute | Husnain S.K.,Plant Pathology Research Institute | Akhtar L.H.,Agricultural Research Station
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

Development of superior crop cultivars is ultimate goal of plant breeders. New variety of pearl millet "Sargodha Bajra-2011" was evolved at Fodder Research Institute Sargodha. After obtaining a uniform type of plants, the new variety was evaluated. On the basis of its high green fodder yield, the new variety was tested in Station Yield Trials (SYT) during 2003, 2004 and 2005. Simultaneously: it was also evaluated in different ecological zones throughout the Punjab during the years 2005. It was evaluated in Notational Uniform Fodder Yield Trials (NUFYT) during the years 2004, 2005 and 2006. In SYT, it produced fodder yield of 35.09-66.82 t ha-1 and out yielded the check i.e. 18-BY. In zonal testing, the data reflected that this variety out yielded all the lines/varieties and the standard check variety "18-BY" producing an average green fodder yield of 60.67 t ha-1 against 52.66 t ha-1 produced by the check variety 18- BY. On the basis of weighted average of three years, Sargodha Bajra-2011 yielded 43.7-51.3 t ha-1 green fodder yields against the check variety which yielded 39.9-47.8 t ha-1. Plant height of the new variety is 260 cm; number of leaves per main tiller are 14; leaf color is green; leaf area is 334.3 cm2 and stem thickness is 1.4 cm. It has an erect growth habit. It has better palatability and digestibility. The fodder contains 5.67% crude protein, 38.98% dry matter, 27.07 crude fibre and 3.3% ether extract. Its agronomic studies were done during 2005-09. Its DUS study was conducted in 2008-2009. This variety gives best yield when planted on 15th July at 30 cm apart rows supplied with 80-60 kg NP ha-1 and irrigation applied at 14 days interval.


Iqbal Z.,University of Sargodha | Pervez M.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmad S.,University of Sargodha | Iftikhar Y.,University of Sargodha | And 5 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

Eight fungicides were evaluated for their In vitro effect on the colony growth of Fusarium mangiferae after 3, 8 and 16 days of inoculation in pre-amended Potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. The fungicides showed variable response in inhibiting the colony growth of the pathogen according to their nature and specificity at different minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Benlate 50 WP and Carbendazim proved to be the best fungicides giving 100% suppression of the colony growth. When decrease of colony growth over control was examined, Benlate and Carbendazim showed 100% decrease over control after 3, 8 and 16 days of inoculation. The fungicides Score 250 EC, Daconil W 75 and Captan 50 WP proved to be comparatively less effective. The fungicides were classified into three types i.e., I, II and III in reference to the sensitivity of F. mangiferae. Fungus proved highly sensitive to type-I fungicides (Benlate 50 WP, Carbendazim, Topsin-M 70 WP and Copper oxychloride 50 WP) with 100% suppression at tested MICs. The studies will be helpful to devise suitable control strategy to curb malformation in mango orchards.


Hameed A.,Pennsylvania State University | Karar H.,Entomological Research Substation | Muhammad N.,Zhejiang University | Kainth R.A.,Fodder Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2016

Eleven varieties of berseem (Trifolium alexandrium) in three replicates. Anmol berseem, Super berseem, agaiti berseem, pachaiti berseem, sandal berseem, Faisalabad 1, Faisalabad 2, P-94, Punjab berseem, Pakistani berseem and chenab berseem were used. Our results revealed that armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, aphid (Sitobian avenae L.) and leaf miner [Aproaerema modicella]are important pests of berseem while the coccinellids and a syrphid fly are important predators. Varieties viz., super berseem, pachaiti berseem, Faisalabad 2, P-94 and Punjab berseem proved comparatively resistant to armyworm attack, while varieties viz., anmol berseem, sandal berseem, Pakistani berseem and chenab berseem proved moderately resistant. Agaiti berseem proved highly susceptible to armyworm attack. Varieties viz., anmol berseem, agaiti berseem, Faisalabad 1, P-94, and chenab berseem proved resistant to aphid attack. Super berseem, pachaiti berseem and Punjab berseem proved moderately resistant. Sandal berseem was susceptible to aphid complex. Leaf miner dispersion on all varieties was non significant. Predators viz., dispersal of Coccinellidae was nonsignificant on all varieties while the syrphid fly was unevenly distributed on various varieties of berseem. Apis mellifera and adults of the syrphid fly proved to be important pollinator fauna for berseem.


Khaliq A.,University of Sargodha | Khaliq A.,Fodder Research Institute | Khan A.A.,University of Sargodha | Afzal M.,University of Sargodha | And 3 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2014

The effectiveness of three botanical insecticides (neem, datura and bitter apple), and three new chemistry synthetic insecticides (acephate, spirotetramat and spinetoram) against onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) was evaluated in experimental field plots at university of Sargodha, Pakistan. The influence of these botanical and chemical insecticides on natural predators and crop yield was simultaneously investigated. All the botanicals and chemical insecticides tested caused significant reductions (45-70%) in thrips populations; the botanicals gave more than 60% control of thrips, while among chemical insecticides, acephate was found to be the most effective followed by spirotetramat and spinetoram, respectively, and these insecticides gave better control than the botanicals. The adverse effects of the botanicals on predator populations were negligible compared to the chemical insecticides. All chemical treatments resulted in a significantly higher yield compared to the untreated control. The botanicals and chemical insecticides became less effective by 7 days after treatment. Therefore, it is recommended that treatment with botanical or chemical insecticides should be repeated weekly consecutively at least three times to keep thrips populations below economic injury levels until crop maturity. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Rauf S.,University of Sargodha | Iqbal Z.,University of Sargodha | Shahzad M.,Fodder Research Institute
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2013

Progress in the genetic improvement of Citrus species was reviewed. Tools used for the genetic improvement of Citrus were categorised as conventional (introduction, selection and hybridisation) and non-conventional methods (mutation, somatic cell hybridisation and genetic engineering) of improvement. Genes linked with the disease resistance were characterised and tagged through molecular marker techniques such as Sequenced Characterised Amplified Region and Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequences. Disease resistance genes showed both monogenic and polygenic inheritance. Conventional methods for disease resistance improvement of Citrus were bottleneck due to inadequate and lengthy breeding procedures. However, non-conventional methods, such as mutation breeding and protoplast fusion, have been routinely utilised for the production of disease resistant germplasm while novel genes from variable sources were used to transform Citrus species to induce resistance against diseases. These non-conventional techniques have been shown to overcome the disadvantages of conventional breeding procedures and could be regarded as rapid methods of genetic improvement as well as helpful to overcome the interspecies barrier. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Akhtar L.H.,Regional Agricultural Research Station | Bukhari S.,Regional Agricultural Research Station | Salah-ud-Din S.,Fodder Research Institute | Minhas R.,Regional Agricultural Research Station
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

A field experiment was conducted to ascertain the response of three guar strains namely BR-99, S-4002 and BR-99 Super grown at different row spacings of 30, 45 and 60 cm during 2010 and 2011. The experiment was laid out in Split Plot Design with three replications. The data on plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length, number of grains per pod, 1000-grain weight and grain yield ha-1 were recorded. The results revealed that guar seed yield was the highest at 30 cm row spacing, suggesting there by that the guar crop is highly sensitive to row spacing. The new guar strain S-4002 gave significantly higher grain yield of 1372 kg ha-1, while the next promising variety was BR-99 that produced 1310 kg ha-1. © 2012 Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

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