News Article | February 21, 2017
Diversified Machine Systems (DMS), headquartered in Colorado, manufactures the highest quality 5 axis and 3 axis CNC machines in the industry. DMS has recently created a new design in their Freedom Machine Tool product line. This new machine, the FMT Plus, provides a greater degree of versatility without sacrificing rigidity. This FMT Plus machine offers a Z axis of up to 15 inches, an increase from its previous top-line FMT router by eight inches. This enables customers to route materials having greater levels of height and thicknesses such as plastic, dense wood and foam composites. The FMT Plus is comprised of a fully stress-relieved, laser-calibrated steel frame. The frame is then outfitted with 30mm motion rails on both the X and Y axis’s. These are driven by 30mm and 40mm ball-screw assemblies, respectively. This precision engineering ensures a durable, long-lasting, high-quality routing machine. “Designing this machine was more than simply adding more Z axis height to an existing FMT machine. To ensure we maintained the quality FMT is known for, our engineers redesigned the machine to fully-incorporate the additional Z axis height into a completely new machine," says FMT sales and marketing manager, Andrew Townsend. Freedom Machine Tool, a division of Diversified Machine Systems (DMS), is a manufacturer of affordable, 3 axis CNC routers. Freedom Machine Tool was founded to address the need in the market for a cost-effective, industrial quality CNC machining solution without sacrificing on quality or reliability. Freedom Machine Tool manufactures the Patriot 4x4 CNC Router, Patriot 4x8 CNC Router, Patriot 4x8 Lathe, Patriot 5x10 CNC Router for the woodworking industry, the Orthorout 4x4 and 4x8 for the orthotics industry and the Office Machining Center for the medical office manufacturing industry.
News Article | January 26, 2017
Fecal transplant may sound gross but according to a new study from Ohio State University, fecal transplants may actually be beneficial to children with autism. Fecal transplant, otherwise known as bacteriotherapy, is the method of introducing microbes from healthy donors into the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of people suffering from severe stomach problems, such as recurrent C. difficile colitis. Fecal transplant efficiently replenishes the good bacteria or probiotics that have been killed or suppressed, usually through the excessive use of antibiotics. In the study, the researchers used microbiota transfer therapy or fecal microbiota transplant (FMT). In FMT, fecal sample is collected from the healthy donor, mixed with a saline or other solution, filtered, and transferred to the patient via colonoscopy, endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or enema. "Transplants are working for people with other gastrointestinal problems. And, with autism, gastrointestinal symptoms are often severe, so we thought this could be potentially valuable," said Ann Gregory, one of the study's lead authors and a microbiology graduate student at The Ohio State University. The study, which is set to be published in the journal Microbiome, looked into 18 kids diagnosed with autism and moderate to severe GI conditions. Both doctors and parents reported that they saw positive changes in all of the participants' stomach health and behavior autism symptoms that lasted eight weeks after the fecal transplant treatment was done. Nevertheless, parents with autistic children should never attempt to do fecal transplant at home. "More research is needed before this can be used for treatment," Gregory warned. "Microbiota should be very carefully screened, and the treatment should be done under medical supervision." Gastrointestinal disorders are consistently seen among children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Research shows 70 percent of the children with ASD had GI issues compared to 42 percent of the children with developmental disorder other than ASD. Autistic individuals, like everyone else, are also susceptible to gastritis, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and severe food allergies. The exact reason behind why GI disorders are more pervasive in children with autism is yet unknown. However, there is a push for researchers to focus their work on addressing autism during the early life of children. "Even though GI symptoms are common in early childhood, physicians should be mindful that children with ASD may be experiencing more GI difficulties in the first three years of life," autism researchers from Columbia University, wrote in the March 25 issue of the journal JAMA Psychiatry. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.
News Article | November 22, 2016
This report studies Passenger Boarding Bridge in Global market, especially in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering JBT Aerotech ADEKTE ThyssenKrupp Access Solutions PT Bukaka Teknik Utama TBK FMT TEAM Hubner Group CIMC Hyundai Rotem MHI CEL ShinMaywa Industrial Ltd Trelleborg AB Vataple Group Ltd. Ameribridge,Inc Airport Equipment Ltd. Market Segment by Regions, this report splits Global into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue, market share and growth rate of Passenger Boarding Bridge in these regions, from 2011 to 2021 (forecast), like North America Europe China Japan Southeast Asia India Split by product type, with production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, can be divided into Hydraulic Electro-mechanical Type III Split by application, this report focuses on consumption, market share and growth rate of Passenger Boarding Bridge in each application, can be divided into Airport Seaport Application 3 Global Passenger Boarding Bridge Market Research Report 2016 1 Passenger Boarding Bridge Market Overview 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Passenger Boarding Bridge 1.2 Passenger Boarding Bridge Segment by Type 1.2.1 Global Production Market Share of Passenger Boarding Bridge by Type in 2015 1.2.2 Hydraulic 1.2.3 Electro-mechanical 1.2.4 Type III 1.3 Passenger Boarding Bridge Segment by Application 1.3.1 Passenger Boarding Bridge Consumption Market Share by Application in 2015 1.3.2 Airport 1.3.3 Seaport 1.3.4 Application 3 1.4 Passenger Boarding Bridge Market by Region 1.4.1 North America Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.2 Europe Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.3 China Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.4 Japan Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.5 Southeast Asia Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.6 India Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.5 Global Market Size (Value) of Passenger Boarding Bridge (2011-2021) 7 Global Passenger Boarding Bridge Manufacturers Profiles/Analysis 7.1 JBT Aerotech 7.1.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.1.2 Passenger Boarding Bridge Product Type, Application and Specification 22.214.171.124 Type I 126.96.36.199 Type II 7.1.3 JBT Aerotech Passenger Boarding Bridge Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.1.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.2 ADEKTE 7.2.