Fluxome Inc. | Date: 2011-05-24
Tavares S.,Fluxome Inc. |
Tavares S.,Technical University of Denmark |
Grotkjaer T.,Fluxome Inc. |
Obsen T.,Fluxome Inc. |
And 3 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011
Very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have well-documented importance in human health and nutrition. Sustainable production in robust host organisms that do not synthesize them naturally requires the coordinated expression of several heterologous desaturases and elongases. In the present study we show production of EPA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using glucose as the sole carbon source through expression of five heterologous fatty acid desaturases and an elongase. Novel Δ5-desaturases from the ciliate protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia and from the microalgae Ostreococcus tauri and Ostreococcus lucimarinus were identified via a BLAST search, and their substrate preferences and desaturation efficiencies were assayed in a yeast strain producing the Δ6 and Δ3 fatty acid substrates for Δ5-desaturation. The Δ5-desaturase from P. tetraurelia was up-to-2-fold more efficient than the microalgal desaturases and was also more efficient than Δ5-desaturases from Mortierella alpina and Leishmania major. In vivo investigation of acyl carrier substrate specificities showed that the Δ5-desaturases from P. tetraurelia, O. lucimarinus, O. tauri, and M. alpina are promiscuous toward the acyl carrier substrate but prefer phospholipid-bound substrates. In contrast, the Δ5-desaturase from L. major showed no activity on phospholipid-bound substrate and thus appears to be an exclusively acyl coenzyme A-dependent desaturase. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.
Vongsangnak W.,Technical University of Denmark |
Vongsangnak W.,Fluxome Inc. |
Vongsangnak W.,Soochow University of China |
Figueiredo L.F.,Technical University of Denmark |
And 9 more authors.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering | Year: 2012
Infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an increasing societal problem. Typically, glycopeptide antibiotics are used in the treatment of these infections. The most comprehensively studied glycopeptide antibiotic biosynthetic pathway is that of balhimycin biosynthesis in Amycolatopsis balhimycina. The balhimycin yield obtained by A. balhimycina is, however, low and there is therefore a need to improve balhimycin production. In this study, we performed genome sequencing, assembly and annotation analysis of A. balhimycina and further used these annotated data to reconstruct a genome-scale metabolic model for the organism. Here we generated an almost complete A. balhimycina genome sequence comprising 10,562,587 base pairs assembled into 2,153 contigs. The high GC-genome (~69%) includes 8,585 open reading frames (ORFs). We used our integrative toolbox called SEQTOR for functional annotation and then integrated annotated data with biochemical and physiological information available for this organism to reconstruct a genome-scale metabolic model of A. balhimycina. The resulting metabolic model contains 583 ORFs as protein encoding genes (7% of the predicted 8,585 ORFs), 407 EC numbers, 647 metabolites and 1,363 metabolic reactions. During the analysis of the metabolic model, linear, quadratic and evolutionary programming algorithms using flux balance analysis (FBA), minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA), and OptGene, respectively were applied as well as phenotypic behavior and improved balhimycin production were simulated. The A. balhimycina model shows a good agreement between in silico data and experimental data and also identifies key reactions associated with increased balhimycin production. The reconstruction of the genome-scale metabolic model of A. balhimycina serves as a basis for physiological characterization. The model allows a rational design of engineering strategies for increasing balhimycin production in A. balhimycina and glycopeptide production in general. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.