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News Article | May 24, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Headline Sponsor Odebrecht is the latest industry heavyweight to join the formidable speaker line-up, including Sr. Level Decision Makers at Exxon, Dow, Orpic, Braskem, Cheniere, CB&I, Bechtel, KBR, Fluor, SABIC, Westlake, Valero + hundreds more. They will collaborate on central issues defining success of the market, including tackling poor craft labor productivity, and reducing costs for both major projects, plant based/med projects, and maintenance work. Petrochemical Update insist that the event is a must-attend for any Owner, Contractor or Solution Provider servicing the downstream engineering, construction, shutdowns & routine maintenance industry. Event Director Emily McMahon states, ‘the learning and networking potential on offer rivals any other meeting of its kind; with 2 dedicated days of conference tracks, and 2 networking parties – this event will help Owners save millions in capital expenditure, and facilitate business relationships to progress the downstream market nationwide”. Attendees can expect dedicated conference tracks across the following key areas: DECM has grown substantially in the last 3 years with testimonials confirming the importance of the meeting for the industry: “Sincere congratulations on such a successful event! The Conference was well organized, both logistically and from contents perspective. There was plenty of networking opportunity as well” stated a Sr. Project Leader at Chevron. Dow Chemical at also expressed that 2016 was a “Good event for petrochemical suppliers and owners to learn about the current state of the industry and collaborate on best practices”. With ticket sales reaching an unprecedented rate this year, 2017 is set to be the must-attend event on industry leaders’ calendars nationwide. Final tickets for the event are selling fast. Make sure you secure your registration online, and check out the event website, including speaker line-up, attendees & agenda here: http://bit.ly/2r98Cua


According to Monika Sahu, analyst at BIS Research, "The metal segment is acquiring the largest market share in surface treatment chemicals globally, this trend is expected to continue through forecast period. Corrosion protection chemicals are the leading chemical types that have been used in numerous base material (metal, plastic and others). The major types of corrosion protection chemicals currently popular include conversion coatings, which include oxide, phosphate and chromate coatings. Since, there are problems arising in the usage of chromate coatings due to their toxic effects, their use is slowly decreasing with the market trend shifting to more eco-friendly chemicals." The shift towards eco-friendly chemicals has fuelled varied research and development activities in the industry, with increased investment from key market players. The landscape of the market is highly competitive because of the presence of a large number of companies, and thus, innovation and development by these companies have been a key factor in the significant growth of this market. The market shift from phosphate to oxide and the increasing demand of eco-friendly chemicals are some of the future trends that are expected to trail in the forecast period. This report provides a detailed analysis of the recent trends influencing the market, along with a comprehensive study of the future trends and developments of the market. The report incorporates different segments of global surface treatment chemicals market including market breakdown by base material, chemical type, application and geographical location. It also features a section on the leading players in the industry, along with their corporate overview, financials, financial summary and SWOT analysis. The report emphasises on the market share and size of automotive industry and general industry, owing to their large scale share in the current and upcoming market of surface treatment chemicals. It has been observed that the most utilized strategies by various companies for strengthening their hold on the market are product launches and developments, and business expansions followed by mergers & acquisitions, partnerships, agreements and collaborations. To increase their presence in the global market, surface treatment chemical manufacturers are also engaging in strategic partnerships with different distribution networks and e-commerce portals to target a larger consumer base. Some of the key players influencing the market are Henkel AG, Chemetall, Nihon Parkerizing, PPG, Nippon Paint Holdings, Oerlikon Group, JCU Corporation, Derivados Del Fluor, Solvay, McGean Specialty Chemicals, Yuken Industry, PoliteknikMetal, Platform Specialty Products Corp, Quaker Chemical Corporation, Sugest, AHC Oberflächentechnik GmbH and TIB Chemicals. The report addresses the following questions about the global surface treatment chemicals market: About BIS Research: BIS Research (Business Intelligence and Strategy Research) is a global market research and advisory company which focuses on those emerging trends in technology which are likely to disrupt the dynamics of the market. Our in-depth market intelligence reports focus on the market estimations, technology analysis, emerging high-growth applications, deeply segmented granular country-level market data and other important market parameters useful in the strategic decision making for senior management. We also provide competitive intelligence, quick turnaround research and custom research services. What distinguishes BIS Research from the rest of the players is that we don't simply provide data, but also complement it with valuable insights and actionable inputs for the success of our clients. BIS Research publishes in-depth global market intelligence reports across different industry verticals such as Agriculture, Automotive, Healthcare, Aerospace and Defense, Electronics & Semiconductor, Advanced Materials & Chemicals, Information Technology and other emerging technologies. Connect with us on LinkedIn @ https://www.linkedin.com/company/3720474 Connect with us on Twitter@ https://twitter.com/BISResearch