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.2.2 Passenger Boarding Bridge Product Type, Application and Specification 188.8.131.52 Type I 184.108.40.206 Type II 7.2.3 ADEKTE Passenger Boarding Bridge Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.2.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.3 ThyssenKrupp Access Solutions 7.3.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.3.2 Passenger Boarding Bridge Product Type, Application and Specification 220.127.116.11 Type I 18.104.22.168 Type II 7.3.3 ThyssenKrupp Access Solutions Passenger Boarding Bridge Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.3.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.4 PT Bukaka Teknik Utama TBK 7.4.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.4.2 Passenger Boarding Bridge Product Type, Application and Specification 22.214.171.124 Type I 126.96.36.199 Type II 7.4.3 PT Bukaka Teknik Utama TBK Passenger Boarding Bridge Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.4.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.5 FMT 7.5.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.5.2 Passenger Boarding Bridge Product Type, Application and Specification 188.8.131.52 Type I 184.108.40.206 Type II 7.5.3 FMT Passenger Boarding Bridge Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.5.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.6 TEAM 7.6.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.6.2 Passenger Boarding Bridge Product Type, Application and Specification 220.127.116.11 Type I 18.104.22.168 Type II 7.6.3 TEAM Passenger Boarding Bridge Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.6.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.7 Hubner Group 7.7.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.7.2 Passenger Boarding Bridge Product Type, Application and Specification 22.214.171.124 Type I 126.96.36.199 Type II 7.7.3 Hubner Group Passenger Boarding Bridge Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.7.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.8 CIMC 7.8.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.8.2 Passenger Boarding Bridge Product Type, Application and Specification 188.8.131.52 Type I 184.108.40.206 Type II 7.8.3 CIMC Passenger Boarding Bridge Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.8.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.9 Hyundai Rotem 7.9.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.9.2 Passenger Boarding Bridge Product Type, Application and Specification 220.127.116.11 Type I 18.104.22.168 Type II 7.9.3 Hyundai Rotem Passenger Boarding Bridge Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.9.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.10 MHI 7.10.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.10.2 Passenger Boarding Bridge Product Type, Application and Specification 22.214.171.124 Type I 126.96.36.199 Type II 7.10.3 MHI Passenger Boarding Bridge Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.10.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.11 CEL 7.12 ShinMaywa Industrial Ltd 7.13 Trelleborg AB 7.14 Vataple Group Ltd. 7.15 Ameribridge,Inc 7.16 Airport Equipment Ltd.
News Article | February 23, 2017
SOMERVILLE, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--OpenBiome, a public stool bank, announced today that it has entered into a collaboration with Finch Therapeutics, a microbiome biopharmaceutical company, to enable FDA approval of a fecal transplant pill for the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection. Finch will be licensing OpenBiome’s biomanufacturing quality systems and incorporating manufacturing upgrades as well as its own drug delivery technology to prepare the product for clinical trials and eventual marketing authorization. Since delivering its first treatment in October 2013, OpenBiome has distributed more than 21,000 treatments to its network of over 800 hospitals and clinics. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is used to treat C. difficile infections that are not responsive to antibiotic therapies. C. difficile is the most common hospital-acquired infection in the country, affecting 453,000 patients a year, and resulting in an estimated 29,000 deaths. 1 in 5 patients do not respond to first-line antibiotics. For patients who fail multiple courses of antibiotic treatment, fecal transplantation has been shown to prevent recurrence in more than 85% of cases. OpenBiome was founded to expand safe access to fecal transplantation for patients with recurrent C. difficile infection and to catalyze research on the role of the microbiome in human health. The stool bank provides clinicians with rigorously screened, ready-to-use stool microbiota preparations and supports researchers with a suite of tools to discover how gut bacteria might treat diseases beyond C. difficile. When it launched, patients in need of fecal transplants often had to travel significant distances for a visit to one of the few fecal transplant practitioners in the country. Today, more than 97% of the US population lives within a two-hour drive of a provider using OpenBiome material to perform FMT. An interim policy from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows physicians to perform FMT for the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection, despite the fact that the therapy is not FDA-approved. Medical professional societies and clinical researchers advocated for the policy based on the available literature on FMT’s safety and efficacy and the lack of treatment alternatives for this patient population. “To preserve patient access to this treatment option, and given the scale that we’ve reached, demonstrating the safety and efficacy of fecal transplantation through adequate and well-controlled clinical trials is the right thing to do,” explained Carolyn Edelstein, OpenBiome’s director of Outreach and Public Affairs, in an op-ed published earlier today with the Fecal Transplant Foundation. OpenBiome will continue to supply clinicians and researchers with material, manufactured by Finch, under prevailing FDA policy and in support of its nonprofit mission to enable patient access and research. Under the terms of the collaboration, OpenBiome will license its quality system for biomanufacturing to Finch. Finch will incorporate its novel drug delivery technology to enable the targeted release of microbes at the site of the C. difficile infection in the colon. Finch will also upgrade the manufacturing system to support FDA approval, and will provide material produced in this improved quality environment to OpenBiome. FIN-403 is the lead product candidate emerging from this partnership. Finch expects to begin enrolling for a Phase II clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of FIN-403 for the prevention of recurrence in recurrent C. difficile patients in the second half of 2017. OpenBiome will receive a series of upfront payments, ongoing milestone payments, and royalties on sales of FIN-403 and other products developed in the collaboration. With these resources, OpenBiome will support early-stage, high-risk, long-term microbiome research programs that might not be able to secure traditional funding. With this additional funding for its independent