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News Article | October 28, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

ALEXANDRIA, VA--(Marketwired - October 24, 2016) - The U.S. Army Corps of Engineer's (USACE) Institute for Water Resources (IWR) released on Monday, October 24 a sources sought notice for analytical and professional navigation support services. The USACE IWR intends to award an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) Multiple-Award Task Order (MATOC) contract with a base year plus four option years. The estimated price ceiling for this requirement is approximately $48 million. The Institute for Water Resources (IWR) was formed 47 years ago to provide the USACE Civil Works Program with the capability to analyze and anticipate emerging navigation trends and issues facing the United States. From its beginnings, one of the core missions of IWR has been to support the Corps Navigation program, including deep and shallow draft coastal and inland systems in the United States and worldwide. Navigation is the largest Corps Business Line, in terms of value, representing about 45 percent of the Corps Civil Works budget. IWR has been tackling the Navigation data and systems challenges coming from an ever increasing demand for products and services transported by water. As such, there remains a compelling need for analytical and professional support to pursue innovative approaches to solving these new problems. IWR is a Field Operating Activity (FOA) under the supervision and direction of the Deputy Commanding General for Civil and Emergency Operations (DCG-CEO) and Director of Civil Works (DCW) for USACE. IWR's challenging mission remains integral to shaping the evolution of Federal Navigation policy as decision-makers at all levels within USACE look to IWR for insights into a host of complex physical, economic, environmental and social issues. HECSA is seeking information on companies that have the capability to provide technical and analytical support services for the IWR that is generally not available within the USACE. The scope of this effort is intended to encompass all aspects of the Civil Works Navigation mission area and other mission areas that connect with Navigation (including Flood Risk Management, Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration, Hydropower, Regulatory, Recreation, and Water Supply, etc.), as well as support to this USACE mission. Interested contractor must be able to perform the following support services: The level of support required varies by each task order, however, in many cases future task orders will require an integration of expertise from a wide variety of these functional areas. Interested contractor must submit to the USACE by no later than November 30, 2016 11:59 p.m. EST the following information: A description of the capabilities that demonstrate the interested firm's ability to support the multiple functional areas listed above [limit 3 pages] A description of company history with regard to (a) how multidisciplinary experience was obtained or developed and (b) types and/or combination of types of awarded contract vehicles (e.g. Cost Reimbursement, IDIQ, Fixed Price, Fixed Price Level of Effort, Time & Materials, etc.) [limit 10 pages] Contract numbers for any completed/in-progress contract of similar work A description of the degree of teaming needed to meet the requirements listed above, including an estimated percentage of subcontracted partners [limit 1 page] Brief discussion of Key Personnel and their experience with the functional areas Size of business (e.g., identify whether the business is a small or large business with regard to the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code 541618) To receive the contract, contractors must be registered with the System for Award Management (SAM) database, and have as part of the Registration all current Representations and Certifications. US Federal Contractor Registration, the world's largest third-party government registration firm, completes this required Registration on behalf of its clients. It also makes available information about opportunities like this, as well as training on how to locate, research, and respond to opportunities. For more information, to get started with a SAM registration, or to learn more about how US Federal Contractor Registration can help your business succeed, call 877-252-2700, ext. 1.


