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Nemkov V.,Fluxtrol Inc. | Goldstein R.,Fluxtrol Inc.
COMPEL - The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering | Year: 2017

Purpose - Effect of unstable "wavy" temperature distribution on the part surface during the process of induction heating of ferromagnetic materials was observed and reported by two Russian scientists in 1940 (Babat and Lozinskii, 1940). They reported that under certain conditions, one can observe periodical or quasi-periodical bright stripes on the part surface when its temperature passes through the Curie point. In time, these stripes expand and merge, forming a normal temperature pattern. They called this phenomenon "polosatiy nagrev" (striation heating). Let us call it the "zebra effect" for simplicity. It can exist for a relatively long time, from several seconds to several tens of seconds. Several explanations of the zebra effect were proposed with not very convincing arguments. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of this effect. Design/methodology/approach - Wider spreading of induction technology and use of computer simulation of induction processes create a demand and open new possibilities for study of the zebra effect. This study provides an overview of the available information about the zebra effect and gives new explanation of this phenomenon based on existing experimental data and new results of simulation. Conditions for zebra occurrence and its technological importance or limitations are discussed. Findings - Computer simulation using the Flux 2D program allows to demonstrate the striation (zebra) effect that can appear in the process of heating magnetic materials and reproduce main experimental findings related to this effect. Simulation provides a great opportunity to investigate the zebra phenomenon in virtual reality, providing qualitatively correct results. Results of simulation show that the zebra effect can appear in a relatively narrow range of material properties and operating conditions. The main factor is a big enough gradient of permeability near the Curie point. At present, it is difficult to expect high quantitative accuracy of simulation due to multiple assumptions in simulation algorithms and insufficient or inaccurate information about the material properties near the Curie point. Originality/value - Several explanations of the zebra effect were proposed with not very convincing arguments. There were concerns that the zebra effect could set significant limits on the use of induction heating for surface hardening due to non-uniform temperature distribution along the part (Babat and Lozinskii, 1940; Babat, 1965; Lozinskii, 1949, 1969). However, it did not happen. There were no complaints from scientists or practitioners regarding any negative effect of the zebra phenomenon. Moreover, the authors of this paper did not find any original publications on this issue for more than half a century. Only few old induction experts confirm that they observed the zebra effect or something similar, whereas a great majority of induction community members never heard about it. © Emerald Publishing Limited.