research program, OpenBiome will work to advance public knowledge on how gut bacteria can be engineered to help cure or even prevent disease. Dr. Mark Smith, PhD, OpenBiome’s co-founder and research director, will be stepping down from his roles at OpenBiome to serve as the CEO at Finch. He will maintain a seat on the OpenBiome Board of Directors and serve as an advisor to OpenBiome’s Scientific Review Board. “This affiliation will allow us to execute our mission at a level we could not have imagined before,” said James Burgess, OpenBiome’s Executive Director, in a letter to OpenBiome’s clinicians and researchers. “Through it, we will provide safe access to fecal transplantation for patients with recurrent C. difficile today, and help Finch pursue FDA approval so that patients have this access in perpetuity. OpenBiome will continue to catalyze research in the microbiome by providing clinical investigators with logistical and material support, and by facilitating the kind of discoveries that will help cure or even prevent disease. We are thrilled by the path ahead.” About OpenBiome OpenBiome is the first public stool bank, founded to expand safe access to fecal transplantation for patients with recurrent C. difficile infection and to catalyze research on the microbiome’s role in human health. OpenBiome provides clinicians with rigorously screened, ready-to-use stool preparations and supports researchers with a suite of tools to discover how gut bacteria might treat diseases beyond C. difficile. Since 2013, OpenBiome has partnered with over 800 healthcare institutions across all 50 states and 6 countries to deliver more than 21,000 treatments for recurrent C. difficile. Its research portfolio includes 49% of all U.S. trials exploring the use of fecal transplants in new diseases. About Finch Finch Therapeutics is a mission-driven biopharmaceutical company that aims to develop novel microbial therapies serving patients with serious and unmet medical needs. Founded by data scientists, clinicians, and microbiologists from MIT and OpenBiome, Finch uses machine-learning algorithms informed by high-throughput molecular data to reverse engineer successful experiences with fecal transplantation. Through this and other clinical datasets, Finch identifies the microbes that drive desirable patient outcomes, and develops therapies that deliver those microbial communities to the patient. As Finch’s first clinical-stage program, FIN-403 provides both a short-term opportunity for impacting C. difficile and a long-term platform for designing new therapies.
News Article | December 21, 2016
Faced with an impending operation to remove his large intestine, Oli Adams started a desperate search for other options that might resolve his Crohn's disease and spare him surgery. Then 29, Adams was diagnosed with Crohn's when he was 23. For a decade before that — as he forged a career as a professional surfer — his fluctuating health had mystified him. He was one of few British surfers to compete in the sport's world tour, but his performance was erratic: one tournament he'd ace it, the next, feeling weak and with shaky legs, he looked like a different surfer. He thought it might be nerves or possibly that his vegetarianism was to blame. He hated the drugs he was prescribed when he was finally diagnosed — the side effects were horrendous. And for six years, Adams cycled through flare-ups and fleeting opportunities to ride waves, all the while trying to find a medication that he could tolerate and that managed his symptoms. One worked for a time, but the symptoms returned. “There's no rhyme or reason to it,” says Adams, of Crohn's. “How you're going to feel from one minute to the next, how your moods are going to be, whether you're going to be caught short ... It's embarrassing, it's painful, and at worse you're so malnourished that you are in a place you can't even describe — it's like a zone of pain, but also your brain is so in crisis that you can't really think.” Crohn's and ulcerative colitis — the two main types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) — are caused by a hyperactive immune system attacking the walls of the gastrointestinal tract, causing inflammation and ulceration (see page S98). But no one knows why this happens. The drugs Adams was given included decades-old steroids that suppress immune function as a whole and newer drugs that block more specific aspects of the inflammatory cascade. These drugs can be effective, but not for everybody — it's a common refrain in the IBD community that no two people's experiences are identical. When Adams's drugs stopped working and his intestine seemed to be in danger of rupturing, his doctors advised surgery. “It was like a race against time for me not to have the operation,” says Adams. And of all the avenues he could explore, “Faecal transplant was the main thing on the list.” A faecal transplant — or the preferred term, faecal microbiota therapy (FMT) — comes at IBD from the opposite direction to most drugs. Instead of assuming that the immune system is inherently faulty, whether because of genetics or environment, proponents argue that the hyperactive immune system is being provoked by something in the lumen, or interior, of the gut. The most plausible candidates are a pathogenic microorganism, a combination of such microbes or perhaps a shortage of microorganisms that lower levels of inflammation. If this is the case, changing the contents of the gut by seeding a new healthy community of microorganisms might halt the disease. Two years ago, when Adams thought FMT could be an alternative to surgery, there was nowhere in the United Kingdom that provided the treatment for those with IBD. Despite being gravely ill, Adams considered travelling to Australia to take part in a small study. But he ran out of time. When his condition deteriorated quickly, his doctors examined his intestines and feared they could burst at any moment. “I'd left it too long,” he says. “They did the operation there and then. Adams will never know if FMT would have helped his IBD. But it has become an established procedure for people with recurrent infections of the bacterium Clostridium difficile (an increasing problem owing to antibiotic resistance), and a small number of patients and gastroenterologists make enthusiastic claims about its effectiveness for IBD. But many others point to the modest results of systematic trials and urge more measured expectations. “Is there something to it? Perhaps,” says Alexander Khoruts, a gastroenterologist at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, who has used FMT extensively to treat C. difficile infections. “Are we anywhere close to it? No,” he says. “Is it worth pursuing? Yes. But pursuing it properly requires more than simply doing further transplants: it means knowing exactly how the procedure changes the recipient's microbiota. This information, alongside clinical observation, is necessary to truly evaluate the effects of FMT. And it may also shed light on the causes of IBD. Studies of the human microbiota — the myriad microorganisms that call our bodies home — have redefined how researchers view the contents of our gastrointestinal tracts. Scientists now know