Flux Photon Corporation

Raleigh, NC, United States

Flux Photon Corporation

Raleigh, NC, United States
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Razzaq A.,Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology | Sinhamahapatra A.,Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology | Kang T.-H.,Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology | Grimes C.A.,Flux Photon Corporation | And 2 more authors.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2017

Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels are recognized as a key driver of global warming. Making use of sunlight to photoreduce CO2, in turn fabricating hydrocarbon fuels compatible with the current energy infrastructure, is a compelling strategy to minimize atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, practical application of such a photocatalytic system requires significant efforts for improved photoreduction performance and product selectivity. Herein, we investigate the performance of our newly developed reduced TiO2, prepared by a reduction process using Mg in 5% H2/Ar, for photoconversion of CO2 and water vapor to hydrocarbons, primarily CH4. Using Pt nanoparticles as a co-catalyst, under simulated solar light irradiation the reduced anatase TiO2 exhibits a relatively stable performance with a threefold increase in the rate of CH4 production (1640.58 ppm g−1 h−1, 1.13 μmol g−1 h−1) as compared to anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (546.98 ppm g−1 h−1, 0.38 μmol g−1 h−1). The improved photocatalytic performance is attributed to enhanced light absorption, suitable band edge alignment with respect to the CO2/CH4 redox potential, and efficient separation of photogenerated charges. Our results suggest that the Pt-sensitized reduced TiO2 can serve as an efficient photocatalyst for solar light CO2 photoreduction. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Kim H.R.,Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology | Razzaq A.,Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology | Grimes C.A.,Flux Photon Corporation | In S.-I.,Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology
Journal of CO2 Utilization | Year: 2017

Graphical abstract: Photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to fuel is a topic of great current interest. The problem is a challenging one, requiring a photocorrosion-stable, industrially-scalable, broad-spectrum light absorbing semiconductor, the energy bands of which align with the CO/CO2 and H2O/O2 potentials. Herein we report the synthesis of a unique p-n-p heterojunction material architecture, Cu2O/S-doped TiO2 micro-blocks covered with CuO nanowires, using anodization and annealing processes. The photocatalytic material shows excellent performance in the photocatalytic conversion of CO2 and water vapor to methane under AM 1.5G illumination. The heterojunction material architecture exhibits a methane yield of 2.31μmolm−2h−1, a rate approximately ten times higher than TiO2 nanotube array films synthesized using similar anodization conditions. The improved performance of the heterojunctioned material architecture appears due to improved light absorption and efficient separation of the photogenerated charge. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.


Zubair M.,Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology | Razzaq A.,Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology | Razzaq A.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Grimes C.A.,Flux Photon Corporation | In S.-I.,Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology
Journal of CO2 Utilization | Year: 2017

Development of photocatalytic materials for achieving the aspects of cost-effectiveness, improved performance and high stability is a subject of enormous interest among the photocatalysis research society. With the aim of achieving above mentioned features, herein we report a noble metal free, solar-light active, efficient and highly stable hybrid Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS)-ZnO photocatalyst, synthesized by a simple two-step process. The morphological, crystalline, band alignment, optical and electronic properties of the prepared samples are intensively investigated. Photocatalytic performance is evaluated by measuring, under the simulated solar light, the ability of the photocatalyst to convert CO2 into hydrocarbon fuels, primarily CH4. Our optimum CZTS-ZnO photocatalyst sample exhibits a CH4 yield of 138.90 ppm g-1 h-1, a factor of ≈ 31 times greater than the un-sensitized ZnO nanorods, and ≈ 22 times greater than the CZTS nanoparticles; with excellent stability yielding similar CH4 production up to five test-cycles. The enhanced performance of the hybrid, noble metal-free photocatalyst can be attributed to improved light absorption and efficient separation of the photogenerated charge due to the Z-scheme heterojunction interface. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Nguyen V.,Hunan University | Nguyen V.,Hanoi University of Industry | Cai Q.,Hunan University | Grimes C.A.,Flux Photon Corporation
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2016

A visible-light active photocatalyst, CdS/Au/TiO2 nanotube array (NTA) photoelectrode, was prepared by electrodeposition of Au nanoparticles onto TiO2 NTA with subsequent deposition of visible-light absorbable 2.4 eV band-gap CdS quantum dots using successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). The Au nanoparticles here act as electron sinks facilitating charge carrier separation. Under AM1.5G illumination a photoconversion efficiency of 4.06% was achieved for the CdS/Au/TiO2 NTA photoelectrode, suggesting the promise of the material architecture for achieving high-performance cost-effective materials. © 2016


