Fluorotronics Inc.

Federal Way, CA, United States

Fluorotronics Inc.

Federal Way, CA, United States
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Shahrokhi S.,Lorestan University of Medical Sciences | Daneshmandi S.,Tarbiat Modares University | Menaa F.,Fluorotronics Inc.
Human Gene Therapy | Year: 2014

The interaction between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and dendritic cells (DCs) affects T cell development and function. Further, the chemotactic capacity of MSCs, their interaction with the tumor microenvironment, and the intervention of immune-stimulatory molecules suggest possible exploitation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and CD40 ligand (CD40L) to genetically modify MSCs for enhanced cancer therapy. Both DCs and MSCs were isolated from BALB/c mice. DCs were then cocultured with MSCs transduced with TNF-α and/or CD40L [(TNF-α/CD40L)-MSCs]. Major DCs' maturation markers, DC and T cell cytokines such as interleukin-4,-6,-10,-12, TNF-α, tumor growth factor-β, as well as T cell proliferation, were assessed. Meantime, a BALB/c mouse breast tumor model was inducted by injecting 4T1 cells subcutaneously. Mice (n=10) in each well-defined test groups (n=13) were cotreated with DCs and/or (TNF-α/CD40L)-MSCs. The controls included untreated, empty vector-MSC, DC-lipopolysaccharide, and immature DC mouse groups. Eventually, cytokine levels from murine splenocytes, as well as tumor volume and survival of mice, were assessed. Compared with the corresponding controls, both in vitro and in vivo analyses showed induction of T helper 1 (Th1) as well as suppression of Th2 and Treg responses in test groups, which led to a valuable antitumor immune response. Further, the longest mouse survival was observed in mouse groups that were administered with DCs plus (TNF-α/CD40L)-MSCs. In our experimental setting, the present pioneered study demonstrates that concomitant genetic modification of MSCs with TNF-α and CD40L optimized the antitumor immunity response in the presence of DCs, meantime increasing the mouse lifespan. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.


Djeribi R.,Annaba University | Bouchloukh W.,Annaba University | Jouenne T.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Menaa B.,Annaba University | Menaa B.,Fluorotronics Inc.
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2012

Background: The formation of bacterial biofilms on urinary catheters is a leading cause of urinary tract infections in intensive care units. Cytobacteriological examination of urine from patients is often misleading, due to the formation of these biofilms. Therefore, characterizing these biofilms and identifying the bacterial species residing on the surface of catheters are of major importance. Methods: We studied the formation of biofilms on the inner surface of urinary catheters using microbiological culture techniques, with the direct contact of catheter pieces with blood agar. The bacterial species on the surface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and the kinetic profile of biofilm formation on a silicone substrate for an imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii bacterium was evaluated with a crystal violet staining assay. Results: The bacterial species that constituted these biofilms were identified as a variety of gram-negative bacilli, with a predominance of strains belonging to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The other isolated strains belonged to A baumannii and Klebsiella ornithinolytica. Kinetic profiling of biofilm formation identified the transient behavior of A baumannii between its biofilm and planktonic state. This strain was highly resistant to all of the antibiotics tested except colistin. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the identified isolated species formed a dense and interconnected network of cellular multilayers formed from either a single cell or from different species that were surrounded and enveloped by a protective matrix. Conclusions: Microbiological analysis of the intraluminal surface of the catheter is required for true identification of the causative agents of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. This approach, combined with a routine cytobacteriological examination of urine, allows for the complete characterization of biofilm-associated species, and also may help prevent biofilm formation in such devices and help guide optimum antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2012 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Menaa F.,University of Campinas | Braghini C.A.,University of Campinas | De Vasconcellos J.P.C.,University of Campinas | Menaa B.,Fluorotronics Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2011

MYOC encodes a secretary glycoprotein of 504 amino acids named myocilin. MYOC is the first gene to be linked to juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) and some forms of adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The gene was identified as an up-regulated molecule in cultured trabecular meshwork (TM) cells after treatment with dexamethasone and was originally referred to as trabecular meshwork-inducible glucocorticoid response (TIGR). Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), due to decreased aqueous outflow, is the strongest known risk factor for POAG. Increasing evidence showed that the modulation of the wild-type (wt) myocilin protein expression is not causative of glaucoma while some misfolded and self-assembly aggregates of mutated myocilin may be associated with POAG in related or unrelated populations. The etiology of the disease remains unclear. Consequently, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlyingPOAG is required to obtain early diagnosis, avoid potential disease progression, and develop new therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we review and discuss the most relevant studies regarding structural characterizations, expressions, molecular interactions, putative functions of MYOC gene and/or its corresponding protein in POAG etiology. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Mahamuni S.P.,P.A. College | Khose R.D.,P.A. College | Menaa F.,Fluorotronics Inc. | Badole S.L.,P.A. College
BioMedicine (Netherlands) | Year: 2012

Hyperlipidemia is a metabolic syndrome characterized by diverse lipid profiles (e.g. hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and familial combined hyperlipidemia) and may have significant adverse effects on health (e.g. atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity). Both genetic and environmental components are associated with hyperlipidemia sub-types. Effective drugs targeting hyperlipidemia sub-types are thus required. In the present review, we mainly focus on types of hyperlipidemia, digestion, and absorption of lipids as well as on their consequences on human health and on potential effective drug targets against hyperlipidemia. Omega-3 fatty acids have favorable effect on reducing postprandial triglyceride levels and will be beneficial if combined with statins. © 2012.