News Article | October 26, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Researchers have developed a new way of obtaining useful information from big data in biology to better understand--and predict--what goes on inside a cell. Using genome-scale models, researchers were able to integrate multiple different data sets and discovered new biological patterns among different cellular processes. The research, led by bioengineers at the University of California San Diego, was published online Oct. 26 in Nature Communications. Scientists have been relying more on big data to make new quantitative discoveries in biology with respect to the genome, the microbiome, personalized medicine and disease modeling, for example. With today's technology, scientists are able to generate data about a cell's or organism's complete set of genes, proteins, RNA profiles, metabolites and much more--known as omic data. Using omic data, scientists can model complex biological interactions and gain a more holistic view of different cellular processes. But a challenge is analyzing and making sense of these large data sets. "When doing big data analysis, it is important to know how all these different data types are related. Now we have a way of connecting multiple different data types to generate fundamental answers to biological questions," said Bernhard Palsson, Galetti Professor of Bioengineering at the Jacobs School of Engineering at UC San Diego and senior author of the study. "While all these data types are derived from the same cell, they represent processes occurring at very different scales. Our work is about getting multiple different data types synchronized so that we can understand the coordination of these processes and derive meaning from them," said Elizabeth Brunk, a postdoctoral researcher in Palsson's lab and a co-first author of the study. This study is part of a larger effort to address a grand challenge posed by the National Institutes of Health called "Big Data to Knowledge"--translating large, complex biological data sets into information that can be understood based on fundamentals. In this study, researchers collected multiple omic data types (RNA sequences, ribosome profiles, protein data, metabolic data) from E. coli grown in different growth environments. The team then integrated these different data types into next-generation genome-scale models of metabolism, which were developed in Palsson's lab. They examined the relationships between omic data types and discovered new regularities, which are biological consistencies throughout a change in environment. Among the regularities they found were that during protein translation, ribosomes consistently pause at particular sites along a messenger RNA transcript, and that these pause sites dictate the protein's three-dimensional structure. Pause sites exist so that a protein has time to fold and form its overall shape, which is important for the protein to function correctly, Palsson explained. This knowledge is useful for studying cancer biology. If a tumor has a genetic mutation that eliminates a pause site, translation will yield a protein that's not folded correctly and malfunctions. "Now we have a fundamental explanation for these pause sites that we didn't have before. It's as if we're witnessing an intricate dance with a certain rhythm to make sure that a protein is formed the right way," Palsson said. The team also developed what's called a parameterized model that can be used to predict which genes are expressed when a cell experiences a change in environment. "Thanks to the high-quality topological information provided in the genome-scale models developed by Dr. Palsson's lab, we can obtain a better understanding of the connection between genes, proteins and metabolites and place multi-omic data into the context of these biochemical networks," Brunk said. Full paper: "Multi-omic data integration enables discovery of hidden biological regularities." Authors of the study are: Ali Ebrahim,* Elizabeth Brunk,* Justin Tan,* Edward J. O'Brien, Donghyuk Kim, Richard Szubin, Joshua A. Lerman, Anand Sastry, Aarash Bordbar, Adam M. Feist and Bernhard O. Palsson of UC San Diego; and Anna Lechner of UC Berkeley. *These authors contributed equally to this work. This work was supported by the Novo Nordisk Foundation (grant NNF16CC0021858), the US Department of Energy (DE-FOA-000014) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH R01 GM057089).