Global Soft Magnetic Materials market competition by top manufacturers, with production, price, revenue (value) and market share for each manufacturer; the top players including Geographically, this report is segmented into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue (million USD), market share and growth rate of Soft Magnetic Materials in these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast), covering North America Europe China Japan Southeast Asia India On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into Soft Ferrite Electrical Steel Cobalt On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate of Soft Magnetic Materials for each application, including Automotive Electronics & Telecommunications Electrical Others Global Soft Magnetic Materials Market Research Report 2017 1 Soft Magnetic Materials Market Overview 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Soft Magnetic Materials 1.2 Soft Magnetic Materials Segment by Type (Product Category) 1.2.1 Global Soft Magnetic Materials Production and CAGR (%) Comparison by Type (Product Category) (2012-2022) 1.2.2 Global Soft Magnetic Materials Production Market Share by Type (Product Category) in 2016 1.2.3 Soft Ferrite 1.2.4 Electrical Steel 1.2.5 Cobalt 1.3 Global Soft Magnetic Materials Segment by Application 1.3.1 Soft Magnetic Materials Consumption (Sales) Comparison by Application (2012-2022) 1.3.2 Automotive 1.3.3 Electronics & Telecommunications 1.3.4 Electrical 1.3.5 Others 1.4 Global Soft Magnetic Materials Market by Region (2012-2022) 1.4.1 Global Soft Magnetic Materials Market Size (Value) and CAGR (%) Comparison by Region (2012-2022) 1.4.2 North America Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.3 Europe Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.4 China Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.5 Japan Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.6 Southeast Asia Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.7 India Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.5 Global Market Size (Value) of Soft Magnetic Materials (2012-2022) 1.5.1 Global Soft Magnetic Materials Revenue Status and Outlook (2012-2022) 1.5.2 Global Soft Magnetic Materials Capacity, Production Status and Outlook (2012-2022) 7 Global Soft Magnetic Materials Manufacturers Profiles/Analysis 7.1 Hitachi Metals Ltd. 7.1.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.1.2 Soft Magnetic Materials Product Category, Application and Specification 7.1.2.1 Product A 7.1.2.2 Product B 7.1.3 Hitachi Metals Ltd. Soft Magnetic Materials Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.1.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.2 Toshiba Materials Company Ltd. 7.2.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.2.2 Soft Magnetic Materials Product Category, Application and Specification 7.2.2.1 Product A 7.2.2.2 Product B 7.2.3 Toshiba Materials Company Ltd. Soft Magnetic Materials Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.2.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.3 GKN Sinter Metals 7.3.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.3.2 Soft Magnetic Materials Product Category, Application and Specification 7.3.2.1 Product A 7.3.2.2 Product B 7.3.3 GKN Sinter Metals Soft Magnetic Materials Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.3.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.4 Sintex A/S 7.4.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.4.2 Soft Magnetic Materials Product Category, Application and Specification 7.4.2.1 Product A 7.4.2.2 Product B 7.4.3 Sintex A/S Soft Magnetic Materials Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.4.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.5 Mate Co. Ltd. 7.5.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.5.2 Soft Magnetic Materials Product Category, Application and Specification 7.5.2.1 Product A 7.5.2.2 Product B 7.5.3 Mate Co. Ltd. Soft Magnetic Materials Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.5.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.6 Vacuumschmelze GmbH & C0. Kg 7.6.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.6.2 Soft Magnetic Materials Product Category, Application and Specification 7.6.2.1 Product A 7.6.2.2 Product B 7.6.3 Vacuumschmelze GmbH & C0. Kg Soft Magnetic Materials Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.6.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.7 Steward Advanced Materials 7.7.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.7.2 Soft Magnetic Materials Product Category, Application and Specification 7.7.2.1 Product A 7.7.2.2 Product B 7.7.3 Steward Advanced Materials Soft Magnetic Materials Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.7.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.8 SG Technologies Limited 7.8.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.8.2 Soft Magnetic Materials Product Category, Application and Specification 7.8.2.1 Product A 7.8.2.2 Product B 7.8.3 SG Technologies Limited Soft Magnetic Materials Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.8.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.9 AMES SA 7.9.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.9.2 Soft Magnetic Materials Product Category, Application and Specification 7.9.2.1 Product A 7.9.2.2 Product B 7.9.3 AMES SA Soft Magnetic Materials Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.9.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.10 Daido Steel Co. Ltd 7.10.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors 7.10.2 Soft Magnetic Materials Product Category, Application and Specification 7.10.2.1 Product A 7.10.2.2 Product B 7.10.3 Daido Steel Co. Ltd Soft Magnetic Materials Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 7.10.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.11 Fluxtrol Inc. 7.12 Powder Metal Group (PMG) 7.13 FJ Industries 7.14 Arnold Magnetic Technologies For more information, please visit https://www.wiseguyreports.com/sample-request/1194758-global-soft-magnetic-materials-market-research-report-2017


Chavdar B.,EATON Inc | Goldstein R.,Fluxtrol Inc. | Ferguson L.,DANTE Solutions Inc.
23rd International Federation of Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering Congress 2016, IFHTSE 2016 | Year: 2016