Menaa F.,Fluorotronics Inc. | Abdelghani A.,University of Carthage | Menaa B.,Fluorotronics Inc.
Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine | Year: 2015

The discovery of the interesting intrinsic properties of graphene, a two-dimensional nanomaterial, has boosted further research and development for various types of applications from electronics to biomedicine. During the last decade, graphene and several graphene-derived materials, such as graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes, activated charcoal composite, fluorinated graphenes and three-dimensional graphene foams, have been extensively explored as components of biosensors or theranostics, or to remotely control cell-substrate interfaces, because of their remarkable electro-conductivity. To date, despite the intensive progress in human stem cell research, only a few attempts to use carbon nanotechnology in the stem cell field have been reported. Interestingly, most of the recent in vitro studies indicate that graphene-based nanomaterials (i.e. mainly graphene, graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes) promote stem cell adhesion, growth, expansion and differentiation. Although cell viability in vitro is not affected, their potential nanocytoxicity (i.e. nanocompatibility and consequences of uncontrolled nanobiodegradability) in a clinical setting using humans remains unknown. Therefore, rigorous internationally standardized clinical studies in humans that would aim to assess their nanotoxicology are requested. In this paper we report and discuss the recent and pertinent findings about graphene and derivatives as valuable nanomaterials for stem cell research (i.e. culture, maintenance and differentiation) and tissue engineering, as well as for regenerative, translational and personalized medicine (e.g. bone reconstruction, neural regeneration). Also, from scarce nanotoxicological data, we also highlight the importance of functionalizing graphene-based nanomaterials to minimize the cytotoxic effects, as well as other critical safety parameters that remain important to take into consideration when developing nanobionanomaterials. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Menaa F.,Fluorotronics Inc. | Menaa B.,Fluorotronics Inc. | Sharts O.,Fluorotronics Inc.
Faraday Discussions | Year: 2011

Carbon-Fluorine Spectroscopy (CFS™), also known as Fluoro-Raman Spectroscopy (FRS™), is a relatively new patented platform technology using a family of various methods and cost-effective devices called PLIRFA™ (Pulsed Laser Isochronic Raman and Fluorescence Apparatus) developed by Fluorotronics, Inc. The key feature of this progressive and non-destructive technology is based on the discovery of a characteristic optical signature of carbon-fluorine bond(s) in the fingerprint spectral area of 500-800 cm-1 allowing rapid, ultra-specific and sensitive detection, characterization, imaging, and measurement of any fluoroorganics. Interestingly, the C-F bond is unique in its character and so it can be used as a molecular label. Furthermore, the C-F label is efficient, soluble, cheaper, smaller, more stable and less toxic than fluorescent dyes, nanoparticles or quantum dot materials. Thereby, C-F bonds are often incorporated into pharmaceutical, agrochemical and biological molecules in addition to polymers and nano-materials to achieve special properties (e.g. molecular stability, molecular tracing). In this paper, we present some of our data obtained from FRS™ applied to pharmaceuticals and biologics, and provide perspectives of FRS applications for the pharmaceutical and biomedical fields. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


PubMed | Kampala International University, Fluorotronics Inc., Gomal University and Quaid-i-Azam University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences | Year: 2015

The present study was conducted to formulate controlled release dosage forms containing Ibuprofen with Eudragit S 100 polymer. The tablets were formulated at three different ratios with the polymer to investigate the effect of different concentrations of polymer on in vitro drug release patterns/kinetics and in vivo absorption/pharmacokinetics. Pre-formulation studies were conducted including bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index, Hausner ratio and angle of repose. In vitro studies were conducted using phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) as dissolution medium. In vivo performance was evaluated using albino rabbits. Physico-chemical characteristics (i.e. dimensional tests, weight variation, hardness, friability and drug content determination) fell in the USP acceptable limits. The compressibility index was found to range between 12.02 0.01% and 18.66 0.03%, the Hausner ratio varied between 1.02 0.01 and 1.19 0.10 and the angle of repose ranged from 15.19 0.01 to 24.52 0.10, all indicating better flow properties than the bulk-reference standard. Both bulk and tapped densities also fell in the USP acceptable range. Ibuprofen market tablets showed Tmax of 2.1 0.4h, which was significantly (P-value <0.05) lower compared to that of the reference standard (i.e. 4.09 1.3h). Ibuprofen test formulation has a half-life (t1/2) of 16.9 2.5h, which was significantly (P-value<0.001) higher compared to that of the reference standard (i.e. 9.23 2.9h). Eudragit S 100 polymers can be used efficiently to develop directly compressed prolonged release tablets.