that humans co-evolved with a web of thousands of microbes: bacteria, viruses, fungi and unicellular organisms called archaea. The relationship we have with them is mutually beneficial — we provide warmth and nutrients, and they help us to digest our food, mop up toxins, make vitamins, hone our immune systems, communicate with our brains and crowd out malignant microbes such as C. difficile. To people in this field, poo ceased to be simply a repugnant by-product of human digestion years ago. FMT is based on the idea that a healthy intestinal flora can be transferred from a donor to a recipient through, as the name suggests, faecal matter. The research behind it is increasingly sophisticated, but the procedure is not. The stool of a healthy donor is blitzed with saline, filtered and then delivered to the recipient's gastrointestinal tract. Various administration routes are used: an enema or colonoscopy coming up one way, or a nasogastric tube or capsules going down the other. The latter are popularly known as 'crapsules'. As one patient told Nature, these gastrointestinal diseases are serious enough by themselves, without anyone being uptight about toilet humour. The first stool Khoruts ever transferred came from the husband of a 64-year-old woman with a recurrent C. difficile infection. When she came under his care in 2008, the patient was living in incontinence pads, passing diarrhoea every 15 minutes, night and day, and her weight had dropped by almost 30 kilograms. Fifteen months of antibiotics had got her nowhere. Needing to try something new, Khoruts found a growing body of literature that included positive case reports and small studies that convinced him FMT was worth a try. The husband's stool was delivered by colonoscopy and the patient reported feeling better while still in recovery. Khoruts recalls that after more than a year of relentless diarrhoea, she said she felt something inside beginning to feel whole again. Within two days, she had a normal bowel movement. Not only was this event transformative for the patient, but it was also a landmark for the field because Khoruts did something that those early case reports had not: with a group of microbial ecologists, he examined the DNA content of stool samples taken from the donor and the recipient before and after the transplant1. The analysis demonstrated that microorganisms from the husband's gut had colonized the patient's gut. “Suddenly,” Khoruts says, “there was some science there.” In the throes of her illness, the patient's gastrointestinal tract had been a desolate landscape, but seeded by her husband's intestinal flora, it now hosted a vigorous microbial ecosystem in which the bacteria causing the infection were unable to survive. FMT's effectiveness at treating recurrent C. difficile infections was cemented in early 2013. As part of a randomized control trial, only 7 out of 26 people receiving a control (which included the antibiotic vancomycin) recovered, but 15 out of 16 patients receiving FMT were cured. The treatment was so successful that the trial was terminated early because withholding FMT from the control group was deemed unethical2. This remarkable 94% success rate seems to be holding up, and an increasing number of physicians now use FMT to combat C. difficile. “I've become completely addicted,” Khoruts says. “I've helped 400 people like this in my own practice. We haven't charged them a penny, but I'm the richest man I know because of that feeling — saving somebody's life.” Buoyed by the effectiveness of FMT for treating C. difficile, the idea spread that any disease involving a malignant microbiota might be resolved by delivering a healthy one. IBD, in which inflammation and ulceration rage where the intestinal microbiota abuts human tissue, has long been thought to be next on the list of FMT-treatable conditions. But the reality showed that the procedure was anything but a straightforward fix and that understanding the exact role of the microbiota in disease is essential. Reports of FMT's effectiveness for IBD began in a similar way to those for C. difficile. In 1989, a gastroenterologist described how he had been in remission from his ulcerative colitis for six months following an enema of healthy stool3 (see 'Faecal attraction'). Since then, there has been a stream of anecdotal reports. No one doubts that at least some of these are valid, but whereas for C. difficile isolated accounts soon snowballed into larger studies and irrefutable clinical trials, for IBD they haven't. In 2014, gastroenterologists David Rubin and Ruben Colman both then at the University of Chicago in Illinois, reviewed case studies, small open-label investigations and a randomized controlled trial on the use of FMT to treat IBD4. They found that the studies' methodologies varied considerably: patients had varying severities and duration of IBD, and had received different numbers of transplants that had been delivered by different routes. The studies had also used different criteria to judge success — from a decrease in symptoms to a verified healing of the mucosa. Rubin and Colman concluded that FMT for ulcerative colitis — with huge variability between reports — seemed to benefit 22% of people. For Crohn's, the figure was higher, but here the studies were too limited in both quality and quantity to draw firm conclusions. The bias towards studies of ulcerative colitis rather than Crohn's stems mainly from the fact that the former affects only the colon and rectum, whereas Crohn's can affect any region of the gastrointestinal tract, including the mouth. Rubin says that their goal was to start a serious discussion about the procedure's use for IBD — and indeed, he says, “there was a signal” in the literature. The challenge now is for more controlled studies to decipher the nature of that signal. Paul Moayyedi, a gastroenterologist at McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada, has taken up that mantle. He led a randomized controlled trial for FMT in ulcerative colitis, published in 2015, in which participants received either colonic FMT or a water enema once a week for six weeks. A week after the final enema, the patients were checked for signs of colon healing. In the control group, 2 out of 37 entered remission, compared with 9 out of 38 in the FMT group, a statistically significant effect5. The 24% success rate is similar to that described by Rubin and Colman. By Moayyedi's own admission, it “needs to be a lot better”. But he also argues that this level of success is “the reality of treatments at the moment” and compares favourably with the remission rates seen with much-heralded immunosuppressant drugs. Moayyedi is now in the early stages of a second trial for FMT in ulcerative colitis. It is one of a number of larger, better controlled trials that are under way for both this disorder and Crohn's to determine the future of FMT as a treatment for IBD. It is now clear that recurrent C. difficile infection was a low-hanging fruit: a condition that is essentially tailor-made for FMT. This bacterium wreaks havoc, mainly in the bowels of people whose native microbiota has been wiped out through heavy antibiotic use. C. difficile survives because of its drug-resistant