News Article | January 16, 2016
Site: www.greencarcongress.com

« Renault-Nissan: China to become top EV market by 2020 | Main | California Public Utilities Commission authorizes So Cal Edison to develop pilot program for 1,500 EV charging stations » The US Department of Energy (DOE) will award (DE-FOA-0001471) up to $15 million in funding to develop technologies that are likely to succeed in producing 3,700 gallons of algal biofuel intermediate (or equivalent dry weight basis) per acre per year (gal/acre/yr) on an annualized average basis (not peak or projected) through multiple batch campaigns or on a semi-continuous or continuous basis, in an outdoor test environment by 2020. Under this funding opportunity for Advancements In Algal Biomass Yield, Phase 2 (ABY2), applicants must address one comprehensive topic area with three main priority areas: In general, “biofuel intermediates” are biomass-based feedstocks that can replace petroleum-based feedstocks in downstream refining. Biofuel intermediates should be able to be treated as commodities and passed from a producer to a refiner through the supply chain. Biofuel intermediates can be refined into a variety of liquid transportation fuels such as, but not limited to ethanol, renewable diesel, and renewable jet fuel. The average yield target of 3,700 gal/acre/yr of intermediate must be achieved under conditions that result in favorable life-cycle greenhouse gas reductions and techno-economic analyses. The Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO) Advanced Algal Systems Program has a goal of demonstrating, at a process development unit scale, algal biofuel intermediate yield of 2,500 gallons per acre per year by 2018 and 5,000 per acre per year by 2022. This FOA is directed at the interim yield between the two target yields and target years. DOE expects that projects selected under this FOA will be well on their way to demonstrating the 2,500 gal/acre/yr (at a minimum, projects must be able to produce between 1,900 and 2,500 gal/acre/yr on an annualized average basis at the beginning of the proposed project—the project baseline) with a reasonable and realistic plan to produce 3,700 gal/acre/yr by the end of the performance period. The cultivation yield baseline must be supported by the inclusion of relevant experimental data within the application to the FOA. The yield goals and maximum volumes are based on an open pond cultivation system. There are many other cultivation systems besides the open pond system and the assumptions upon which these yield targets are based. Other cultivation systems, such as photobioreactors, attached growth, and hybrid systems, are encouraged in response to this FOA. Micro and macro‐alga, as well as cyanobacteria are allowed. Mixotrophic systems are also eligible; however, only renewable biomass‐derived sugars such as lignocellulosic sugars or carbon‐ containing waste effluent may be utilized and are considered allowable within this FOA. Food‐ and grain‐based sugars are not allowed. Heterotrophic systems are not eligible. Background. In 2013, BETO’s Advanced Algal Systems Program issued the first phase of the Advancements in Algal Biomass Yield effort, or ABY, Phase 1. (Earlier post.) The new FOA, Advancements in Algal Biomass Yield, Phase 2 (ABY2), builds upon the goals and targets of the Phase 1 effort and capitalizes on advancements in the algal industry and stakeholder engagement during the Phase 1 effort. The Advanced Algal Systems Program is carrying out a long‐term applied research and development strategy to increase the yields and lower the costs of algal biofuels by working with partners to develop new technologies; to integrate technologies at commercially relevant scales; and to conduct crosscutting analyses to understand the potential and challenges of an algal biofuel industry. The National Algal Biofuels Roadmap captured the results from the 2008 National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop and serves as guidance on the barriers that hinder the development of high‐impact algal feedstocks that can be converted to advanced biofuels and bioproducts. Many of these barriers are being addressed through projects selected through prior Funding Opportunities. The Advanced Algal Systems Program also receives feedback and stakeholder input through workshops such as one in November 2013 and the other in March of 2014, the Program Peer Review, and the most recent Request for Information – High Yields Through Productivity and Integration Research (HYPIR – issued in 2015). The BETO Multi Year Program Plan (MYPP) contains the complete Advanced Algal Systems Program strategy to overcoming the barriers to algal biofuels production and commercialization.


News Article | December 6, 2016
Site: www.greencarcongress.com

« Nikola Motor unveils prototype Class 8 fuel cell range-extended electric truck, plans for H2 fueling network | Main | Honda to show EV concept with AI emotion engine from joint project with Softbank » The US Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) intends to issue, on behalf of the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and the US Department of Agriculture’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture, a funding opportunity announcement (DE-FOA-0001689) entitled, “Integrated Biorefinery Optimization.” This FOA will support research and development to increase the performance efficiencies of biorefineries resulting in continuous operation and production of biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower at prices competitive with fossil-derived equivalents. This could be accomplished by improvements in ensuring reliable, continuous, robust handling and feeding of solid materials into reactors under various operating conditions; decreased capital and operating expenses by improved separation processes; production of higher-value products from waste or other undervalued streams; and analytical modeling of handling and feeding of solid materials into reactors. Applications that address these challenging operations and convert woody biomass, agricultural residues, dedicated energy crops, algae, municipal solid waste, sludge from wastewater treatment plants, and wet wastes into biofuels, biochemicals, and bioproducts will be considered under this funding opportunity. DOE anticipates that the FOA will include the following areas of interest: EERE envisions awarding multiple financial assistance awards in the form of cooperative agreements. The estimated period of performance for each award will be approximately 36 months.