News Article | May 10, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

Ton Hillen, CEO Heijmans NV: 'Het eerste kwartaal is volgens plan verlopen. 2017 is voor Heijmans een overgangsjaar. De verkoop van de buitenlandse bedrijven in België en Duitsland is afgerond. Er is definitieve overeenstemming bereikt over het project N23 Westfrisiaweg, de werkzaamheden zijn hervat. Het afmaken van de probleemprojecten vraagt enige tijd: het effect daarvan is ook in de eerste maanden van dit jaar nog merkbaar, maar de impact neemt af. Onze focus blijft gericht op een selectief aannamebeleid. In tenders wordt er veelal goed gescoord op onderscheidend vermogen, zonder afbreuk te doen aan ons strikte tenderbeleid. De omvang van de orderportefeuille is toegenomen en van goede kwaliteit. Diverse segmenten profiteren van rugwind in verbeterde marktomstandigheden. Kortom: we liggen op koers.' Wonen De woningmarkt blijft zich positief ontwikkelen. Vastgoed laat een hogere omzet zien in vergelijking met het eerste kwartaal van vorig jaar. In de eerste vier maanden van het jaar zijn 440 woningen verkocht (zelfde periode 2016: 489 woningen). 392 daarvan zijn verkocht aan particulieren, gelijk aan de verkoop aan particulieren in 2016. Met woningcorporatie Elan Wonen sloot Heijmans een realisatieovereenkomst voor het ontwerp en de bouw van 117 Heijmans Huismerk woningen in de Boerhaavewijk in Haarlem. In het Limburgse America zijn 12 Heijmans ONE-woningen geplaatst in opdracht van Wonen Limburg. Al eerder werden 30 van deze woningen in Weert en 10 woningen in Panningen geplaatst. In het eerste kwartaal is een deel van het project Fenixloods I in Rotterdam verkocht aan belegger APF International. Het betreft circa 6.000 m2 aan commerciële ruimte op de begane grond en eerste verdieping van de voormalige loods. Zeer recent heeft Heijmans meerdere tenders gewonnen op basis van onderscheidend vermogen, zoals de ontwikkeling van het gebied Sloterdijk-Centrum in Amsterdam. Deze ontwikkeling omvat circa 150 koopwoningen en 650 m2 aan commerciële ruimte in de directe omgeving van het station Amsterdam Sloterdijk. Werken Zoals verwacht ligt de omzet bij Utiliteit in het eerste kwartaal op een lager niveau dan in dezelfde periode vorig jaar. Oorzaken hiervoor zijn de stabilisatie in de markt voor utilitaire nieuwbouw en het selectieve aannamebeleid van Heijmans. De status van het project RIVM is onveranderd; Heijmans (aandeel 37,5%) en consortiumpartners zijn in gesprek met de opdrachtgever en zullen starten met werkzaamheden zodra deze afspraken definitief zijn gemaakt. In het eerste kwartaal kreeg Heijmans opdracht van het Rijksvastgoedbedrijf om het nieuwe onderkomen van het NIFP Pieter Baan Centrum in Almere te realiseren. Heijmans draagt zorg voor alle bouwkundige en installatietechnische voorzieningen voor het nieuwe centrum, evenals voor de realisatie van buitenruimtes, een parkeerterrein en toegangsweg. In Alkmaar renoveert Heijmans drie politiepanden in opdracht van de Nationale Politie. In opdracht van Luchtverkeersleiding Nederland is gestart met het elektrotechnisch onderhoud op de luchthavens Schiphol, Rotterdam, Eelde en Beek. In maart is de nieuwe huisvesting voor Eurojust in Den Haag opgeleverd. Verbinden De Infra activiteiten draaien volgens verwachting. De focus op kostenoptimalisatie heeft een positief effect. De afronding van enkele probleemprojecten vraagt nog aandacht, maar de impact daarvan neemt af. Heijmans bereikte definitieve overeenstemming over het project N23 Westfrisiaweg en heeft de werkzaamheden inmiddels weer volledig opgestart. In februari werd de opdracht voor het ontwerp en de realisatie van Zuidasdok definitief gegund aan ZuidPlus, de combinatie van Fluor, Hochtief en Heijmans (aandeel 15%). Het project omvat de verbreding en het ondergronds brengen van een deel van de A10 Zuid in Amsterdam en de uitbreiding en modernisering van het station Amsterdam Zuid. In het eerste kwartaal kreeg de combinatie Heijmans-Europoles de opdracht voor het ontwerp en de realisatie van het nieuwe Wintrack II hoogspanningsnetwerk NW/SW in opdracht van TenneT definitief gegund. Beide projecten passen binnen het selectieve verwervingsbeleid dat Heijmans hanteert, waarin gunning op kwaliteit centraal staat. Ook werd het groot onderhoud aan de Kaagbaan bij Schiphol gestart, waarbij in ruim negen weken tijd verschillende soorten werkzaamheden worden gecombineerd. De realisatie van de A9 Gaasperdammerweg vordert gestaag, maar vergt veel inspanningen. Voortgang transitie Op basis van het strategisch plan 'Focus, Discipline, Excellence' voor de periode 2017 - 2019 richt Heijmans zich op duurzaam herstel van de onderneming en haar winstgevendheid, schuldreductie en structurele versterking van de vermogensverhoudingen. De implementatie hiervan vordert gestaag. De verkoop van de buitenlandse bedrijven in België en Duitsland is inmiddels afgerond.  Deze desinvesteringen leveren een belangrijke bijdrage aan de schuldreductie en verbetering van de solvabiliteit. Heijmans transformeert daardoor naar een Nederlands kernbedrijf met een volume van circa € 1,5 miljard. Centraal in de strategie staat het verwerven van nieuwe opdrachten in vastgoed-, bouw- en infradisciplines die Heijmans beheerst, evenals het uitbouwen van haar rol als regisseur en het ontwikkelen van langjarige klantrelaties via services, beheer en onderhoud. Heijmans focust op een optimale kostenstructuur die past bij de veranderde scope. Over Heijmans Heijmans is een beursgenoteerde onderneming die activiteiten in vastgoed, woningbouw, utiliteit en infra combineert in de werkgebieden Wonen, Werken en Verbinden. Door te sturen op voortdurende kwaliteitsverbetering, innovatie en integraliteit realiseren we toegevoegde waarde voor onze klanten. Heijmans realiseert projecten voor woonconsumenten, bedrijven en overheden en bouwt samen met hen aan de ruimtelijke contouren van morgen. Voor meer informatie, kijk op www.heijmans.nl.