Yin X.,Hunan University | Sheng P.,Hunan University | Zhong F.,Hunan University | Nguyen V.,Hunan University | And 3 more authors.
New Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2016

We describe the synthesis and application of a three-dimensional (3D) CdS quantum dot/ZnIn2S4 nanosheet/TiO2 nanotube array (CdS/ZnIn2S4/TiO2) heterostructured material architecture. TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTAs) are used as the synthetic template, subsequently sensitized using hydrothermal and successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) techniques. The described synthesis approach offers a powerful technique in the design of 3D heterostructure systems. Under AM1.5G illumination, the 3D CdS/ZnIn2S4/TiO2 samples generate a photocurrent of approximately 4.3 mA cm-2, with a photoconversion efficiency of 2%. Samples are tested for their ability to photocatalytically degrade target agents; it is noteworthy that after 90 min illumination 100% of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is removed. © The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 2016.


PubMed | Hunan University, Flux Photon Corporation and Hanoi University of Industry
Type: | Journal: Journal of colloid and interface science | Year: 2015

A novel CdS/ZnSe/TiO2 nanotube array (NTA) photoelectrode was prepared by deposition of ZnSe nanoparticles (NPs) using pulse electrodeposition technique onto a TiO2 NTA. By successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), CdS quantum dots (QDs) deposit onto a ZnSe/TiO2 NTA photoelectrode. The as-prepared CdS/ZnSe/TiO2 NTA photoelectrode performance is significantly improved, which not only greatly extends spatial separation of charges, but also enhance the utilization efficiency of visible-light. This system exhibits excellent charges transport property. The maximum photocurrent density of an 8.25mAcm(-2) was observed in the CdS/ZnSe/TiO2 NTA photoelectrode, which is 37.5, 15.86 and 1.56 times higher than bare TiO2 NTA, ZnSe/TiO2 NTA, and CdS/TiO2NTA photoelectrodes, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of CdS/ZnSe/TiO2 NTA is tested by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) in distilled water under solar light irradiation of 100mW/cm(2). Within about 120min of irradiation, 90.05% MO are removed.


PubMed | Hunan University, Flux Photon Corporation and Hanoi University of Industry
Type: | Journal: Journal of colloid and interface science | Year: 2016

A visible-light active photocatalyst, CdS/Au/TiO2 nanotube array (NTA) photoelectrode, was prepared by electrodeposition of Au nanoparticles onto TiO2 NTA with subsequent deposition of visible-light absorbable 2.4eV band-gap CdS quantum dots using successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). The Au nanoparticles here act as electron sinks facilitating charge carrier separation. Under AM1.5G illumination a photoconversion efficiency of 4.06% was achieved for the CdS/Au/TiO2 NTA photoelectrode, suggesting the promise of the material architecture for achieving high-performance cost-effective materials.


Bao N.,Nanjing University of Technology | Feng X.,Flux Photon Corporation | Grimes C.A.,Nanjing University of Technology
Journal of Nanotechnology | Year: 2012

We review the use of self-assembled, vertically oriented one-dimensional (1D) titania nanowire and nanotube geometries in several third-generation excitonic solar cell designs including those based upon bulk heterojunction, ordered heterojunction, Frster resonance energy transfer (FRET), and liquid-junction dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Copyright © 2012 Ningzhong Bao et al.


In S.-I.,Pennsylvania State University | Almtoft K.P.,Danish Technological Institute DTI | Lee H.,Pennsylvania State University | Andersen I.H.,Danish Technological Institute DTI | And 3 more authors.
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society | Year: 2012

We present a low temperature (≈ 70 °C) method to prepare anatase, vertically aligned feather-like TiO 2 (VAFT) nanowire arrays via reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. The synthesis method is general, offering a promising strategy for preparing crystalline nanowire metal oxide films for applications including gas sensing, photocatalysis, and 3rd generation photovoltaics. As an example application, anatase nanowire films are grown on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates and used as the photoanode in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). AM1.5G power conversion efficiencies for the solar cells made of 1 μm thick VAFT have reached 0.42%, which compares favorably to solar cells made of the same thickness P25 TiO 2 (0.35%).


Cardoso J.C.,Nanjing University of Technology | Grimes C.A.,Nanjing University of Technology | Feng X.,Flux Photon Corporation | Zhang X.,Nanjing University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2012

We report on low-cost, all solution fabrication of efficient air-stable nanostructured thin film photovoltaics comprised of n-type Sb 2S 3 chemically deposited onto TiO 2 nanowire array films, forming coaxial Sb 2S 3/TiO 2 nanowire hybrids vertically oriented from the SnO 2:F coated glass substrate, which are then intercalated with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) for hole transport and enhanced light absorption. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

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