News Article | August 24, 2016
Site: www.greencarcongress.com

« Honda begins production of motor free of heavy rare earth elements; debuting in the Freed next month | Main | MIT team calculates lead emissions from avgas fuel in US contribute to ~$1B in annual damages due to IQ losses » The US Department of Energy (DOE) has issued the 2017 Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) Phase I Release 1 Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA), including two subtopics focused on hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. DOE had released the original relevant topics in July. (Earlier post.) The current document is revision 7, with modifications made in each of the subsequent versions. The fuel cell subtopic includes novel, durable supports for low-platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The hydrogen delivery subtopic focuses on metal hydride materials for compression. Specific topics are: Novel, Durable Supports for Low- PGM Catalysts for PEM Fuel Cells: This subtopic seeks approaches that address support performance and chemical and structural stability by development of novel carbon-based or non-carbon support compositions and/or structures. The focus of this subtopic is novel catalyst support research with the potential to improve catalyst performance and durability, especially under transient operating conditions, while decreasing cost. DOE is specifically seeking research and development on novel supports for low-PGM catalysts. Metal Hydride Materials for Compression: This subtopic seeks approaches to develop a technique that will enable high throughput discovery of metal hydrides for high-pressure hydrogen compression. This includes both high throughput combinatorial synthesis and high throughput characterization. High throughput characterization techniques should be capable of predicting or evaluating materials’ pressure-composition-temperature curves, and support the development of predictive models. Responding letters of intent are due 6 September 2016 and the application is due 17 October 2016.


News Article | December 15, 2016
Site: www.greencarcongress.com

« BMW Group and IBM collaborate on research on future driver assistance systems; IBM Watson IoT | Main | GM to start autonomous vehicle manufacturing and testing in Michigan » The US Department of Energy (DOE) is issuing a program-wide funding opportunity (DE-FOA-0001629) for the Vehicle Technologies Office of up to $19.7 million, subject to appropriations, to support research and development of advanced vehicle technologies, including batteries, lightweight materials, and advanced combustion engines, as well as innovative technologies for energy efficient mobility. The funding opportunity seeks projects in four areas of interest that apply to light, medium, and heavy-duty on-road vehicles, energy efficient mobility, and transportation infrastructure systems Battery500 Seedling Projects; Integrated Computational Materials Engineering Predictive Tools for Low-Cost Carbon Fiber; Emission Control Strategies for Advanced Combustion Engines; and Energy Efficient Mobility Research and Development. Battery500 Seedling Projects. This topic seeks proof-of-concept, or seedling projects that complement the VTO Battery500 Consortium’s research to more than double the specific energy (to 500 watt-hours per kilogram) of lithium battery technologies which will result in smaller, lighter weight, less expensive battery packs, and more affordable electric vehicles. The two technologies being developed in the program are Lithium metal/Sulfur and Lithium metal/high Nickel Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt (NMC) cells, using solid or concentrated liquid electrolytes. The work is organized into three thrusts: DOE envisions two project phases. Applications must organize tasks and schedule into two Phases. Phase 1 (18 months) should include exploration and selection of materials concepts and characterization of the technology approach with bench testing of a cell to demonstrate Battery500 specific energy technology targets. A competitive down-select process will take place at the end of Phase 1. Phase 2 (18-30 months) should include design and development of the selected technology concept and improvement of cell performance required to achieve or exceed Battery500 specific energy technology targets. DOE expects 12 test cells will be delivered annually to DOE for testing in phase 2. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) Development of Low Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Materials. This topic seeks simultaneously to develop low-cost carbon-fiber (CF) precursor technology to support immediate weight reduction in light-duty vehicles while also advancing Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) techniques to support a reduced development‐to-deployment lead-time in all lightweight materials systems. For these projects, DOE is defining CF as a material consisting of thin, strong multi-crystalline filaments of carbon used as a reinforcement material, especially in resins also having the following mechanical and cost requirements: Projects will use an ICME approach to predict, design, develop, and optimize precursor chemistry (petroleum and non-petroleum derived). The ICME approach should employ tools linking micro- to macro-scale models to optimize structure/property and process/property relationships while taking into account uncertainty to predict accurately how a low cost precursor fiber transforms to low cost CF and its properties. Projects will develop and integrate a suite of computational tools that can accurately predict precursors for low cost carbon fiber. Validation of these tools will yield predictions of the chemical and physical structure of a family of optimized precursors. Models will be validated using actual performance data. To support this effort and leverage carbon fiber characterization and scale-up resources within the DOE National Laboratory system, DOE is encouraging project teams to interface with the LightMat Consortium. Emission Control Strategies for Advanced Combustion Engines: This topic aims to develop and demonstrate catalyst materials and after-treatment strategies that enable vehicles with advanced combustion engines to meet Tier 3 emissions standards while achieving breakthrough thermal efficiencies. This effort is focused on advancing the state-of-the-art catalysis and after-treatment strategies for advanced combustion regimes including, but not limited to, Homogeneous- Charge Compression-Ignition, Lean Stratified Combustion, and Compression-Ignition Gasoline applications for passenger and commercial vehicle applications. Energy Efficient Mobility Systems Research and Development. This topic seeks to support novel research to develop unique technology solutions that enable energy efficient “smart” mobility systems. Specific emphasis will be given to concepts that support future transportation scenarios allowing for the efficient movement of people and/or goods in a way that maximizes energy efficiency and emissions reduction. Consideration will be given to connected and automated vehicle technologies, solutions applicable to multiple modes of transport suitable for the urban environment, and the fueling/charging infrastructure required to support consumer adoption of efficient mobility systems.