News Article | May 10, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

Ton Hillen, CEO Heijmans NV: 'The first quarter progressed in line with our expectations. Heijmans considers 2017 a year of transition. We completed the sale of our foreign companies in Belgium and Germany. We reached a final agreement on the N23 Westfrisiaweg project and work has resumed. The completion of loss-making projects is taking some time: the impact of that is still visible in the results for the first months of this year, but the impact is declining. Our focus remains firmly on a selective acquisition policy. In tenders, Heijmans shows a good hit rate in tenders that are awarded on the basis of differentiating quality, without making any compromises on our stringent tender policy. The size of our order book has increased and includes high quality projects. Various segments are benefitting from a tailwind of improved market conditions. In short: we are on track." Property development, residential building The housing market continues to develop positively. Property development recorded higher revenues compared to the first quarter of 2016. In the first four months of the year, Heijmans sold  440 homes (same period of 2016: 489 homes). 392 homes were sold to private buyers, equal to the number sold to private buyers in 2016. Heijmans closed a realisation agreement with housing corporation Elan Wonen for the design and construction of 117 Heijmans Huismerk homes in the Boerhaave neighbourhood of Haarlem. In the town of America in the province of Limburg, Heijmans built 12 Heijmans ONE homes for the Wonen Limburg housing corporation. Heijmans previously placed 30 of these homes in the town of Weert and 10 in the town of Panningen, both in Limburg. In the first quarter of the year, we sold part of the Fenixloods I project in Rotterdam to investment firm APF International. This sale relates to around 6,000 m2 of commercial space on the ground floor and first floor of the former warehouse. Heijmans very recently won several tenders on the basis of differentiating quality, such as the development of the Sloterdijk-Centrum area in Amsterdam. This development comprises around 150 owner-occupier homes and 650 m2 of commercial space in the immediate environment of the Amsterdam Sloterdijk rail and metro station. Non-Residential As expected, revenues at non-residential were lower in the first quarter when compared to the same period of the previous year. This was due to the stabilisation of the market for non-residential new-build projects and Heijmans' own selective acquisition policy. The status of the RIVM project is unchanged. Heijmans (37.5% interest) and its partners in the consortium are in talks with the client and will start work as soon as definitive agreements have been reached. In the first quarter, Heijmans won a contract from the Dutch Central Government Real Estate Agency (Rijksvastgoedbedrijf) for the realisation of the new premises of the NIFP Pieter Baan Centrum (Netherlands Institute of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology) in Almere. Heijmans is responsible for all structural and technical engineering facilities for the new city centre, as well as for the realisation of outdoor spaces, a parking area and access road. In Alkmaar, Heijmans is renovating three buildings under a contract from the Dutch National Police Force. In addition, Heijmans has started work on the electro-technical maintenance at the Schiphol, Rotterdam and Eelde and Beek airports under contract from Air Traffic Control the Netherlands (Luchtverkeersleiding Nederland). March saw the delivery of the new premises for Eurojust in The Hague. Infrastructure Infrastructure performed in line with expectations. The focus on cost optimisation has a positive impact on the performance. The completion of a number of loss-making projects continued to demand attention but the impact of these projects on the overall performance is declining. Heijmans reached a final agreement on the N23 Westfrisiaweg project and work has resumed in full. In February, the contract for the design and realisation of the Zuidasdok was definitively awarded to ZuidPlus, the consortium comprising Fluor, Hochtief and Heijmans (15% share). The project includes the widening and underground construction of part of the A10 Zuid section of the Amsterdam ring road and the expansion and modernisation of the Amsterdam Zuid rail and metro station. Also in the first quarter, the Heijmans/Europoles consortium was definitively granted the contract for the design and realisation of the new Wintrack II high voltage line connection NW/SW for TenneT. Both projects are in line with Heijmans' selective acquisition policy, which prioritises the granting of contracts on the basis of quality. Heijmans has also started maintenance work on the Kaagbaan runway at Schiphol Airport, a project that concerns a wide range of activities, to be completed in just over nine weeks. The realisation of the A9 Gaasperdammerweg is progressing steadily, but does require considerable effort. Progress transition Based on the strategic plan 'Focus, Discipline, Excellence' for the period 2017 - 2019, Heijmans is focusing on the sustainable recovery of the company and its profitability, debt reduction and the structural strengthening of its financial ratios. Heijmans is making steady progress in the implementation of this plan. We completed the sale of our foreign companies in Belgium and Germany. These divestments made a considerable contribution to our debt reduction and the improvement of our solvency ratio. This process results in the transformation of Heijmans into a Dutch company with revenues of around € 1.5 billion. The focal point of the strategy is the acquisition of new contracts in the property development, construction and infrastructural disciplines that Heijmans has expertise in, as well as developing Heijmans' role as contractor/manager and the development of long-term client relationships through service, management and maintenance contracts. Heijmans is focused on achieving an optimal cost structure that is in line with the changed scale of the company. About Heijmans Heijmans is a listed company that combines activities related to property development, residential building, non-residential building, roads and civil engineering in the fields living, working and connecting. Our constant focus on quality improvements, innovation and integrated solutions enables us to generate added value for our clients. Heijmans realises projects for private consumers, companies and public sector bodies and, in partnership with its clients, is building the spatial contours of tomorrow. You will find additional information on www.heijmans.nl