spores. But once the antibiotics have cleared, a new microbiota can easily take hold and crowd the bacterium out. No other condition is likely to be so easily bested by FMT, but the expectation is that it must be used to treat conditions caused by a pathogenic microbiota. And that the microorganisms in a healthy donor's stool must be able to colonize the recipient's gastrointestinal tract. Various studies have attempted to identify causative microbial factors for IBD by using ever more sophisticated genetic tools to examine the full suite of patients' intestinal inhabitants. Most studies have found alterations — a common conclusion is that the IBD-associated microbiota is less diverse — but frustratingly there is no consensus about which specific microbial populations are altered. More pressingly, however, these studies have been unable to determine whether these changes are pathogenic — provoking the immune system, and so causing the disease — or whether the pathological inflammation of IBD creates an intestinal environment that favours different microorganisms. Even studies showing that alterations in the microbiota correlate with disease severity, or that the microbiota normalizes with remission, fail to prove causation over correlation. This creates uncertainty over the extent to which FMT might work for IBD. It also places the procedure in an interesting position: trials of FMT might be able to unpick the riddle of cause and effect. Testing FMT is part clinical trial, part interventional clinical experiment. If installing a new microbiota works, it will be compelling evidence that the displaced microbiota had been central to generating IBD. Whereas, if symptoms persist after microbial transfer and the microbiota reverts, this will indicate that the problem lies with the immune system. A well-executed but failed trial of FMT, therefore, would offer the consolation of new insight into the mechanism of the disease. But before any of this can happen, researchers need to know whether introduced microorganisms effectively colonize the recipient's gastrointestinal tract. Without this information, it is impossible to interpret a changing or unchanging disease course. For this reason, Khoruts argues that establishing a reliable methodology should be the first goal of IBD research. “I wouldn't expect that one administration of FMT would really change the microbial community structure that much,” he says. Unlike the denuded bowels of people with a C. difficile infection, there are already microbes in the guts of people with IBD, leaving nowhere for the new arrivals to settle. “But if you do it repeatedly, there is a decent chance that you're going to have a substantial change in the microbial community,” says Khoruts. Moayyedi agrees. In his 2015 trial, DNA analysis of stool samples revealed that the microbial composition of FMT-treated participants shifted modestly towards the donor's profile after the six weekly transplants. In a second trial, set to begin next year, patients will first be given a two-week course of broad-spectrum antibiotics to make space in the gut, and then receive twice-weekly FMT for eight weeks. Moayyedi is also tweaking other aspects of the methodology in the new trial to explore signals that he noticed in the 2015 trial. All participants will receive stool from a single donor, for instance. The original trial used two main donors, A and B. Intriguingly, A's donations cured nobody, whereas B's had a 39% success rate. Disease duration is another variable that they have their eye on this time around: 3 of the 4 participants who'd had ulcerative colitis for less than 1 year responded to FMT, compared with only 6 of 34 who'd had the disease for longer. That is a lot of factors to explore, and every additional variable requires more participants and hence more funding. Rubin also wonders if there is a basic heterogeneity across IBD cases, such that a person whose disease began after a food-poisoning incident might benefit from FMT, whereas a more strongly genetic case might not. Funding large trials and sophisticated DNA analysis is challenging, especially for a treatment that, unlike a regular drug, has struggled to attract major financial investment. But this seems to be changing, as recently funded clinical trials in the United States, Australia, China and the United Kingdom indicate. One of those trials is at the University of Birmingham, UK — much closer to Adams's home. But he has no need for it now: his surgery worked and he is back out surfing again. “I feel like a completely different person,” he says. “I'm living a whole new life.” His thoughts about the therapy he was never able to try are pragmatic: “I really hope it at least gets the length it needs to be trialled properly and for a proper outcome to be obvious.
News Article | February 24, 2017
FMT Consultants, a leading provider of integrated business management solutions and information technology services based in San Diego and Los Angeles, has announced that it has earned the Microsoft Silver Cloud Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Competency, bringing the firm’s total number of competencies from Microsoft to eight. Achieving the Microsoft Silver Cloud CRM Competency validates FMT as a premier provider of Microsoft Dynamics 365 (formerly Dynamics CRM Online)—Microsoft’s cloud-based customer relationship management solution. To achieve the Silver Cloud CRM Competency, FMT team members successfully completed exams and are now recognized Microsoft Certified Professionals. Additionally, FMT demonstrated its ability to deliver successful projects and assessments by exceeding several software revenue goals, and providing multiple customer references. “As a leading technology provider, we are constantly working to expand and deepen our expertise so that we can continue to help customers realize the full benefit of their solutions,” says Eric Casazza, CEO of FMT Consultants, and adds, “our goal is to make it easy for customers to migrate to the cloud and immediately see the positive impact on their business. Achieving the Microsoft Silver Cloud CRM Competency demonstrates our continued commitment and efforts to provide expert advice and excellent service to all our customers.” FMT Consultants has now achieved five Microsoft Gold Competencies: Gold Cloud Platform, Gold Cloud Productivity, Gold Content and Collaboration, Gold Customer Relationship Management, and Gold Enterprise Resource Planning. Microsoft Silver Competencies for the firm include the Silver Cloud Customer Relationship Management, Silver Midmarket Cloud Solutions, and Silver Application Development. About FMT Consultants FMT is a seasoned provider of integrated business solutions and information technology services throughout the US and Canada with a significant presence in San Diego County, Los Angeles County, and Orange County. Since 1995, FMT’s experienced team of experts has been partnering with clients to integrate, configure and customize innovative technology solutions to help them improve and streamline their business operations. The company has offices in Carlsbad and Los Angeles, CA. Visit http://www.fmtconsultants.com or call 760.930.6400 for more information.