News Article | March 5, 2016
Site: www.greencarcongress.com

« Toyota and Yanmar to collaborate on marine development and products; Toyota Hybrid Hulls | Main | Ceres Power scales up “Steel Cell” SOFC fuel cell production capability with Innovate UK funding » The US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) is seeking feedback from the research community, relevant stakeholders, and industry on technical and economic barriers for fuel cell-related technologies. (RFI DE-FOA-0001510) Specifically, FCTO seeks information regarding: R&D needs to improve performance and reduce cost of bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs); the high startup cost for hydrogen refueling stations, which may be caused by extensive installation and permitting efforts or low equipment utilization; and innovative research topics that may not currently be part of the FCTO portfolio but could potentially be appropriate for future efforts or funding opportunity announcements. Bipolar plates are projected to be one of the highest fuel cell cost items at high production volumes and are a key component in determining fuel cell performance and durability of an automotive fuel cell system. Bipolar plates that meet performance and cost targets established by FCTO are part of the strategy for meeting overall system cost targets. The other major factor in commercialization of automotive PEMFCs is availability and cost reductions of hydrogen fuel. DOE attributes the high cost of hydrogen fuel to the fuel cell vehicle user in part to permitting on a site without existing gaseous fuel such as compressed natural gas or the lack for fuel demand by privately owned vehicles to cover the high capital equipment investment. In this area, DOE is looking for information on the co‐location of hydrogen stations with existing Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) stations and the feasibility of mobile hydrogen refueling delivery services. FCTO is specifically interested in information on cost avoidance and its effect on fuel prices.


« SAE J2954 Wireless Charging on track to make decision for WPT 2 (7.7kW) in January; planned commercialization in 2020 | Main | Air Products and NICE sign MOU to work jointly on hydrogen fueling projects in China » The US Department of Energy’s Office of Fossil Energy and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) announced (DE-FOA-0001627 NOI) approximately $2 million in federally funded financial assistance for the first phase of cost-shared projects aimed to achieve small-scale production of salable rare earth elements (REEs) from domestic sources of pre-combustion coal and coal by-products. REEs are a series of chemical elements found in the Earth’s crust. Due to their unique chemical properties, REEs have become essential components of many technologies spanning a range of applications including electronics, computer and communication systems, transportation, health care, and national defense. The demand, cost, and availability of REEs have grown significantly over recent years stimulating an emphasis on economically feasible approaches for REE recovery. Since 2014, NETL has been engaged in research to determine the economic feasibility of producing REEs from both domestic coal and coal by-products.