Feasibility of making lightweight powertrain products with hot hydroforging of steel/low density material hybrid billets is explored. A bimaterial billet is designed such that a steel wall encloses a low density core 100%. Furthermore the low density core is selected among the materials that have lower melting or softening temperature than steel such as aluminum and glass. In hot hydroforging the bimaterial billet is heated to 1000-1200 C range similar to the conventional hot forging of steel. However, in hot hydroforging the core is in liquid or viscous state while steel shell is in solid state similar to the conventional hydroforming. During hot hydroforging the viscous/liquid core has negligible resistance to flow thereby providing a uniform hydrostatic pressure inside the steel and enabling a uniform deformation of the solid steel wall. Steel/aluminum bimetal billets were prepared. Then, the bimetal billets were hot hydroforged in closed dies in one blow. A uniform steel wall thickness was observed all around the forged part upon cross sectioning. However, there was also a large shrinkage void in the aluminum core. The large shrinkage void is formed due to the CTE mismatch between steel and aluminum and the volume increase of aluminum during phase change. The large shrinkage void can be eliminated if aluminum is replaced by glass that has a matching CTE to that of steel. Furthermore, glass doss not have to be fully melted at forging temperatures thereby mitigating the risks of phase change. On the other hand the molten aluminum core can be emptied out of steel shell after forging thereby giving rise to the novel concept of "investment forging". A hollow part with uniform steel shell can be formed for the ultimate weight and cost reductions. For example investment forging of hollow steel valves for engine applications is feasible by hot hydroforging. Copyright © 2016 ASM International® All rights reserved.


Goldstein R.,Fluxtrol Inc. | Chavdar B.,EATON Inc | Ferguson L.,DANTE Solutions Inc.
23rd International Federation of Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering Congress 2016, IFHTSE 2016 | Year: 2016

Recently, a concept to produce lightweight products by hot forging a steel shell that had a lightweight core was presented that could lead to component weight savings up to 50%. Some targeted products are gears, valves, and flanges. The steel shell is envisioned to carry most of the load in a target application while the lightweight core serves as a space holder during the forming process. After forming, the lightweight material may either remain in the component and contribute to the load carrying capacity, or be emptied out to achieve the ultimate weight reduction. In this paper, the concept studied is hot forged from a bimetal billet, which is a steel tube press fit with a solid aluminum core and welded shut with steel end caps. For the experimental part of the studies Al 7075 was selected as the core material due to its high strength to weight ratio and 1020 steel was selected because of its availability as a tube. Induction heating was selected as the heating method for bimetal forging. This is due to the ability of induction heating to rapidly heat the steel layer. Successful bimetal forging of a closed vessel requires the steel layer to be in the austenite phase prior to the aluminum reaching high temperatures to prevent compromising the weld seams. Modeling of the induction heating process is complex due to the dimensional movement of components during the process. A method was developed to accurately model the induction heating process and predict power requirements. The method will be described and the results of the models will be compared to experimental findings. The forming process will be discussed in another paper at the conference. The simulation presented is for solid state forging of a steel aluminum billet, but the method for modeling the process is the same for hot hydroforging or other material combinations. Copyright © 2016 ASM International® All rights reserved.


Kreter K.,Fluxtrol Inc. | Goldstein R.,Fluxtrol Inc. | Yakey C.,Fluxtrol Inc. | Nemkov V.,Fluxtrol Inc.
Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance | Year: 2014

In induction hardening, thermal fatigue is one of the main copper failure modes of induction heat treating coils. There have been papers published that describe this failure mode and others that describe some good design practices. The variables previously identified as the sources of thermal fatigue include radiation from the part surface, frequency, current, concentrator losses, water pressure and coil wall thickness. However, there is very little quantitative data on the factors that influence thermal fatigue in induction coils is available in the public domain. By using finite element analysis software this study analyzes the effect of common design variables of inductor cooling, and quantifies the relative importance of these variables. A comprehensive case study for a single shot induction coil with Fluxtrol A concentrator applied is used for the analysis. © 2014, ASM International.