News Article | January 13, 2016
The gut microbiota of hunter–gatherers and populations consuming a rural agrarian diet is distinct, and contains greater diversity than the microbiota of Westerners4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 (Extended Data Fig. 1). One possible explanation for the greater microbiota diversity seen in hunter–gatherers and agrarians is the large quantity of dietary fibre they consume relative to Westerners4, 6, 10, 11. MACs, which are abundant in dietary fibre, serve as the primary source of carbon and energy for the distal gut microbiota3, 12. Therefore, we sought to determine whether a diet low in MACs could drive loss of taxa within the gut microbiota. Humanized mice (4 weeks old, n = 10) were fed a diet rich in fibre derived from a variety of plants (high-MAC) for 6 weeks, and randomly divided into two groups (Extended Data Fig. 2). One group was switched to a low-MAC diet for 7 weeks, after which they were returned to the high-MAC diet for 6 weeks (Fig. 1a and Extended Data Table 1). The control group was maintained on the high-MAC diet throughout the experiment. At the start of the experiment, the microbiota composition from both groups of mice was indistinguishable (P = 0.2, Student’s t-test; UniFrac distance; no significant difference in operational taxonomic unit (OTU) frequency observed between groups, Mann–Whitney U test). The diet-switching mice, while consuming the low-MAC diet, had an altered composition relative to controls (P = 10−25, Student’s t-test; UniFrac distance). Weeks after returning to the high-MAC diet, the microbiota of the diet-switching mice remained distinct from controls (P = 3 × 10−8, Student’s t-test; UniFrac distance at 15 weeks) (Fig. 1b). To determine whether taxa had been lost over the course of the diet perturbation, we focused on a subset of OTUs that met stringent measures of prevalence and abundance and could be confidently monitored over the course of the experiment (‘high-confidence’ OTUs, see Methods). We identified 208 high-confidence OTUs in the diet-switching group and 213 high-confidence OTUs in the control group (Extended Data Table 2). When mice were switched from the high-MAC diet to the low-MAC diet, we observed that 60% of taxa (124 out of 208) decreased in abundance at least fourfold compared with only 11% of the control group (25 out of 213) (Supplementary Table 1). When these mice were returned to a high-MAC diet, 33% (71 out of 208) were fourfold less abundant. The control group did not change significantly (10% were fourfold less abundant; 22 out of 213) (Fig. 1c and Supplementary Table 2). These data reveal two divergent qualities of the microbiota. First, 59 of the 208 high-confidence OTUs that exhibit diet-induced decline in abundance recovered (were no longer at least twofold less abundant) with the reintroduction of MACs illustrating microbiota resilience over short time scales (Supplementary Table 1). Second, however, the low-MAC-diet perturbation induced ‘scars’ on the microbiota. We proposed that diet-induced microbiota diversity loss would be magnified over generations. Mice from the previous experiment consuming the low-MAC-diet or the high-MAC diet were used to generate a litter of pups. Pups were weaned onto the respective diets of their parents. This breeding strategy was repeated for four generations. For each generation, low-MAC-diet parents were switched to the high-MAC-diet after their pups were weaned, to see whether taxa that became undetectable while MACs were scarce would bloom in the presence of MACs (Fig. 2a and Extended Data Fig. 3). At 5 weeks old, mice propagated in the low-MAC diet condition (born to low-MAC-diet parents and consuming a low-MAC diet) had a lower-diversity microbiota than high-MAC-fed controls (P = 3 × 10−6, P = 8 × 10−5 and P = 8 × 10−6, Student’s t-test, Shannon index; generations two, three and four, respectively) (Fig. 2b, top). Even after mice were switched to the high-MAC diet for several weeks, their microbiota diversity did not recover to control levels (P = 2 × 10−6, P = 1 × 10−8 and P = 1 × 10−4, Student’s t-test; generations two, three and four, respectively, at week 15) (Fig. 2b, bottom). With each generation, the microbiota composition of the diet-switching group showed increasing departure from that of controls (Fig. 2c). Weaning the diet-switching lineage directly onto the high-MAC diet did not correct the diversity loss relative to controls (P = 3 × 10−6 Student’s t-test, Shannon index), and there was no difference in composition between this group and the generation-four diet-switching group (P = 0.9, Student’s t-test; UniFrac distance; week 13, generation four, and week 5, generation five) (Extended Data Fig. 4). Plotting the relative abundance of the high-confidence OTUs over time revealed a pattern of taxa loss over generations in the diet-switching group (Fig. 2d). Specifically, in the diet-switching group, generations one, two and three exhibited a progressive loss in high-confidence OTUs while consuming the low-MAC diet (72%; 150 out of 208 lost by generation four, week 15) (Supplementary Table 3). In each generation, switching to the high-MAC diet allowed for the recovery of a small number of taxa (grey versus yellow highlighted rows within each generation in Fig. 2d), but most did not return (141 out of 208 were undetectable by generation four, week 15) (Supplementary Table 3). Most of the lost taxa (112 out of the 141) were from the Bacteroidales order with an additional loss of 26 taxa from the Clostridiales, making the Clostridiales the most numerous high confidence taxon present in the fourth generation (Extended Data Fig. 5a, b). To determine whether the carbohydrate degrading capacity of the microbiota had been altered over the four generations, we compared imputed glycoside hydrolases between the first and fourth generations of both the diet-switching and control groups after validating this method13, 14 (Supplementary Table 4). Although representation of glycoside hydrolase families is not a perfect correlate of specificity for polysaccharide degradation (for example, owing to