News Article | November 18, 2016
Site: www.greencarcongress.com

« Honda leasing 2017 Clarity Fuel Cell at $369/month, including fuel | Main | Siemens and Stratasys partner to incorporate additive manufacturing into volume production » The US Department of Energy (DOE) announced approximately $30 million in available funding (DE-FOA-0001647), subject to appropriations, for research and development of low-cost hydrogen production, onboard hydrogen storage, and proton exchange membrane fuel cells to advance the widespread commercialization of fuel cell electric vehicles. Selected projects will leverage national lab consortia launched under DOE’s Energy Materials Network (EMN) this past year, in support of DOE’s materials research and advanced manufacturing priorities. The EMN consortia have been established to make unique, world-class capabilities at the national laboratories more accessible to industry, facilitating collaborations that will expedite the development and manufacturing of advanced materials for commercial markets. The fuel cells market is growing rapidly, and has seen an annual growth rate of 30% every year since 2010 as well as $2 billion annual revenue in 2014. Light duty vehicles are an emerging application for fuel cells that already enable 95% lower petroleum consumption per mile than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. PGM-free Catalyst and Electrode R&D. Applications are invited for novel and innovative concepts that advance the development of PGM-free oxygen reduction electrocatalysts and electrodes for use in PEMFCs, with a primary focus on automotive applications. Applicants should propose 2‐3 year projects for a maximum total DOE funding of $2,000,000. Applications should be at Technology Readiness Levels of 2‐3, and the funding request should be commensurate with the level of work proposed. Proposed cathode catalyst concepts should demonstrate the potential to meet or exceed DOE’s 2020 activity target of 0.044 A/cm2 at 0.9 V in a PEMFC membrane electrode assembly (MEA), which is equivalent to the PGM catalyst activity target of 0.44 A/mg at 0.1 mg /cm2 (this PGM loading describes the cathode catalyst content only), as well as the potential to meet DOE’s 2020 MEA activity and durability targets. The proposed work should include electrode development pathways addressing mass transport limitations potentially imposed by high catalyst loadings and thicknesses, and performance degradation issues at high current densities. The deliverable in this topic is a set of MEAs (6 or more, each with active area ≥50 cm2) that are made available for independent testing and evaluation to ElectroCat. Also, recipients will provide all public data (such as technical data used to support published journal articles) to ElectroCat for curation and hosting. Advanced Water Splitting Materials. This area seeks applications for the discovery and development of novel, advanced water splitting materials systems which will enable meeting the DOE ultimate hydrogen production goal of $2/kg H . This subtopic will focus on advancing the state of the art in durable materials and interfaces for efficient water splitting under real-world operating conditions. Applications are encouraged which integrate theoretical modeling, synthesis, and experimental characterization of the material systems under investigation to advance the scientific understanding of these systems while providing experimental validation of their viability in practical large-scale water splitting. DOE anticipates that these projects would run 2 to 3 years in length for a maximum total DOE funding of $1,000,000, with a quantitative Go/No-Go decision point between each phase. Hydrogen Storage Materials Discovery. This topic will leverage the Hydrogen Materials—Advanced Research Consortium (HyMARC) to address unsolved scientific challenges in the development of viable solid-state materials for hydrogen storage onboard fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). Precursor Development for Low-Cost, High-Strength Carbon Fiber for Use in Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel Applications. This topic will aim to reduce the cost of onboard hydrogen storage necessary for FCEVs. Applicants for this topic will be encouraged to collaborate with LightMAT, a consortium launched by the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office to enable light-weighting of vehicles through the development of high-strength steels and carbon fiber.