According to Monika Sahu, analyst at BIS Research, "The metal segment is acquiring the largest market share in surface treatment chemicals globally, this trend is expected to continue through forecast period. Corrosion protection chemicals are the leading chemical types that have been used in numerous base material (metal, plastic and others). The major types of corrosion protection chemicals currently popular include conversion coatings, which include oxide, phosphate and chromate coatings. Since, there are problems arising in the usage of chromate coatings due to their toxic effects, their use is slowly decreasing with the market trend shifting to more eco-friendly chemicals." The shift towards eco-friendly chemicals has fuelled varied research and development activities in the industry, with increased investment from key market players. The landscape of the market is highly competitive because of the presence of a large number of companies, and thus, innovation and development by these companies have been a key factor in the significant growth of this market. The market shift from phosphate to oxide and the increasing demand of eco-friendly chemicals are some of the future trends that are expected to trail in the forecast period. This report provides a detailed analysis of the recent trends influencing the market, along with a comprehensive study of the future trends and developments of the market. The report incorporates different segments of global surface treatment chemicals market including market breakdown by base material, chemical type, application and geographical location. It also features a section on the leading players in the industry, along with their corporate overview, financials, financial summary and SWOT analysis. The report emphasises on the market share and size of automotive industry and general industry, owing to their large scale share in the current and upcoming market of surface treatment chemicals. It has been observed that the most utilized strategies by various companies for strengthening their hold on the market are product launches and developments, and business expansions followed by mergers & acquisitions, partnerships, agreements and collaborations. To increase their presence in the global market, surface treatment chemical manufacturers are also engaging in strategic partnerships with different distribution networks and e-commerce portals to target a larger consumer base. Some of the key players influencing the market are Henkel AG, Chemetall, Nihon Parkerizing, PPG, Nippon Paint Holdings, Oerlikon Group, JCU Corporation, Derivados Del Fluor, Solvay, McGean Specialty Chemicals, Yuken Industry, PoliteknikMetal, Platform Specialty Products Corp, Quaker Chemical Corporation, Sugest, AHC Oberflächentechnik GmbH and TIB Chemicals. The report addresses the following questions about the global surface treatment chemicals market: About BIS Research: BIS Research (Business Intelligence and Strategy Research) is a global market research and advisory company which focuses on those emerging trends in technology which are likely to disrupt the dynamics of the market. Our in-depth market intelligence reports focus on the market estimations, technology analysis, emerging high-growth applications, deeply segmented granular country-level market data and other important market parameters useful in the strategic decision making for senior management. We also provide competitive intelligence, quick turnaround research and custom research services. What distinguishes BIS Research from the rest of the players is that we don't simply provide data, but also complement it with valuable insights and actionable inputs for the success of our clients. BIS Research publishes in-depth global market intelligence reports across different industry verticals such as Agriculture, Automotive, Healthcare, Aerospace and Defense, Electronics & Semiconductor, Advanced Materials & Chemicals, Information Technology and other emerging technologies. Connect with us on LinkedIn @ https://www.linkedin.com/company/3720474 Connect with us on Twitter@ https://twitter.com/BISResearch


News Article | May 10, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

NEW YORK, May 10, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- About Data Center Construction A data center is a centralized storehouse, physical or virtual, for remote storage, and processing of data and information. Data centers constitute the backbone of essential business operations. There is a significant amount of growth in enterprise applications worldwide because of the use of advanced technologies to gain a competitive advantage. Enterprises are focusing on the construction of green data centers to reduce power consumption and their impact on the environment. The construction of a data center includes design, architecture, installation of electrical and mechanical systems, as well as general construction services. Data center certifications have grown in importance, especially for colocation and managed hosting service providers, to attract customers. Read the full report: http://www.reportlinker.com/p04886851/Data-Center-Construction-Market-in-the-US.html Technavio's analysts forecast the data center construction market in the US to grow at a CAGR of 6.34% during the period 2017-2021. Covered in this report The report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the data center construction market in the US for 2017-2021. To calculate the market size, the report considers the revenue generated from the investments made in new data centers and the renovation of existing ones. Technavio's report, Data Center Construction Market in the US 2017-2021, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the market landscape and its growth prospects over the coming years. The report also includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in this market. Key vendors • Corgan Associates • DPR Construction • Fluor • Gensler • HDR • Holder Construction Group • Jacobs Engineering Group • Syska Hennessy Group • Turner Construction • Page Southerland Page • Vanderweil Engineers Other prominent vendors • AECOM • AKF Group • Balfour Beatty • Carlson Design Construct • Clune Construction Company • Fortis Construction • Gilbane • Hensel Phelps Construction • HITT Contracting • Integrated Design Group • JE Dunn Construction • McGough • Merrick & Company • Mortenson Construction • Pepper Construction • Skanska • Structure Tone • Whiting-Turner • Wendel Market driver • Tax incentives for data centers and reduction in electricity cost. • For a full, detailed list, view our report Market challenge • Rise in construction and installation costs. • For a full, detailed list, view our report Market trend • Increase in the purchase of renewable energy sources. • For a full, detailed list, view our report Key questions answered in this report • What will the market size be in 2021 and what will the growth rate be? • What are the key market trends? • What is driving this market? • What are the challenges to market growth? • Who are the key vendors in this market space? • What are the market opportunities and threats faced by the key vendors? • What are the strengths and weaknesses of the key vendors? You can request one free hour of our analyst's time when you purchase this market report. Details are provided within the report. Methodology Read the full report: http://www.reportlinker.com/p04886851/Data-Center-Construction-Market-in-the-US.html About Reportlinker ReportLinker is an award-winning market research solution. Reportlinker finds and organizes the latest industry data so you get all the market research you need - instantly, in one place. http://www.reportlinker.com __________________________ Contact Clare: clare@reportlinker.com US: (339)-368-6001 Intl: +1 339-368-6001 To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/data-center-construction-market-in-the-us-2017-2021-300455572.html


News Article | May 10, 2017
Site: www.nature.com

This study is based on data from 71 mice (age > postnatal day (P)60, we used both male and female mice) (Supplementary Tables 1, 2). We used six transgenic mouse lines: PV-IRES-Cre45, Ai32 (Rosa-CAG-LSL-ChR2(H134R)-EYFP-WPRE, JAX 012569)46, VGAT–ChR2–EYFP32, Gad2-IRES-Cre (a gift from B. Zemelman), Ai35D (Rosa-CAG-LSL-Arch-GFP-WPRE, JAX 012735)46, and Olig3-Cre47. All procedures were in accordance with protocols approved by the Janelia Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Detailed information on water restriction, surgical procedures and behaviour have been published3, 28. All surgical procedures were carried out aseptically under 1–2% isoflurane anaesthesia. Buprenorphine HCl (0.1 mg kg−1, intraperitoneal injection; Bedford Laboratories) was used for postoperative analgesia. Ketoprofen (5 mg kg−1, subcutaneous injection; Fort Dodge Animal Health) was used at the time of surgery and postoperatively to reduce inflammation. After the surgery, mice were allowed free access to water for at least three days before the start of water restriction. Mice were housed in a 12:12 reverse light:dark cycle and behaviourally tested during the dark phase. A typical behavioural session lasted 1–2 h and mice obtained all of their water in the behaviour apparatus (approximately 1 ml per day; 0.3 ml was supplemented if mice drank less than 0.5 ml). On other days mice received 1 ml water per day. Mice were implanted with a titanium headpost28. For ALM photoinhibition, mice were implanted with a clear skull cap3. Optical fibres for photostimulation or cannulae for muscimol infusion were implanted during the headpost surgery or after behavioural training. Craniotomies for recording were made after behavioural training. All coordinates are given with respect to bregma (anterior–posterior (AP), medial–lateral (ML), dorso–ventral (DV)). A metal pole (diameter, 0.9 mm) was presented in one of two locations3, 28 (Fig. 1). The two pole locations were 8.58 mm apart along the anterior–posterior axis. The posterior pole position was 5 mm from the whisker pad. Whiskers made contacts with the object at both pole locations, more strongly in the posterior location. A two-spout lickport (4.5 mm between spouts) was used to record licking events and deliver water rewards. At the beginning of each trial, the pole moved within reach of the whiskers (0.2 s travel time) (Fig. 1a) for 1 s, after which it was retracted (0.2 s retraction time). The sample epoch (1.3 s total) was the time from onset of pole movement to 0.1 s after the pole started to retract (Fig. 1a). The delay epoch lasted for another 1.2 s after completion of pole retraction (1.3 s or 1.2 s total). An auditory ‘go’ cue separated the delay and the response epochs (pure tone, 3.4 kHz, 0.1 s). Licking early during the trial (‘lick early’ trials) was punished by an ‘alarm’ sound (siren buzzer, 0.05 s duration), followed by a timeout (1–1.2 s). After the go cue licking the correct lickport produced a water reward (approximately 3 μl); licking the incorrect lickport triggered a timeout (0–5 s). Trials in which mice did not lick within 1.5 s after the go cue (no response trials) were rare and typically occurred at the end of behavioural sessions. These no response and lick early trials were excluded from analyses (Figs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). The ALM (AP 2.5 mm, ML 1.5 mm, diameter 1.5 mm) is the cortical area that produced behavioural effects with photoinhibition during the delay epoch3, 24. For the thalamic reticular nucleus the coordinates were AP −0.7, ML 1.6, DV 3.7 − 3.3 mm, as retrograde labelling from the thal showed labelling in this sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus (Extended Data Fig. 9). Virus and tracer were injected through the thinned skull using a volumetric injection system (modified from Mo-10 Narishige)48. Glass pipettes (Drummond) were pulled and bevelled to a sharp tip (outer diameter around 20–30 μm), back-filled with mineral oil and front-loaded with viral suspension immediately before injection. The injection rate was 15 nl per min. See Supplementary Table 2 for description of viruses and injection coordinates used for each experiment. We used the following viruses and tracers: AAV2/1-CAG-EGFP (Penn vector Core, University of Pennsylvania), AAV2/10 CAG-flex-ChR2(H134R)-tdTomato (Penn vector Core, University of Pennsylvania), AAV1-CAG-mRuby2-Flag49, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)–Alexa