combinatorial activity or polyspecificity within a family), loss of representation within glycoside hydrolase families provides one measure of changes in glycan-degrading capacity. Twenty-two glycoside hydrolase families showed a loss in abundance in the diet-switching group between the initial time point in generation one versus generation four, 4 weeks after the switch to the high-MAC diet (P < 0.05 plus at least a twofold change, Bonferroni-corrected Student’s t-test) (Extended Data Fig. 5c and Supplementary Table 5). No differences in glycoside hydrolase families were observed in the control group. An overall loss in glycoside hydrolase diversity occurred between generation-four diet-switching mice on the high-MAC diet relative to generation-one mice (P = 0.0002, Shannon index of glycoside hydrolase subfamilies; Supplementary Table 6 and Extended Data Table 3). No difference in glycoside hydrolase subfamilies was observed in the control group. These data demonstrate that, in addition to the loss of high-confidence OTUs, the diet-switching group sustained a widespread and marked loss in glycoside hydrolase repertoire over the four generations. Future experiments will be needed to reveal the functional consequences of these observations in terms of fibre-degrading capacity. We next wanted to determine whether low-abundance OTUs that bloom when MACs are reintroduced are more likely to be lost owing to inefficient inter-generational transmission. Low-abundance taxa (average abundance <25 reads) in a given generation were less efficiently transferred to the next generation (average abundance >10 reads to be considered present, 4 weeks after high-MAC diet) compared to high-abundance taxa (average abundance >25 reads) (P = 0.002, P = 4 × 10−15 and P = 0.01, hypergeometric distribution inheritance between generations one and two, two and three, and three and four, respectively) (Supplementary Table 7). Notably, overall diversity and composition did not change between the third and fourth generations (Fig. 2b, c); however, we wondered whether additional loss could be obscured owing to lack of resolution of OTUs. Therefore, we identified 280 high-confidence sub-OTUs in the control group and 261 high-confidence sub-OTUs in the diet-switching group using a cluster-free filtering approach15 (Supplementary Table 8). A similar decline in the number of sub-OTUs with each generation was observed (114 out of 261 sub-OTUs were undetectable by generation four, week 15) (Extended Data Fig. 6 and Supplementary Table 8). Most of the lost taxa (77 out of the 114) were from the Bacteroidales order with an additional loss of 32 taxa from the Clostridiales. Between generation three and four, we detected loss of 22 sub-OTUs, compared to four using the lower-resolution high-confidence OTUs (Supplementary Table 8). Because high dietary MACs were insufficient to restore microbiota composition or diversity to control levels, we tested whether reintroduction of lost bacteria was required. Fourth-generation, diet-switching mice were gavaged with faecal samples (faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) group) from fourth-generation high-MAC-diet controls. Because the low-MAC diet does not support full microbiota diversity (Fig. 2d), the fourth-generation FMT recipients were fed a high-MAC diet for 2 weeks (Fig. 3a). Within 10 days, microbiota composition and diversity of the FMT group was indistinguishable from fourth-generation high-MAC-diet controls (P = 0.4, Student’s t-test; UniFrac distance; P = 0.4, Student’s t-test, Shannon index) (Fig. 3b, c), and 110 taxa were restored (average abundance ≥1 sequencing read; no taxa restored in no FMT controls) (Fig. 3d and Supplementary Table 9). Restored taxa were predominantly from the Bacteroidales (99 taxa), which experienced the greatest loss in high-confidence OTUs (Extended Data Fig. 7a). Similar results were observed using the high-confidence sub-OTUs (Extended Data Fig. 7b and Supplementary Table 10). These data demonstrate a diet-induced ratcheting effect in which certain taxa decrease in abundance upon reduced MACs and are not effectively transferred to the next generation. Notably, most of the lost taxa are Bacteroidales, an order that is proficient in consumption of dietary fibre16. Introduction of dietary MACs are insufficient to regain ‘lost’ taxa in the absence of their deliberate re-introduction. Over our history, humans have experienced major dietary changes from gathered to farmed foods during the agricultural revolution, and more recently to the mass consumption of processed foods in the industrialized world. Each dietary shift was probably accompanied by a concomitant adjustment in the microbiota. Here we have used a model in which mice have been colonized with a human microbiota from a Westerner to determine the effect of fibre deprivation over four generations on the gut microbiota. This model does not allow us to address microbiota changes that may have occurred as humans shifted from a hunter–gatherer lifestyle to one from a modern industrialized country. Our data support a model in which consuming a modern diet low in fibre contributes to the loss of taxa over generations, and may be responsible for the lower-diversity microbiota observed in the industrialized world compared to present-day hunter–gatherers and rural agrarians. The data we present also hint that further deterioration of the Western microbiota is possible. The gut microbiota regulates numerous facets of human biology suggesting that our human genome has been shaped by interactions with these microorganisms over our co-evolutionary history. However, the microbiota can change on a timescale that is much faster than the host allowing for the possibility that the microbiota, if pressed by severe selective forces, could undergo change so rapidly that it cannot be accommodated by our human biology. While the roles of different types of microbiota diversity in host health remain to be defined, it is possible that rewilding the modern microbiota with extinct species may be necessary to restore evolutionarily important functionality to our gut.
