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Schmitz O.J.,Yale University | Lawler J.J.,University of Washington | Beier P.,Northern Arizona University | Groves C.,Nature Conservancy Conservation Science Group | And 11 more authors.
Natural Areas Journal | Year: 2015

As species' geographic ranges and ecosystem functions are altered in response to climate change, there is a need to integrate biodiversity conservation approaches that promote natural adaptation into land use planning. Successful conservation will need to embrace multiple climate adaptation approaches, but to date they have not been conveyed in an integrated way to help support immediate conservation planning and action in the face of inherent spatial uncertainty about future conditions. Instead, these multiple approaches are often conveyed as competing or contradictory alternatives, when in fact, they are complementary. We present a framework that synthesizes six promising spatially explicit adaptation approaches for conserving biodiversity. We provide guidance on implementing these adaptation approaches and include case studies that highlight how biodiversity conservation can be used in planning. We conclude with general guidance on choosing appropriate climate adaptation approaches to amend for conservation planning. Source


Iacona G.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Price F.D.,Florida Natural Areas Inventory | Armsworth P.R.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2016

Invasive species are a management concern on protected areas worldwide. Conservation managers need to predict infestations of invasive plants they aim to treat if they want to plan for long term management. Many studies predict the presence of invasive species, but predictions of cover are more relevant for management. Here we examined how predictors of invasive plant presence and cover differ across species that vary in their management priority. To do so, we used data on management effort and cover of invasive plant species on central Florida protected areas. Using a zero-inflated multiple regression framework, we showed that protected area features can predict the presence and cover of the focal species but the same features rarely explain both. There were several predictors of either presence or cover that were important across multiple species. Protected areas with three days of frost per year or fewer were more likely to have occurrences of four of the six focal species. When invasive plants were present, their proportional cover was greater on small preserves for all species, and varied with surrounding household density for three species. None of the predictive features were clearly related to whether species were prioritized for management or not. Our results suggest that predictors of cover and presence can differ both within and across species but do not covary with management priority. We conclude that conservation managers need to select predictors of invasion with care as species identity can determine the relationship between predictors of presence and the more management relevant predictors of cover. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Jue D.K.,Florida Natural Areas Inventory | Daniels J.C.,University of Florida
Journal of Insect Conservation | Year: 2015

Long-term population trend data are not available for most butterfly species in many areas. Historically, this has meant that many governmental agencies make conservation decisions affecting this group of organisms with limited knowledge about their existing populations. To remedy this situation in Florida, a statewide database containing locations of at-risk butterfly species on conservation lands was developed primarily through the efforts of citizen scientists. This paper describes the data collection methodology that was used and presents several cases studies showing how this database has already made a difference in shaping the decision-making process to help in the conservation of at-risk butterfly species. A discussion of the methodologies used to generate the at-risk butterfly database, relative to more traditional butterfly monitoring surveys, is presented and recommendations are made on ways to optimize the contributions of volunteers to insect conservation and research programs. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source


Iacona G.D.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Price F.D.,Florida Natural Areas Inventory | Armsworth P.R.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Diversity and Distributions | Year: 2014

Aim: Invasive species management is an expensive priority on many protected areas but the magnitude of invasion can vary drastically from site to site. Conservation planners must consider this variability when they plan for treatment across multiple protected areas. We examine the scope for predicting site invadedness and management costs from common protected area characteristics, a method that could be used to estimate the future management needs of a protected area network. Location: Three hundred and sixty-five protected areas across the state of Florida, USA. Methods: We use data on invasive plant cover and protected area features to predict invadedness and invasive species management funding allocation in a multiple regression framework. We then examine the relationship between invadedness and funding on a subset of 46 of the protected areas. Results: Invadedness (relative proportion of a protected area that is covered by invasive plants) was related to the size of a protected area and the number of surrounding households. However, the explained variation (9-50%) depended on the type of species occurrence data used; with models using approximated data on the area infested able to explain more of the variation than those that included data with GIS-calculated area infested. Cumulative funding investment at a protected area was also predicted by the number of surrounding households and protected area size. Yet, funding and invadedness were not correlated with one another. Main conclusions: Readily available data on protected area features were statistically related to variation in the invadedness of a protected area and were also associated with past management expenditures. This does not translate into a clear relationship between current invadedness and past expenditures, however. Our results suggest that basing predictions of future costs on current funding may not accurately represent budgetary needs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Schilling E.E.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Johnson A.F.,Florida Natural Areas Inventory | Iacona G.D.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Iacona G.D.,University of Queensland
Phytotaxa | Year: 2015

Coreopsis bakeri (Asteraceae; Coreopsideae), an early blooming and very narrow-leaved perennial restricted to rare limestone glade habitats in northern Florida, is described as new. The plants most closely resemble Coreopsis lanceolata, a common species of the southeastern U.S., but have narrower, glabrous, and infolded leaves. In addition to phenotypic differences, the two species show divergence at two nuclear genes, the nuclear ITS and ETS regions, and for two chloroplast intergenic spacers (psbA-trnH and rpl32-trnL). Because of the rarity of C. bakeri and the very limited extent of its distinctive habitat, this species is in urgent need of protection. In addition, C. lanceolata is found in open areas near the limestone glades, and poses a potential threat through competition or hybridization. © 2015 Magnolia Press. Source

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