Fluor 555 (Thermo Fisher Scientific)50 (WGA–Alexa555) and Red RetroBeads (Lumafluor). For anterograde and retrograde anatomy27, 51 (Extended Data Figs 1, 8, 9) mice were perfused transcardially with PBS followed by 4% PFA/0.1 M PB. The brains were fixed overnight and transferred to 20% sucrose before sectioning on a freezing microtome. Coronal, 50-μm free-floating sections were processed using standard fluorescent immunohistochemical techniques. All sections were stained with NeuroTrace 435/455 Blue Fluorescent Nissl stain (Thermo Fisher Scientific, N21479). Slide-mounted sections were imaged on a Zeiss microscope with a Ludl motorized stage controlled with Neurolucida software (MBF Bioscience). Imaging was done with a 10× objective and a Hamamatsu Orca Flash 4 camera. Each coronal section was made up of 80–200 tiles merged with Neurolucida software. To reconstruct recording and photostimulation locations (Extended Data Figs 2, 4), mice were perfused transcardially with PBS followed by 4% PFA/0.1 M PB. The brains were fixed overnight and sectioned on a microtome at 100 μm thickness. Images were acquired on a macroscope (Olympus MVX10). Electrode tracks labelled with DiI were used to determine the recording locations. Tissue damage caused by optical fibres was used to determine photoinhibition locations. For cell counting (Extended Data Fig. 1d), neurons labelled with WGA–Alexa555 were detected using Neurolucida software (MBF Bioscience). The whole brain image stack was registered to the Allen Institute Common Coordinate Framework (CCF) of the mouse brain using a MATLAB-based script (Mike Economo, Janelia Farms). The coordinates of detected WGA–Alexa555 labelled neurons were counted in the brain structures annotated in the Allen reference atlas. We used Fluorender52 to create 3D-reconstructed images of anterograde and retrograde signals (Extended Data Fig. 1e). GFP signals and densities of retrogradely labelled cells were overlaid. Cell densities were based on the cell counts described above. For individual retrogradely labelled neurons, the number of other surrounding retrogradely labelled neurons within the ± 100-μm cube were counted to estimate cell density. Cannulas (26GA, PlasticsOne) were implanted bilaterally near the VM/VAL and control locations (Extended Data Fig. 3; cannula coordinates in Supplementary Table 1). An injection needle was inserted into the guiding cannula, projecting 1.7 mm beyond the cannula tip. Muscimol∙HBr (3–100 ng, Sigma-Aldrich) dissolved in 50 nl cortex buffer (125 mM NaCl, 5 mM KCl, 10 mM glucose, 10 mM HEPES, 2 mM MgSO , 2 mM CaCl , pH adjusted to 7.4) was injected through the volumetric injection system. The control solution was cortex buffer without muscimol. Control behaviour was paused after mice performed 120–200 trials in a session and muscimol was infused for 4.5 ± 0.7 min (mean ± s.d., n = 50), after which behaviour resumed. As the infusion step requires pausing behaviour, which by itself can increase behavioural variability, identical procedures were also performed without infusion. After the last session of muscimol infusion, fluorescent muscimol bodipy (100 ng in 100 nl DMSO) was infused and mice were perfused immediately. Fluorescence and tissue damage caused by the injection needle were used to identify muscimol infusion locations. Each muscimol concentration was tested once per injection site. For muscimol infusions near the VM/VAL, the ipsilateral bias lasted for the whole session (Extended Data Fig. 3b). After mice were released from head-fixation, ipsilateral circling was scored in the home cage. With the small dose of muscimol tested (1.8–5.9 ng), we did not observe circling (data not shown)53. Supplementary Table 1 provides coordinates and photostimulus powers for each experiment. Photoinhibition was used in 25% (Figs 1, 3a–f 6) or 25–50% (Figs 3g, 4) of the behavioural trials. To prevent mice from distinguishing photoinhibition trials from control trials using visual cues, a ‘masking flash’ (forty 1 ms pulses at 10 Hz) was delivered using 470 nm LEDs (Luxeon Star) near the eyes of the mice throughout the trial. Trimming whiskers prevents mice from performing this task3. Photostimuli from a 473 nm laser (Laser Quantum) were controlled by an acousto-optical modulator (AOM; Quanta Tech) and a shutter (Vincent Associates). Photoinhibition of the ALM was performed through the clear-skull cap (beam diameter at the skull: 400 μm at 4σ). We stimulated parvalbumin-positive interneurons in PV-IRES-Cre mice crossed with Ai32-reporter mice expressing ChR2 (Figs 1, 6 and Extended Data Figs 8, 10). Behavioural and electrophysiological experiments showed that photoinihibition in the PV-IRES-Cre × Ai32 mice was indistinguishable from the VGAT–ChR2–EYFP mice (data not shown)3. To silence the cortex during the delay epoch (Figs 1, 6 and Extended Data Figs 8, 10), we photostimulated for 1.3 s, including the 100 ms ramp, starting at the beginning of the epoch. Photoinhibition silences a cortical area of 1 mm radius (at half-maximum) through all cortical layers. We used 40 Hz photostimulation with a sinusoidal temporal profile (1.5 mW average power) and a 100-ms linear ramp during the laser offset (this reduced rebound neuronal activity)3. The light transmission through the intact skull is 50%3. See Supplementary Table 1 for the animals, coordinates and power used for each experiment. To silence the thalamus, the photostimuli were delivered through a 200-μm diameter optical fibre (Thorlabs). We used a continuous photostimulus with a 100-ms linear ramp at the offset (Figs 1d, 3, 4, 5). The photostimulus was applied for 1.2–1.3 s, including the 100-ms ramp, starting at the beginning of the delay epoch and terminating at the end of the delay epoch. Photoinhibition reduced activity (0.5–1.1 mm from the tip of the optical fibre) to 15.9 ± 9.3% (mean ± s.e.m., Extended Data Fig. 2d). On the basis of retrograde labelling (Extended Data Fig. 1), we silenced at least 16,558 ALM-projecting thalamic neurons. For M1 silencing, we silenced at least 26,599 ALM-projecting neurons within a 1 mm radius from the laser centre. In the contralateral ALM we silenced at least 38,062 neurons projecting to the recorded side of the ALM (Extended Data Fig. 1d). To silence the thalamus for behavioural experiments (Fig. 1) and current injection experiments (Extended Data Fig. 5), we avoided stimulating any uncharacterized