Menaa F.,University of Campinas | Menaa F.,Fluorotronics Inc.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2013

Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder, with Mendelian inheritance pattern, caused by a missense mutation in the β-polypeptide chain of the hemoglobin B. SCA preferentially affects populations in countries where malaria was/is present (e.g. Africa, USA, Brazil). Thereby, in USA, the incidence of SCA is relatively high, around 1/500, and the prevalence is about 1/1000. In Brazil, SCA represents a major public health problem with an incidence ranging from 1/2000 to 1/600 depending on the regions. Homozygotic patients present more severe medical conditions and reduced life expectancy than heterozygous individuals who generally are asymptomatic. Eventually, this life-threatening disease displays a complex etiology owing to heterogeneous phenotypes and clinical outcomes, subsequently affecting the management of the patients. One of the most critical complications associated with SCA is stroke, a leading neurologic cause of death and disability. About 24% of SCA patients have a stroke by the age of 45 and 11% by the age of 20. From the general population, twin and familial aggregation studies as well as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), mostly in pediatric populations with ischemic stroke, showed that the risk of stroke has a substantial genetic component. Nevertheless, to fully characterize genomic contributors of stroke and permit reliable personalized medicine, multidisciplinary studies incorporating knowledge from clinical medicine, epidemiology, genetics, and molecular biology, are required.In this manuscript, stroke in SCA patients is extensively reviewed with emphasis to the US and Brazilian populations. Recent advances in genomics analysis of stroke in SCA patients are highlighted. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | Fluorotronics Inc. and University of Carthage
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine | Year: 2016

The discovery of the interesting intrinsic properties of graphene, a two-dimensional nanomaterial, has boosted further research and development for various types of applications from electronics to biomedicine. During the last decade, graphene and several graphene-derived materials, such as graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes, activated charcoal composite, fluorinated graphenes and three-dimensional graphene foams, have been extensively explored as components of biosensors or theranostics, or to remotely control cell-substrate interfaces, because of their remarkable electro-conductivity. To date, despite the intensive progress in human stem cell research, only a few attempts to use carbon nanotechnology in the stem cell field have been reported. Interestingly, most of the recent in vitro studies indicate that graphene-based nanomaterials (i.e. mainly graphene, graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes) promote stem cell adhesion, growth, expansion and differentiation. Although cell viability in vitro is not affected, their potential nanocytoxicity (i.e. nanocompatibility and consequences of uncontrolled nanobiodegradability) in a clinical setting using humans remains unknown. Therefore, rigorous internationally standardized clinical studies in humans that would aim to assess their nanotoxicology are requested. In this paper we report and discuss the recent and pertinent findings about graphene and derivatives as valuable nanomaterials for stem cell research (i.e. culture, maintenance and differentiation) and tissue engineering, as well as for regenerative, translational and personalized medicine (e.g. bone reconstruction, neural regeneration). Also, from scarce nanotoxicological data, we also highlight the importance of functionalizing graphene-based nanomaterials to minimize the cytotoxic effects, as well as other critical safety parameters that remain important to take into consideration when developing nanobionanomaterials.


PubMed | Fluorotronics Inc. and HYMETEC SA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Quantitative and qualitative characterization of fluorinated molecules represents an important task. Fluorine-based medicinal chemistry is a fast-growing research area due to the positive impact of fluorine in drug discovery, and clinical and molecular imaging (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography). Common detection methods include fluorinated-based labelling using radioactive isotopes or fluorescent dyes. Nevertheless, these molecular imaging methods can be harmful for health due to the potential instability of fluorochromes and cytoxicity of radioisotopes. Therefore, these methods often require expensive precautionary measures. In this context, we have developed, validated and patented carbon-fluorine spectroscopy (CFS), recently renamed Spectro-Fluor technology, which among a non-competitive family of in-house made devices called PLIRFA (Pulsed Laser Isochronic Raman and Fluorescence Apparatus), allows reliable detection of Carbon-Fluorine (C-F) bonds. C-F bonds are known to be stable and safe labels once incorporated to any type of molecules, cells, compounds or (nano-) materials. In this pioneered research study, we used Spectro-Fluor to assess biomarkers. As a proof-of-principle experiment, we have established a three-step protocol intended to rapid protein detection, which simply consisted of: (i) incorporating a sufficient concentration of an aromatic amino-acid (fluorinated versus non-fluorinated) into cultured cells; (ii) simultaneously isolating the fluorinated protein of interest and the non-fluorinated form of the protein (control) by immune-precipitation; (iii) comparatively analyzing the respective spectrum obtained for the two protein forms by Spectro-Fluor. Thereby, we were able to differentiate, from colon cancer cells HCT-116, the fluorinated and non-fluorinated forms of p21, a key transcriptional factor and downstream target of p53, the so-called guardian of the genome. Taken together, our data again demonstrates the beneficial alternative use of Spectro-Fluor, which once combined with an innovative methodology permits one to quickly, reliably, safely and cost-effectively detect physiological or pathological proteins in cells.

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