Jackowski J.K.,Fluxtrol Inc. | Goldstein R.C.,Fluxtrol Inc. | Nemkov V.S.,Fluxtrol Inc.
International SAMPE Technical Conference | Year: 2014

Being contactless and volumetric, Induction heating has proven to be an effective method for producing high strength weld joints between Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic (CFRT) components. There are inherent challenges with the implementation of this technology due to the anisotropic nature of CFRT. The anisotropic electrical and thermal properties of CFRT plate are described. The properties are inputted to a FEA program for electromagnetic and thermal simulation. The program is used to design an induction coil with a goal of achieving uniform temperature distribution in a lap joint between two CFRT plates. Effect of frequency, material orientation, and coil design is examined. Copyright 2014. Used by the Society of the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering with permission.


Goldstein R.C.,Fluxtrol Inc. | Jackowski J.K.,Fluxtrol Inc. | Nemkov V.S.,Fluxtrol Inc.
Thermal Process Modeling - Proceedings from the 5th International Conference on Thermal Process Modeling and Computer Simulation, ICTPMCS 2014 | Year: 2014

Being contactless and volumetric, Induction heating has proven to be an effective method for producing high strength weld joints between Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic (CFRT) components. There are inherent challenges with the implementation of this technology due to the anisotropic nature of CFRT. The anisotropic electrical and thermal properties of CFRT plate are described. The properties are inputted to a FEA program for electromagnetic and thermal simulation. The program is used to design an induction coil with a goal of achieving uniform temperature distribution in a lap joint between two CFRT plates. Effect of frequency, material orientation, and coil design is examined. Copyright © 2014 ASM International ® All rights reserved.


Ferguson B.L.,DANTE Solutions Inc. | Sims J.,DANTE Solutions Inc. | Li Z.C.,DANTE Solutions Inc. | Nemkov V.,Fluxtrol Inc. | And 2 more authors.
ASM International - 28th Heat Treating Society Conference, HEAT TREATING 2015 | Year: 2015

Previous work was reported on the induction hardening process for a 1541 steel axle shaft. This presentation compares the previous results with the stress formation dynamics in the same shaft made from steels with lower hardenability. Hardened using a scan heating method and a trailing PAG spray quench, several steels having lower hardenability were modeled using the same heating schedule so that the depth of austenite formation is similar in all cases. During spray quenching, the hardened case is shallower as steel hardenability is reduced. This leads to differences in the magnitude of compressive and tensile stresses and their distributions. In turn, the potential for internal cracking is reduced as the stress transition zone is altered by the thickness of the diffusive phase layer between the martensitic case and the ferrite-pearlite core of the shaft. The next step is to investigate these effects on the torque carrying ability of the shaft. © 2015 ASM International®.


Yakey C.,Fluxtrol Inc. | Nemkov V.,Fluxtrol Inc. | Goldstein R.,Fluxtrol Inc. | Iackowski J.,Fluxtrol Inc.
ASM International - 28th Heat Treating Society Conference, HEAT TREATING 2015 | Year: 2015

With the use of good design practices, one can improve coil longevity and improve production quality. By eliminating failure points in the initial design, proper material selection, improved cooling and proper magnetic flux control, induction tooling life can be increased. Computer simulation has been proven to be an effective tool for predicting not only electromagnetic parameters of a designed system, but also heat patterns in a given part and in the induction coil itself. When a coil has magnetic flux controllers present, their influence may also be predicted by computer simulation. With an extensive library of published case studies in induction coil design and performance evaluations, we are confident with the use of these tools and proper coil geometries and implementation, production life and quality can be improved on most induction heat treating inductors. These design practices have been used by the authors for over 20 years with proven results. A case is examined of a CVJ stem hardening coil, in which the principles discussed can be applied to most other hardening coils. © 2015 ASM International®.


Trademark
Fluxtrol Inc. | Date: 2016-07-05

Iron substance which focuses, concentrates and shields electromagnetic fields or fluxes in the form of powdered metal soft magnetic composites.

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