GABAergic projection neurons. We expressed ChR2 selectively in the TRN, by injecting AAV2/10 CAG-flex-ChR2(H134R)-tdTomato into TRN of Gad2-IRES-Cre mice. We implanted an optical fibre over the VM/VAL, but other thalamic nuclei projecting to the ALM were also likely to have been affected (Extended Data Fig. 2). Recordings were made from the left hemisphere. Recording locations were deduced from electrode tracks (see ‘Histology’ and Extended Data Fig. 4). For ALM recordings, a small craniotomy (1 mm diameter) was made one day before the recording session3. Extracellular spikes were recorded using NeuroNexus silicon probes (A4x8-5 mm-100-200-177) or Janelia silicon probes (A2x32-8 mm-25-250-165). The 32- or 64-channel voltage signals were multiplexed, recorded on a PCI6133 board at 312.5 kHz or 400 kHz (National Instrument), and digitized at 14-bits. The signals were demultiplexed into the 32- or 64-voltage traces, sampled at 19,531.25 or 25,000 Hz, respectively, and stored for offline analyses. 3–5 recording sessions were obtained per craniotomy. Recording depth was inferred from manipulator readings and verified based on histology3. The craniotomy was filled with cortex buffer and the brain was not covered. The tissue was allowed to settle for at least 10 min before the recording started. For VM/VAL recordings, a small craniotomy was made over the dorsal medial somatosensory cortex (centre, bregma AP −1.5 mm, ML 1.8 mm). For optrode recording from the VM/VAL, we used NeuroNexus silicon optrodes (A4x8-5 mm-100-400-177 with a 105-μm diameter optical fibre placed 200 μm above recording sites on the inner right shank). For SNr recordings, a small craniotomy was made over the visual area (centre, bregma AP −3.5 mm, ML 3 mm). Electrodes were driven down about 4.5 mm to reach SNr. RetroBeads injected near the VM/VAL labelled SNr extensively in the caudal–rostral and medial–lateral directions54 (Extended Data Fig. 9). Our recording probes (spanning ML 600 μm) sampled a large region of the SNr (medial, lateral, rostral and caudal). The effects of ALM photoinhibition on SNr activity did not vary spatially and the data were pooled. Whole-cell recordings were made using pulled borosilicate glass (Sutter instrument)55. A small craniotomy (100–300 μm diameter) was created over the ALM or M1 (bregma AP 0.0 mm, ML 2.0 mm) under isofluorane anaesthesia and covered with cortex buffer during recording. Whole-cell patch pipettes (7–9 MΩ) were filled with internal solution (in mM): 135 K-gluconate, 4 KCl, 10 HEPES, 0.5 EGTA, 10 Na -phosphocreatine, 4 Mg-ATP, 0.4 Na -GTP and 0.3% Biocytin (293–303 mOsm, pH 7.3). The V was amplified (Multiclamp 700B, Molecular Devices) and sampled at 20 kHz using WaveSurfer (http://wavesurfer.janelia.org/). V were not corrected for liquid junction potential. After the recording the craniotomy was covered with Kwik-Cast (World Precision Instruments). Each animal was used for 2–3 recording sessions. Recordings were made from 350 to 850 μm below the pia. Neuronal responses to thalamic or cortical inactivation were similar across depths and were pooled for analysis. To obtain mean V dynamics of each neuron (Figs 3g, 4 and Extended Data Figs 5, 6), we clipped off action potentials. We found the point in the V where the derivative passed 3 s.d. from the baseline (kink). Baseline and s.d. were calculated from 2.5 ms to 1.5 ms before the spike peak. Points from −0.5 to 5 ms around the kink were interpolated. The s.e.m. of the V was estimated by bootstrapping. The action-potential threshold was defined as the difference between baseline V (0–0.5 s before onset of each behavioural trial) and the spike threshold. Whole-cell recordings with more than 20 behavioural trials were pooled to calculate action-potential thresholds and membrane time constants (n = 60). The onset of the V change after photoinhibition (Fig. 3g and Extended Data Fig. 6b, e, f) was the time when the V changed by more than 3 s.d. from the baseline. The baseline and s.d. were calculated from 20 ms before the photostimulus onset until 2 ms after onset of the photostimulation trials. A similar procedure was used to estimate the onset of V change after thalamus photoactivation (Extended Data Fig. 6c). The s.e.m. of the onsets was determined by bootstrapping. Behavioural performance was the fraction of correct trials, excluding lick early and no response trials. We separately computed the performance for contra and ipsi trials relative to the manipulation side (Fig. 1 and Extended Data Fig. 3). Behavioural effects of photoinhibition were quantified by comparing the performance with photoinhibition with control performance (Fig. 1c, d). Significance of the performance change was determined using Student’s t-test. Photoinhibition of the ALM or thalamus caused only small changes in lick early rates, no response rates and licking latency (Supplementary Information). The performance change due to muscimol silencing was computed as the fraction of correct trials after infusion (the 100 trials immediately after muscimol infusion) relative to the fraction of correct trials before muscimol infusion (the 100 trials right before muscimol infusion). Performance change in the muscimol condition was compared with that during the control condition. Significance was determined using Student’s t-test (Extended Data Fig. 3). Muscimol infusion did not increase the lick early rates (P > 0.1; paired t-test) and slightly increased the no response rate from 0 to 1% (that is, from no no response trial to one no response trial in a session, P = 0.02). Detailed spike sorting procedures have been described3. Recording depths were estimated from histology3 (Extended Data Fig. 4). The extracellular recording traces were band-pass filtered (300 Hz–6 kHz). Events that exceeded an amplitude threshold (4 s.d. of the background) were subjected to manual spike sorting to extract single units. For the low thalamus inactivation experiments (Fig. 5), spikes were sorted using JRclust (program by J. Jaeyoon Jun, APIG, Janelia Farm). Spikes were binned by 1 ms and averaged over 200 ms (Figs 2, 3, 5, 6). In the ALM, 1,214 single units were recorded across 57 behavioural sessions. Spike widths were computed as the trough-to-peak interval in the mean spike waveform. The distribution of spike widths was bimodal (Extended Data Fig. 4); units with width <0.4 ms were defined as putative fast-spiking