News Article | April 26, 2016
Site: www.greencarcongress.com

« DOE to issue $22.3M funding opportunity for vehicle technologies; MD and HD PEVs, DI propane engine and partner projects | Main | Mitsubishi establishes special external committee to investigate improper fuel economy testing » The US Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) announced up to $30 million in funding for a new program for technologies that use renewable energy to convert air and water into cost-competitive liquid fuels. (DE-FOA-0001562) ARPA-E’s Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-dense Liquids (REFUEL) program seeks to develop technologies that use renewable energy to convert air and water into Carbon Neutral Liquid Fuels (CNLF). The program is focused in two areas: (1) the synthesis of CNLFs using intermittent renewable energy sources and water and air (N and CO ) as the only chemical input streams; and (2) the conversion of CNLFs delivered to the end point to another form of energy (e.g. hydrogen or electricity). REFUEL seeks to develop technologies that convert water and air into CNLFs using chemical or electrochemical processes powered by renewable electricity sources, such as wind and solar. By transforming renewable resources into liquid fuels, renewable power can be stored for longer periods and transported efficiently and inexpensively as liquids via existing infrastructure to consumers. REFUEL also targets technologies that convert CNLFs into electricity or into hydrogen to power zero-emission vehicles. The program’s overall goal is a competitive total cost (including production, transportation, storage, and conversion costs) of delivered (source-to-use) energy (e.g. converted to motive power for transportation) as opposed to the primary energy stored in chemical form below $0.3/kWh—the price needed to be competitive with other carbon-free delivery methods ARPA-E defines source-to-use energy cost as the sum of the fuel production cost (CF), the cost of transportation or transmission from production to the user (CT), and the cost of any storage (CS), divided by the conversion efficiency (η) to account for any losses during the conversion steps. Chemicals, such as hydrocarbons, are effective energy carriers and return the largest fraction of their energy density when delivered via a pipeline. However, fossil fuels are major CO emitters and also drive energy imports. … Because of the inherent difficulties in achieving zero-carbon emissions with fossil fuels in the transportation sector, we must consider new options. The REFUEL program seeks to address these challenges by developing CNLFs that provide a new set of technology options for storing renewable energy in CNLFs, and delivering it economically and effectively when and where it is needed. ARPA-E provided some representative examples of the types of hydrogen-rich liquid fuels that would be responsive to the FOA (only as examples, not as an exhaustive list). These include: Ammonia (NH ). Modern Haber-Bosch plants, using hydrogen generation by SMR, release about 1.6 – 1.8 ton CO per ton of NH of which only 0.95 ton comes from the SMR process and the rest from heating and pressurization needs. Energy consumption for NH production using SMR varies from 7.8 to 10.5 MWh per ton of NH (including feedstock, which accounts for 80% of energy). A potentially greener technology option of using hydrogen from water electrolysis requires 9.5 MWh to make 1 metric ton NH (of which 8.9 MWh comes from hydrogen production, assuming 50.2 kWh/kg H ). Solid-state electrochemical ammonia synthesis, a possible alternative to the Haber-Bosch process, has potentially lower energy input and operational pressure and temperature thus simplifying the balance of plant, and could be cost competitive as long as the reaction rate is significantly increased. Hydrazine hydrate (N H ·H O). This is currently produced by oxidation of ammonia at a large scale (80,000 ton/year globally) and is therefore more expensive than ammonia. However, it has a high energy density (3.56 kWh/L), is easy to handle (freezing point -51.7 °C, flash point 74 °C) and, if low-cost synthetic methods are developed, may fit the technical targets of the FOA. To accomplish wide-scale implementation of CNLFs, technological advances in both the production and conversion of this fuel would need to be achieved. An example of a non-toxic substitute for hydrazine with low carbon footprint is carbohydrazide (CH N O). Carbohydrazide has been used as a fuel in a fuel cell with an OCV 1.65V. Carbon-containing CNLFs. There are numerous examples of carbon-containing CNLFs that would fit APRA-E’s targets synthetic gasoline or diesel fuel, alcohols, and dimethyl ether. The requirements are that the carbon is directly taken from the atmosphere or another sustainable CO source and that the fuel is produced in a one-pot chemical or electrochemical process. Current processes for production of synthetic fuels such as Fischer- Tropsch process are multi-step, very capital intensive and eventually not economical. Reducing the process complexity may allow increased efficiency and lower costs. SBIR/STTR. Under REFUEL, ARPA-E will allocate up to $5 million to small businesses through its Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) program, with up to $25 million made available to all applicants.

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