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Miami, FL, United States

Florida International University is an American public research university in Greater Miami, Florida, in the United States, with its main campus in University Park in Miami-Dade County. Florida International University is classified as a research university with high research activity by the Carnegie Foundation and a first-tier research university by the Florida Legislature. Founded in 1965, FIU is the youngest university to be awarded a Phi Beta Kappa chapter by the Phi Beta Kappa Society, the country's oldest academic honor society.FIU belongs to the 12-campus State University System of Florida and is one of Florida's primary graduate research universities, awarding over 3,400 graduate and professional degrees annually. The university offers 191 programs of study with more than 280 majors in 23 colleges and schools. FIU offers many graduate programs, including architecture, business administration, engineering, law, and medicine, offering 81 master's degrees, 34 doctoral degrees, and 3 professional degrees.FIU is the largest university in South Florida, the 2nd-largest in Florida, and the 7th-largest in the United States. Total enrollment in 2012 was 50,394 students, including 14,177 graduate students, and 2,974 full-time faculty with over 180,000 alumni around the world. In 2012, FIU's research expenditure was $104.6 million, with an endowment of $140 million. The university has an annual budget of $1.07 billion.Since 2007, more valedictorians from South Florida choose to attend FIU than any other university in the country. As Miami's public research university, competition to enroll at FIU has heightened as more students apply each year. Wikipedia.

Molina B.S.G.,University of Pittsburgh | Pelham Jr. W.E.,Florida International University
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology | Year: 2014

Many opportunities to explain attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related risk of substance use disorder (SUD) remain available for study. We detail these opportunities by considering characteristics of children with ADHD and factors affecting their outcomes side by side with overlapping variables in the developmental literature on SUD etiology. Although serious conduct problems are a known contributor to ADHD-related risk of SUD, few studies have considered their emergence developmentally and in relation to other candidate mediators and moderators that could also explain risk and be intervention targets. Common ADHD-related impairments, such as school difficulties, are in need of research. Heterogeneous social impairments have the potential for predisposing, and buffering, luences. Research on neurocognitive domains should move beyond standard executive function batteries to measure deficits in the interface between cognitive control, reward, and motivation. Ultimately, maximizing prediction will depend, as it has in the SUD literature, on simultaneous consideration of multiple risk factors. © 2014 by Annual Reviews.

Oberbauer S.F.,Florida International University
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2013

The rapidly warming temperatures in high-latitude and alpine regions have the potential to alter the phenology of Arctic and alpine plants, affecting processes ranging from food webs to ecosystem trace gas fluxes. The International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) was initiated in 1990 to evaluate the effects of expected rapid changes in temperature on tundra plant phenology, growth and community changes using experimental warming. Here, we used the ITEX control data to test the phenological responses to background temperature variation across sites spanning latitudinal and moisture gradients. The dataset overall did not show an advance in phenology; instead, temperature variability during the years sampled and an absence of warming at some sites resulted in mixed responses. Phenological transitions of high Arctic plants clearly occurred at lower heat sum thresholds than those of low Arctic and alpine plants. However, sensitivity to temperature change was similar among plants from the different climate zones. Plants of different communities and growth forms differed for some phenological responses. Heat sums associated with flowering and greening appear to have increased over time. These results point to a complex suite of changes in plant communities and ecosystem function in high latitudes and elevations as the climate warms.

Kaiser R.I.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Mebel A.M.,Florida International University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

This tutorial review compiles recent experimental and theoretical studies on the formation of polyacetylenes (H(CC)nH) and cyanopolyacetylenes (H(CC)nCN) together with their methyl-substituted counterparts (CH3(CC)nH, CH3(CC)nCN) as probed under single collision conditions in crossed beam studies via the elementary reactions of ethynyl (CCH) and cyano radicals (CN) with unsaturated hydrocarbons. The role of these key reaction classes in the chemical evolution of Titan's orange-brownish haze layers is also discussed. We further comment on astrobiological implications of our findings with respect to proto-Earth and present a brief outlook on future research directions. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Liu Y.,Florida International University | Wilson S.H.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2012

The expansion of trinucleotide repeat (TNR) sequences in human DNA is considered to be a key factor in the pathogenesis of more than 40 neurodegenerative diseases. TNR expansion occurs during DNA replication and also, as suggested by recent studies, during the repair of DNA lesions produced by oxidative stress. In particular, the oxidized guanine base 8-oxoguanine within sequences containing CAG repeats may induce formation of pro-expansion intermediates through strand slippage during DNA base excision repair (BER). In this article, we describe how oxidized DNA lesions are repaired by BER and discuss the importance of the coordinated activities of the key repair enzymes, such as DNA polymerase β, flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) and DNA ligase, in preventing strand slippage and TNR expansion. © 2012.

Jiang H.,Florida International University
Monthly Weather Review | Year: 2012

Convective intensity proxies measured by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI), Precipitation Radar (PR), and Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) are used to assess the relationship between intense convection in the inner core and tropical cyclone (TC) intensity change. Using the cumulative distribution functions of 24-h intensity changes from the 1998-2008 best-track data for global TCs, five intensity change categories are defined: rapidly intensifying (RI), slowly intensifying, neutral, slowly weakening, and rapidly weakening. TRMM observations of global TCs during 1998-2008 are used to generate the distributions of convective properties in the storm's inner-core region for different storm intensity change categories. To examine the hypothesis of hot towers near the eye as an indicator of RI, hot towers are defined by precipitation features with 20-dBZ radar echo height reaching 14.5 km. The differences in the convective parameters between rapidly intensifying TCs and slowly intensifying, neutral, slowly weakening, and rapidly weakening TCs are quantified using statistical analysis. It is found that statistically significant differences of three out of four convective intensity parameters in the inner core exist between RI and non-RI storms. Between RI and slowly intensifying TCs, a statistically significant difference exists for the minimum 11-μm IR brightness temperature T B11 in the inner core. This indicates that a relationship does exist between inner-core convective intensity and TC intensity change. The results in this study also suggest that the rate of intensification appears to be influenced by convective activity in the inner core and the ability to predict RI might be further improved by using convective parameters. With regard to different convective proxies, the relationships are different. The minimum T B11, upper-level maximum radar reflectivities, and maximum 20-dBZ radar echo height in the inner core are best associated with the rate of TC intensity change, while the minimum 85-GHz polarization corrected brightness temperature (PCT) shows some ambiguities in relation to intensity change. The minimum 37-GHz PCT shows no significant relationship with TC intensity change, probably because of the contamination of the ice scattering signal by emission from rain and liquid water in this channel. By examining the probability of RI for each convective parameter for which statistically significant differences at the 95% level were found of RI and non-RI cases, it is found that all three parameters provide additional information relative to climatology. The most skillful parameter is minimum T B11, and the second is maximum 20-dBZ height, followed by minimum 85-GHz PCT. However, the increases of RI probability from the larger sample mean by using these predictors are not very large. When using the existence of hot towers as a predictor, it is found that the probabilities of RI and slowly intensifying increase and those of slowly weakening and rapidly weakening decrease for samples with hot towers in the inner core. However, the increases for intensifying and decreases for weakening are not substantial, indicating that hot towers are neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for RI. © 2012 American Meteorological Society.

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