neurons (166 out of 1,214) and units with width >0.6 ms as putative pyramidal neurons (1,006 out of 1,214). This classification was previously verified by optogenetic tagging of GABAergic neurons3. Units with intermediate spike widths (0.4–0.6 ms, 42 out of 1,214) were excluded from our analyses. We concentrated our analyses of the ALM on putative pyramidal neurons (Figs 2, 3, 5). In the thalamus, 790 single units were recorded across 73 behavioural sessions. Unit locations were determined from the locations of the relevant recording sites, which in turn were reconstructed from histology (Extended Data Fig. 4). All units were recorded in a narrow range of AP locations (between bregma −1 mm and −2 mm). We therefore overlaid units on one coronal section for spatial analysis (bregma −1.76, Fig. 6d). Neurons in the VM/VAL are excitatory. The distribution of spike widths was unimodal with a tail with short spike widths; this suggests that some units corresponded to GABAergic axons from the TRN or SNr56. Units with spike width >0.5 ms were selected as putative thalamic neurons (672 out of 790) and we concentrated our analyses on these neurons. However, our conclusions (Figs 2, 6) are valid if all the units were pooled. To select units in the VM/VAL we applied a stringent spatial criterion; units within 0.4 mm from the VM/VAL centre (determined from retrograde labelling experiments, Extended Data Fig. 1) were scored as VM/VAL neurons (313 out of 790). This criterion could be relaxed to 1.0 mm from the VM/VAL centre without changing our conclusions, as neurons within 1.0 mm from the VM/VAL centre showed robust inhibition (to 36% of control activity during the first 100 ms inhibition, also see Extended Data. Fig. 8b). Furthermore, randomly jittering neuron locations by 200 μm in the AP, ML and DV directions did not affect our conclusions. In the SNr, 227 single units were recorded across 23 behavioural sessions. SNr GABAergic neurons have narrower spike widths than dopaminergic neurons in the nearby substantia nigra pars compacta57. Units with spike trough-to-peak width <0.45 ms were selected as putative GABAergic neurons (spike width at half maximum, 0.143 ± 0.030 ms (mean ± s.d.), 181 out of 227). These units have high spike rates (40.9 ± 21.5 (mean ± s.d.), n = 181). For comparison, neurons with longer spike widths have lower spikes rates (23.4 ± 17.0 (mean ± s.d.), n = 46). We concentrated our analyses on putative GABAergic neurons. We used bootstrapping to test whether there were more neurons significantly down-modulated than up-modulated. The null hypothesis was that there were equal or more up-modulated neurons. In each round of bootstrapping, we replaced the original neurons with a re-sampled dataset. The number of down-modulated and up-modulated neurons were counted and compared. The P value was the fraction of times the bootstrapping produced a consistent result as the null hypothesis. Neurons were tested for trial-type selectivity during the sample, delay or response epochs by comparing spike counts during contra and ipsi trials (t-test, P < 0.05; Fig. 2 and Extended Data Fig. 10). Neurons that significantly differentiated trial types during any one of the trial epochs were deemed as selective (704 out of 1,006 in the ALM, 204 out of 295 in the VM/VAL, 152 out of 181 in the SNr). Neurons with selectivity during the sample or delay epochs were classified as having preparatory activity. Neurons with significant selectivity during the response epoch were classified as having peri-movement selectivity. Selective neurons were classified as contra-preferring or ipsi-preferring on the basis of their total spike counts across all three trial epochs27 (Fig. 2 and Extended Data Fig. 10). To compute contra-selectivity, we took the firing rate difference between the contra trials and ipsi trials for each neuron. The ipsi-selectivity was computed similarly. Only trials in which mice correctly reported pole locations were included to compute selectivity. For the peri-stimulus time histograms (PSTHs; Figs 3, 5, 6 (except the top panels in Figs 3b, 6b) and Extended Data Fig. 7), correct and incorrect trials were included, as photoinhibition reduced neural activity irrespective of the response outcomes. To analyse the effects of photoinhibition, units with at least 5 (Fig. 3, n = 314; Fig. 6, n = 201) or 25 (Fig. 5, n = 160) photoinhibition trials were selected. Bootstrapping was used to estimate s.e.m. (Figs 3, 6 and Extended Data Figs 2, 7, 8, 10). As the effect of photoinhibition began 10–20 ms after photostimulus, we used 20–120 ms after photostimulus onset to measure the amplitude of inactivation (Figs 3, 6 and Extended Data Fig. 10). For Figs 3c, 5b, 6c (top), both contra and ipsi trials were pooled to calculate mean spike rate. For Fig. 5c, neurons with spike rates higher than two spikes per second during both control and photoinhibition conditions were included (n = 73). The onset of inactivation was defined as the time when the V passed 3 s.d. of the control condition. The s.d. was calculated using the control condition during the delay epoch. Changing the duration used to calculate the s.d. did not change the estimate of onset latency. We also detected the onset by comparing the PSTHs during the photoinhibition and control conditions using a Student’s t-test, with consistent results. To estimate the s.e.m. of the inhibition onset, we randomly sampled neurons with replacement and used the bootstrapped dataset to compute the onset of photoinhibition. This procedure was repeated 1,000 times. The sample sizes are similar to sample sizes used in the field (more than 100 units per brain region). No statistical methods were used to determine sample size. We did not exclude any animal for data analysis. Trial types were randomly determined by a computer program. During spike sorting, experimenters cannot tell the trial type, so experimenters were blind to conditions. All comparisons using t-tests are two-sided. For the behavioural test of thalamus inhibition (Fig. 1), the data points are normally distributed (tested using Kolmogorov–Smirnov test). All bootstrapping was done over 1,000 or 10,000 iterations. Datasets will be shared at https://crcns.org/ in the NWB format58 (https://dx.doi.org/10.6080/K03F4MH2). All other data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

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