News Article | February 15, 2017
Fitness Machine Technicians, specialists in the maintenance and repair of exercise equipment for gyms, corporations, hotels, and private residences, announced that Bruce Sturgeon of Doylestown, PA and Jack Brady of New Britain, PA acquired Bucks and Lehigh county markets. A technician for over ten years, Bruce Sturgeon has worked with Fitness Machine Technicians for the past four years. Originally from Baltimore, MD, he has been involved in the fitness industry for over 20 years. “I’ve had the pleasure of getting to know Bruce over the last few years and am excited about his new venture within Fitness Machine Technicians. We are happy he has chosen to stay a part of the team,” said founder and CEO, Don Powers. After learning about the unique opportunity from Sturgeon, Jack Brady, a Temple University graduate with a degree in business and over 25 years of sales experience, was eager to join. Sturgeon said, “Because Jack and I live in the area, we know the businesses and people who reside in this great community. We are providing a unique and needed service to our area—specifically servicing fitness machines owned by our own neighbors and friends.” Colleges, homes, hotel chains and recreation and fitness centers continue to expand their facilities to accommodate the growing interest in exercise as a part of ongoing wellness. Treadmills, elliptical, stationary bikes and stair steppers must be maintained to ensure their ongoing availability to members, residents and guests. Fitness Machine Technicians offers reliable service/repair and maintenance services on a variety of exercise equipment on a contract and non-contract basis. The company currently services counties including Philadelphia, Montgomery, Chester, Berks, Camden, Gloucester, and New Castle and is looking to expand further throughout the Mid-Atlantic region. Since beginning this business concept over ten years ago, the demand for services has expanded throughout the region. For private residences or public facilities, Fitness Machine Technicians customers can request a technician by calling 844-FMT-FIXX or via http://fitnessmachinetechnicians.com/request-a-tech/. About Fitness Machine Technicians Fitness Machine Technicians specializes in the maintenance and repair of equipment for commercial and home exercise facilities. In addition to providing basic service, parts replacement and maintenance on a contract or per call basis, the company also assists in the design of facilities, recommending equipment layouts for maximum functionality. Clients include health clubs, corporations, hotels, condos, education, government and residential throughout the Mid-Atlantic region. Fitness Machine Technicians also offers franchise opportunities to individuals with an interest in fitness and looking to run a service-based business based on a proven operating model. For more information, visit the website at http://www.fitnessmachinetechnicians.com or call 844-FMT-FIXX.
News Article | October 28, 2016
PureFlora today announced the addition of Christopher Jones to its executive team in the role of Chief Technology Officer. An early advisor and contributor to the development of the PureFlora technology, Jones’ re-engagement catalyzes the completion of a refined prototype of the company’s device for the collection, processing, and delivery of fecal matter containing microbiota for clinical and research applications. A seasoned medical device executive, Jones led R&D teams at VNUS Medical Technologies and VidaMed whose flagship product portfolios were key to successful IPOs and subsequent high value acquisitions by Covidien and Medtronic, respectively. Following a product development role at Stryker Endoscopy and tenure as Vice-President, R&D at Magenta Medical, Jones became President of AirXpanders, leading the company through development and international clinical trials before focusing on his most recent industry role as an angel investor, strategic advisor, and mentor. “Interest and investment in the human gut microbiome has soared in the last few years but credible research and clinical applications demand process standardization," said Amanda Cooper, CEO at PureFlora, “We are committed to meeting that urgent need in a timely manner and Chris Jones' proven expertise in developing successful medical device technology swiftly and efficiently will be instrumental in achieving that.” A named inventor of 40 U.S. patents related to medical technologies, Jones earned a B.S. degree in Mechanical Engineering from Stanford University and an M.S. degree in Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. PureFlora was founded in 2012 by Tivon Sidorsky, MD after a family member’s severe case of C. difficile introduced him to the efficacy of fecal matter transplants (FMT) and the need for a standardized, sanitary, and labor reducing system by which to collect, process, and deliver fecal matter. Recognizing the tremendous opportunity for research and clinical applications for human gut microbiota and the elegant solution proposed by Dr. Sidorsky, veteran medical device executive William L. Mince joined forces with the inventor building the now-patented technology and team that is PureFlora.
News Article | November 3, 2016
Airport Stands Equipment are used as predetermined stands at the airport during the arrival and departure of the flights. There is a strong need for clear rules and processes that guarantees safety as airport ramp is believed to be a location with risks for passengers and staff. Besides this, quality airport stands equipment ensure free and efficient operation. The airport stands equipment market is segmented based on equipment and geography. The equipment segment include passenger boarding bridge, preconditioned air unit, stands entry guidance system and electrical ground power unit. Regions such as North America, Europe, Asia -Pacific and LAMEA are expected to observe tremendous demand. Prominent market players are observed acquiring new companies or local market players to maintain their competitive edge. Other business strategies favored by the companies include constant upgradation, joint ventures and collaborations. The major market players active in the airport stands market are Aero Specialties, Inc., Tug Technologies Corporation, FMT Aircraft Gate Support Systems AB, John Bean Technologies Corp., Cavotec SA, Thyssenkrupp Airport Systems Inc., Omega Aviation Services, Inc., Shinmaywa Industries Ltd. and Safegate Group The market research report provides an integrated information on the major drivers, restraints and opportunities influencing the industry growth, during the forecast period. The study further drills down to produce data volume by components, end customers and demography. SWOT analysis of major brands, highlights weaknesses, strengths, opportunities and threats. The data proves effective for business owners planning on designing their marketing and branding strategies. Region wise business performance discussed in the market research report would be valuable for enterprises planning to explore new areas. The report not only examines the market dynamics but also takes a closer look at the growth rate and industrial chain structure. Study further weigh up on the prominent market players and what they are doing different to position their product in the already crowded marketplace. Assessment of upstream and downstream market also forms an important part of the report. For more information or any query mail at [email protected] Wise Guy Reports is part of the Wise Guy Consultants Pvt. Ltd. and offers premium progressive statistical surveying, market research reports, analysis & forecast data for industries and governments around the globe. Wise Guy Reports understand how essential statistical surveying information is for your organization or association. Therefore, we have associated with the top publishers and research firms all specialized in specific domains, ensuring you will receive the most reliable and up to date research data available.